Annotated Transcript Of Episode 9

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ANNOTATED TRANSCRIPT BURNS EPISODE 9 A Disrespectful Loyalty (May 1970-March 1973)

Color Coding: Red = False statement; Yellow = Warning; Green = Not yet used; Blue = Interesting, warranting Attention;

Gray = I’ve got to study and verify this item; Pink = Loaded Words?

MINUTES 1-10

1

00:00:01,566 --> 00:00:03,000 ANNOUNCER: MAJOR SUPPORT FOR "THE VIETNAM WAR"

2

00:00:03,000 --> 00:00:06,500 WAS PROVIDED BY MEMBERS OF THE BETTER ANGELS SOCIETY,

3

00:00:06,500 --> 00:00:10,466 INCLUDING JONATHAN AND JEANNIE LAVINE,

4

00:00:10,466 --> 00:00:13,366 DIANE AND HAL BRIERLEY,

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00:00:13,366 --> 00:00:15,766 AMY AND DAVID ABRAMS,

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00:00:15,766 --> 00:00:18,266 JOHN AND CATHERINE DEBS,

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00:00:18,266 --> 00:00:21,166 THE FULLERTON FAMILY CHARITABLE FUND,

8

00:00:21,166 --> 00:00:23,233 THE MONTRONE FAMILY,

9

00:00:23,233 --> 00:00:25,566 LYNDA AND STEWART RESNICK,

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00:00:25,566 --> 00:00:28,333 THE PERRY AND DONNA GOLKIN FAMILY FOUNDATION,

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00:00:28,333 --> 00:00:29,333 THE LYNCH FOUNDATION,

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00:00:29,333 --> 00:00:32,200 THE ROGER AND ROSEMARY ENRICO FOUNDATION,

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00:00:32,200 --> 00:00:35,633 AND BY THESE ADDITIONAL FUNDERS.

14

00:00:35,633 --> 00:00:37,533 MAJOR FUNDING WAS ALSO PROVIDED

15

00:00:37,533 --> 00:00:39,266 BY DAVID H. KOCH...

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00:00:41,566 --> 00:00:43,766 THE BLAVATNIK FAMILY FOUNDATION...

17

00:00:46,100 --> 00:00:48,533 THE PARK FOUNDATION,

18

00:00:48,533 --> 00:00:50,700 THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES,

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00:00:50,700 --> 00:00:52,900 THE PEW CHARITABLE TRUSTS,

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00:00:52,900 --> 00:00:55,566 THE JOHN S. AND JAMES L. KNIGHT FOUNDATION,

21

00:00:55,566 --> 00:00:58,333 THE ANDREW W. MELLON FOUNDATION,

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00:00:58,333 --> 00:01:01,000 THE ARTHUR VINING DAVIS FOUNDATIONS,

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00:01:01,000 --> 00:01:03,200 THE FORD FOUNDATION JUSTFILMS,

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00:01:03,200 --> 00:01:04,400 BY THE CORPORATION

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00:01:04,400 --> 00:01:05,633 FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING,

26

00:01:05,633 --> 00:01:07,600 AND BY VIEWERS LIKE YOU.

27

00:01:07,600 --> 00:01:08,733 THANK YOU.

28

00:01:13,266 --> 00:01:15,400 ANNOUNCER: BANK OF AMERICA PROUDLY SUPPORTS

29

00:01:15,400 --> 00:01:20,300 KEN BURNS' AND LYNN NOVICK'S FILM "THE VIETNAM WAR"

30

00:01:20,300 --> 00:01:22,700 BECAUSE FOSTERING DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES

31

00:01:22,700 --> 00:01:25,300 AND CIVIL DISCOURSE AROUND IMPORTANT ISSUES

32

00:01:25,300 --> 00:01:27,600 FURTHERS PROGRESS, EQUALITY,

33

00:01:27,600 --> 00:01:29,600 AND A MORE CONNECTED SOCIETY.

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00:01:34,066 --> 00:01:38,100 GO TO BANKOFAMERICA.COM/ BETTERCONNECTED TO LEARN MORE.

35

00:01:42,366 --> 00:01:44,800 CROWD (chanting): No more war! No more war!

36

00:01:44,800 --> 00:01:48,466 No more war! No more war!

37

00:01:48,466 --> 00:01:50,133 No more war! No more war!

38

00:01:50,133 --> 00:01:51,566 ("Get Together" by the Youngbloods playing)

39

00:01:51,566 --> 00:01:54,966 No more war! No more war! (VIDEO SHOWING PROTESTS ON BOTH SIDES PF THE ISSUE)

40

00:01:54,966 --> 00:01:57,833 No more war! No more war!

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00:01:57,833 --> 00:01:59,066 No more war!

42

00:01:59,066 --> 00:02:02,800 CROWD (chanting): U.S.A.! U.S.A.! U.S.A.! U.S.A.!

43

00:02:02,800 --> 00:02:06,033 YOUNGBLOODS: ♪ Love is but a song to sing

44

00:02:06,033 --> 00:02:09,766 ♪ Fear's the way we die

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00:02:09,766 --> 00:02:11,766 (crowds shouting, clamoring)

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00:02:14,533 --> 00:02:17,933 ♪ You can make the mountains ring ♪

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00:02:17,933 --> 00:02:20,866 ♪ Or make the angels cry

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00:02:23,533 --> 00:02:25,133 (shouting continues)

49

00:02:25,133 --> 00:02:27,400 ♪ Come on, people, now

50

00:02:27,400 --> 00:02:29,033 ♪ Smile on your brother

51

00:02:29,033 --> 00:02:30,866 ♪ Everybody get together

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00:02:30,866 --> 00:02:34,766 ♪ Try to love one another right now ♪

53

00:02:38,033 --> 00:02:40,033 KARL MARLANTES: My brother picked me up

54

00:02:40,033 --> 00:02:43,200 at Travis Air Force Base.

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00:02:43,200 --> 00:02:45,400 And I remember he had a Valiant,

56

00:02:45,400 --> 00:02:47,366 an old beat-up Valiant.

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00:02:47,366 --> 00:02:48,766 And we met inside the terminal.

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00:02:48,766 --> 00:02:50,466 And I was so happy to see him.

59

00:02:50,466 --> 00:02:51,766 I just love my brother.

60

00:02:51,766 --> 00:02:53,300 (crowd shouting in distance)

61

00:02:53,300 --> 00:02:55,400 He said, "Now, I don't want you to get upset,

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00:02:55,400 --> 00:02:57,266 "but we're probably gonna get some trouble

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00:02:57,266 --> 00:03:00,833 when we go outside."

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00:03:00,833 --> 00:03:03,333 And I went, "Trouble? I just got back from Vietnam.

65

00:03:03,333 --> 00:03:04,866 What are you talking about?"

66

00:03:04,866 --> 00:03:06,933 I mean, I knew that there was unrest.

67

00:03:06,933 --> 00:03:08,800 YOUNGBLOODS: ♪ If you hear the song I sing

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00:03:08,800 --> 00:03:12,533 MARLANTES: But when we got in his car to drive away from the terminal,

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00:03:12,533 --> 00:03:16,500 we had to wind our way through protesters

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00:03:16,500 --> 00:03:19,900 that were pounding on the car with the ends of their signs

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00:03:19,900 --> 00:03:22,066 and were snarling at me

72

00:03:22,066 --> 00:03:25,466 and pounding on the window and shouting obscenities at me.

73

00:03:26,633 --> 00:03:29,200 That was my welcome home to America.[1]

74

00:03:29,200 --> 00:03:31,000 (shouting continues)

75

00:03:31,000 --> 00:03:32,833 I was just stunned.

76

00:03:32,833 --> 00:03:34,266 YOUNGBLOODS: ♪ Come on, people, now

77

00:03:34,266 --> 00:03:36,733 I have never felt...

78

00:03:36,733 --> 00:03:40,333 any anger toward people that were war protesters.

79

00:03:40,333 --> 00:03:43,900 It's a legitimate political stance.

80

00:03:43,900 --> 00:03:48,133 For people that descended into that, I...

81

00:03:48,133 --> 00:03:51,833 I-I think that they were really wrong.

82

00:03:51,833 --> 00:03:54,266 YOUNGBLOODS: ♪ Try to love one another right now ♪

83

00:03:54,266 --> 00:03:57,866 It was this-this heartbreak of why are you doing this?

84

00:03:57,866 --> 00:04:00,566 I mean, you don't know who I am.

85

00:04:00,566 --> 00:04:03,500 And it happened over and over. THE VIETNAM WAR

86

00:04:03,500 --> 00:04:05,500 YOUNGBLOODS: ♪ Everybody get together

87

00:04:05,500 --> 00:04:09,233 ♪ Try to love one another right now ♪

88

00:04:09,233 --> 00:04:11,800 ♪ Right now

89

00:04:11,800 --> 00:04:15,700 ♪ Right now.

90

00:04:21,933 --> 00:04:23,300 (siren wailing)

91

00:04:23,300 --> 00:04:25,466 NARRATOR: In the spring of 1970,

92

00:04:25,466 --> 00:04:28,833 despite the uproar over the invasion of Cambodia

93

00:04:28,833 --> 00:04:31,900 and the killing of four students at Kent State,

94

00:04:31,900 --> 00:04:34,733 President Nixon's hold on what he called

95

00:04:34,733 --> 00:04:38,633 "the great silent majority" seemed secure.

96

00:04:38,633 --> 00:04:42,333 A Gallup poll showed that most Americans

97

00:04:42,333 --> 00:04:45,133 blamed the students, not the National Guardsmen,

98

00:04:45,133 --> 00:04:46,333 for what had happened.

99

00:04:46,333 --> 00:04:49,500 (shouting, clamoring)

100

00:04:49,500 --> 00:04:52,800 At an antiwar demonstration in Manhattan, [2]

101

00:04:52,800 --> 00:04:55,833 hundreds of construction workers in hard hats

102

00:04:55,833 --> 00:04:58,200 attacked protestors,

103

00:04:58,200 --> 00:05:01,066 sending 70 to the hospital.

104

00:05:03,900 --> 00:05:06,800 And when workers marched on City Hall

105

00:05:06,800 --> 00:05:08,800 a few days later,

106

00:05:08,800 --> 00:05:12,000 Nixon wrote the President of their Union

107

00:05:12,000 --> 00:05:14,000 to say how pleased he was

108

00:05:14,000 --> 00:05:15,600 "to see the tremendous outpouring

109

00:05:15,600 --> 00:05:17,900 "of support for our country

110

00:05:17,900 --> 00:05:22,600 demonstrated in your orderly and most heartening rally."

111

00:05:22,600 --> 00:05:24,466 REPORTER: How do you feel about the construction workers

112

00:05:24,466 --> 00:05:26,400 who attacked the, uh, demonstrators last Friday?

113

00:05:26,400 --> 00:05:28,666 WORKER: Don't say attacked. Don't say attacked.

114

00:05:28,666 --> 00:05:30,300 They were provoked.

115

00:05:30,300 --> 00:05:32,233 They were provoked, man.

116

00:05:32,233 --> 00:05:33,633 We work for a living.

117

00:05:33,633 --> 00:05:35,800 Every day we get up, we're out there in the cold,

118

00:05:35,800 --> 00:05:36,900 the rain, the snow, right?

119

00:05:36,900 --> 00:05:38,966 We got to have these dirty s...

120

00:05:38,966 --> 00:05:41,266 Forget about it, I don't want to talk about it, man.

121

00:05:41,266 --> 00:05:43,633 Anybody that can take a Viet Cong flag and fly it

122

00:05:43,633 --> 00:05:46,966 and wave it and bring it up this avenue

123

00:05:46,966 --> 00:05:49,933 and get away with it-- and get away with it--

124

00:05:49,933 --> 00:05:52,233 that's unpatriotic to me.

125

00:05:52,233 --> 00:05:56,833 NARRATOR: When American troops withdrew from Cambodia

126

00:05:56,833 --> 00:05:58,500 at the end of June,

127

00:05:58,500 --> 00:06:00,833 the White House reported that they had killed

128

00:06:00,833 --> 00:06:04,766 11,349 enemy troops,

129

00:06:04,766 --> 00:06:07,366 captured 22,000 weapons

130

00:06:07,366 --> 00:06:14,100 and had destroyed 11,688 bunkers and buildings.

131

00:06:14,100 --> 00:06:17,266 But after so many years of fighting,

132

00:06:17,266 --> 00:06:20,766 more and more Americans were tired of the war,

133

00:06:20,766 --> 00:06:23,233 wanted to get out of Southeast Asia,

134

00:06:23,233 --> 00:06:28,200 and did not want the President to expand the conflict further.

135

00:06:28,200 --> 00:06:31,200 Among their representatives in Congress,

136

00:06:31,200 --> 00:06:34,866 antiwar sentiment had steadily grown.

137

00:06:34,866 --> 00:06:37,900 As the President searched for a face-saving way

138

00:06:37,900 --> 00:06:40,800 to end the war, he continued to withdraw troops.

139

00:06:40,800 --> 00:06:42,466 CROWD (chanting): U.S.A.! U.S.A.!

140

00:06:42,466 --> 00:06:46,333 But even as American casualty figures fell,

141

00:06:46,333 --> 00:06:50,100 the gulf between Americans at home widened,

142

00:06:50,100 --> 00:06:52,766 tearing communities, neighborhoods,

143

00:06:52,766 --> 00:06:55,233 even families apart.

144

00:06:55,233 --> 00:06:58,400 CROWD (chanting): No more war! No more war! (Note Communist Flag in Video)

145

00:06:58,400 --> 00:07:00,166 Nixon was convinced--

146

00:07:00,166 --> 00:07:02,466 just as Lyndon Johnson had been--

147

00:07:02,466 --> 00:07:04,966 that the antiwar movement was somehow

148

00:07:04,966 --> 00:07:07,100 being directed from Hanoi,

149

00:07:07,100 --> 00:07:09,900 Beijing and Moscow. [3]

150

00:07:09,900 --> 00:07:12,433 "Within the iron gates of the White House

151

00:07:12,433 --> 00:07:15,033 a siege mentality was settling in,"

152

00:07:15,033 --> 00:07:17,733 a Nixon aide remembered.

153

00:07:17,733 --> 00:07:21,233 "It was now us against them.

154

00:07:21,233 --> 00:07:24,500 "Gradually, as we drew the circle closer around us,

155

00:07:24,500 --> 00:07:28,166 the ranks of them began to swell."

156

00:07:28,166 --> 00:07:31,533 (crowd chattering)

157

00:07:31,533 --> 00:07:35,000 PHIL GIOIA: ARMY I think the Vietnam War drove a stake

158

00:07:35,000 --> 00:07:38,500 right into the heart of America.

159

00:07:38,500 --> 00:07:40,433 It polarized the country

160

00:07:40,433 --> 00:07:43,033 as it had probably never been polarized

161

00:07:43,033 --> 00:07:44,733 since before the Civil War.

162

00:07:44,733 --> 00:07:47,100 And, unfortunately, we've never moved

163

00:07:47,100 --> 00:07:49,066 really far away from that.

164

00:07:49,066 --> 00:07:51,766 And we never recovered. EPISODE NINE - A DISRESPECTFUL LOYALTY - (MAY 1970 - MARCH 1973)

165

00:07:51,766 --> 00:07:53,700 CROWD: No more war! No more war!

166

00:07:53,700 --> 00:07:55,866 CROWD: U.S.A.! U.S.A.! U.S.A.!

167

00:07:55,866 --> 00:07:57,800 CROWD: No more war! No more war!

168

00:07:57,800 --> 00:08:00,633 No more war! No more war! U.S.A.! U.S.A.!

169

00:08:00,633 --> 00:08:03,300 U.S.A.! U.S.A.! No more war! No more war!

170

00:08:03,300 --> 00:08:07,166 No more war! No more war! No more war!

171

00:08:07,166 --> 00:08:10,066 (chanting stops)

172

00:08:10,066 --> 00:08:12,533 ♪

173

00:08:14,166 --> 00:08:15,900 DAVID FROST: Thank you very much, indeed,

174

00:08:15,900 --> 00:08:17,966 and welcome to this, uh, special,

175

00:08:17,966 --> 00:08:20,433 very special edition of The David Frost Show.

176

00:08:20,433 --> 00:08:24,400 The Vice President himself wanted to debate with students,

177

00:08:24,400 --> 00:08:28,266 and we suggested a format in which he might like to do so.

178

00:08:28,266 --> 00:08:30,800 Welcome Eva Jefferson from Northwestern,

179

00:08:30,800 --> 00:08:33,500 who testified before the Scranton Commission

180

00:08:33,500 --> 00:08:36,600 on Campus Unrest and is majoring in political science.

181

00:08:36,600 --> 00:08:38,166 FROST: Is that right? JEFFERSON: Right.

182

00:08:38,166 --> 00:08:40,166 NARRATOR: Eva Jefferson,

183

00:08:40,166 --> 00:08:42,700 whose father had served in Vietnam,

184

00:08:42,700 --> 00:08:44,600 was now the student body president

185

00:08:44,600 --> 00:08:47,000 at Northwestern University.

186

00:08:47,000 --> 00:08:48,700 After Kent State,

187

00:08:48,700 --> 00:08:51,800 she had forcefully stopped angry protestors

188

00:08:51,800 --> 00:08:55,633 from burning down the ROTC building at her school,

189

00:08:55,633 --> 00:08:59,633 and later testified before a presidential commission

190

00:08:59,633 --> 00:09:03,700 looking into the causes of student unrest.

191

00:09:03,700 --> 00:09:06,600 She had warned then that some students

192

00:09:06,600 --> 00:09:08,533 were becoming so frustrated

193

00:09:08,533 --> 00:09:10,533 that they felt they had no choice

194

00:09:10,533 --> 00:09:13,866 but to engage in violence.

195

00:09:13,866 --> 00:09:16,233 And right now it's a privilege to welcome

196

00:09:16,233 --> 00:09:18,033 the Vice President of the United States,

197

00:09:18,033 --> 00:09:20,300 Spiro T. Agnew.

198

00:09:20,300 --> 00:09:23,800 (audience applauding)

199

00:09:23,800 --> 00:09:25,300 AGNEW: Let me

200

00:09:25,300 --> 00:09:28,333 take brief exception to one thing you've said,

201

00:09:28,333 --> 00:09:29,666 that the only way to get the attention

202

00:09:29,666 --> 00:09:31,766 of the society is to bomb buildings.

203

00:09:31,766 --> 00:09:33,700 JEFFERSON: What I attempted to do

204

00:09:33,700 --> 00:09:35,666 before the Scranton Committee was to explain

205

00:09:35,666 --> 00:09:38,333 what could motivate someone to blow up a building.

206

00:09:38,333 --> 00:09:41,233 I did not say I endorse this, and if you read my testimony

207

00:09:41,233 --> 00:09:43,800 quite carefully, you'll know that I didn't.

208

00:09:43,800 --> 00:09:46,666 And it's this type of-of just picking up on what,

209

00:09:46,666 --> 00:09:49,566 allegedly, I said instead of really studying what I said

210

00:09:49,566 --> 00:09:51,133 that-that really disturbs me.

211

00:09:51,133 --> 00:09:52,800 (quietly): May I respond? Because you're making people

212

00:09:52,800 --> 00:09:55,066 afraid of their own children.

213

00:09:55,066 --> 00:09:57,166 Yet they're your children, they're my parents' children,

214

00:09:57,166 --> 00:09:58,466 they're the children of this country.

215

00:09:58,466 --> 00:10:00,566 Yet you're making people afraid of them.

216

00:10:00,566 --> 00:10:02,600 And I think this is the greatest disservice.

217

00:10:02,600 --> 00:10:05,300 There's an honest difference of agreement on issues,

218

00:10:05,300 --> 00:10:07,866 but-but when you make people afraid of each other,

219

00:10:07,866 --> 00:10:10,833 you-you isolate people, and maybe this is your goal,

220

00:10:10,833 --> 00:10:12,133 but I think this is...

221

00:10:12,133 --> 00:10:14,100 this could only have a disastrous effect

222

00:10:14,100 --> 00:10:16,333 on the country. (applause)

223

00:10:16,333 --> 00:10:19,266 AGNEW: Let me say first that isolating people

224

00:10:19,266 --> 00:10:20,500 is not my goal.

225

00:10:20,500 --> 00:10:23,500 If that were true I wouldn't be here tonight.

226

00:10:23,500 --> 00:10:25,533 And let me take exception to that

227

00:10:25,533 --> 00:10:28,500 oft-repeated rationale that, uh,

228

00:10:28,500 --> 00:10:30,933 violence is the only way to get results.

229

00:10:30,933 --> 00:10:33,533 JEFFERSON: I was trying to explain to you the rationale of some students

230

00:10:33,533 --> 00:10:34,800 who are openly revolutionary.

231

00:10:34,800 --> 00:10:37,166 You're not listening to what I'm saying.

232

00:10:37,166 --> 00:10:39,633 I'm-I'm really distressed. AGNEW: Just what are... what are you advocating?

MINUTES 10-20

233

00:10:39,633 --> 00:10:41,600 EVA JEFFERSON PATERSON: They were trying to politically

234

00:10:41,600 --> 00:10:44,000 benefit from making us out to be

235

00:10:44,000 --> 00:10:47,633 these scary, horrible, violent people.

236

00:10:47,633 --> 00:10:50,300 We weren't. We were against the war.

237

00:10:50,300 --> 00:10:51,766 We thought the war was wrong.

238

00:10:51,766 --> 00:10:53,233 We thought we were lied to.

239

00:10:53,233 --> 00:10:54,833 And we were in the streets.

240

00:10:54,833 --> 00:10:58,800 America has always had a rich tradition of protests.

241

00:10:58,800 --> 00:11:02,466 We were founded by protesting England.

242

00:11:02,466 --> 00:11:04,800 So to make people afraid of their kids,

243

00:11:04,800 --> 00:11:06,966 I think, was wrong, but that's what they were about.

244

00:11:06,966 --> 00:11:09,133 They were fearmongers.

245

00:11:21,666 --> 00:11:24,366 BAO NINH: NORTH VIETNAMESE ARMY From 1970 on, our enemy on the battlefield was the Army of South Vietnam. They were Vietnamese. That's the tragedy. The tragedy of the war is that Vietnamese killed each other. American firepower.[4] Vietnamese flesh and blood.

246

00:11:51,433 --> 00:11:54,000 PHAN QUANG TUE: SAIGON It was fratricide.

247

00:11:54,000 --> 00:11:56,500 You can say, "Well, but-but they are communist."

248

00:11:56,500 --> 00:11:58,833 Okay, they're communist.

249

00:11:58,833 --> 00:12:01,700 "They are the worst Vietnamese in the entire world.

250

00:12:01,700 --> 00:12:03,633 We were the good Vietnamese."

251

00:12:03,633 --> 00:12:06,500 But let's face Vietnamese killing Vietnamese.

252

00:12:06,500 --> 00:12:08,633 How-how do you deny that?

253

00:12:11,700 --> 00:12:13,500 If you don't call that fratricide,

254

00:12:13,500 --> 00:12:17,233 what do you call that?

255

00:12:17,233 --> 00:12:18,766 What do you... how do we...

256

00:12:18,766 --> 00:12:20,700 I explain that to-to my children?

257

00:12:25,600 --> 00:12:27,600 NARRATOR: The Cambodian incursion had

258

00:12:27,600 --> 00:12:30,966 at least temporarily reduced the flow of North Vietnamese

259

00:12:30,966 --> 00:12:34,800 men and supplies through that country,

260

00:12:34,800 --> 00:12:36,866 but they were still streaming down

261

00:12:36,866 --> 00:12:39,700 the Ho Chi Minh Trail in Laos.

262

00:12:39,700 --> 00:12:42,533 The White House wanted them stopped.

263

00:12:42,533 --> 00:12:46,200 But this time, South Vietnamese troops

264

00:12:46,200 --> 00:12:48,900 would have to try to do the job alone.

265

00:12:48,900 --> 00:12:53,866 By the end of 1970, both houses of Congress

266

00:12:53,866 --> 00:12:56,733 had barred all U.S. ground personnel,

267

00:12:56,733 --> 00:12:59,900 even advisors and special forces,

268

00:12:59,900 --> 00:13:01,966 from crossing the border.[5]

269

00:13:01,966 --> 00:13:05,866 On February 8, 1971,

270

00:13:05,866 --> 00:13:10,300 17,000 ARVN troops began moving into Laos

271

00:13:10,300 --> 00:13:13,166 to destroy the enemy's jungle bases

272

00:13:13,166 --> 00:13:16,933 and to cut off the Ho Chi Minh trail.[6]

273

00:13:16,933 --> 00:13:21,433 The Americans could only provide air support.

274

00:13:21,433 --> 00:13:25,500 Nixon and his National Security Advisor,

275

00:13:25,500 --> 00:13:28,700 Henry Kissinger, believed that a successful operation

276

00:13:28,700 --> 00:13:30,933 would boost morale in Saigon

277

00:13:30,933 --> 00:13:34,433 and prove to Hanoi and the American public

278

00:13:34,433 --> 00:13:38,433 that the ARVN could fight and win on their own,

279

00:13:38,433 --> 00:13:42,500 that Vietnamization could work.

280

00:13:42,500 --> 00:13:46,700 Their target was the North Vietnamese logistics hub,

281

00:13:46,700 --> 00:13:50,066 the abandoned town of Tchepone.

282

00:13:50,066 --> 00:13:52,233 U.S. intelligence

283

00:13:52,233 --> 00:13:54,066 believed there were no more

284

00:13:54,066 --> 00:13:58,600 than 22,000 North Vietnamese troops in the area.

285

00:13:58,600 --> 00:14:02,800 But there would eventually turn out to be 60,000,

286

00:14:02,800 --> 00:14:06,633 and their commanders knew there was only one route

287

00:14:06,633 --> 00:14:09,833 the ARVN was likely to take.

288

00:14:09,833 --> 00:14:12,833 Harry Hue, who had been fighting the communists

289

00:14:12,833 --> 00:14:16,366 for eight years, was in the invasion force.

290

00:14:17,400 --> 00:14:19,366 HUE (speaking English): SOUTH VIETNAMESE ARMY Before I went to Laos, I'm feeling, I go that time and no come back. That is the mission, mission impossible. I told my advisor, Major David Wiseman then, "Dave, if something happen to me, please take care of my wife and my children."

291

00:14:43,666 --> 00:14:46,666 (explosion)

292

00:14:46,666 --> 00:14:50,400 NARRATOR: Although individual ARVN units fought bravely,

293

00:14:50,400 --> 00:14:52,866 the invasion was a failure.

294

00:15:10,533 --> 00:15:14,300 Almost half of the 17,000 South Vietnamese

295

00:15:14,300 --> 00:15:15,833 who entered Laos

296

00:15:15,833 --> 00:15:18,966 would be killed, wounded or captured.

297

00:15:20,600 --> 00:15:24,033 HUE: My battalion finally was surrounded. I was wounded three times. You know how much my battalion survived? About 55 soldiers and men. And when we go there, you know how much? About 600.

298

00:15:55,866 --> 00:15:58,466 BAO NINH: We ate the same rice, drank the same water. We shared the same culture, the same music. We were cowardly in the same way. We were brave in the same way. No difference. It was a civil war.

299

00:16:20,133 --> 00:16:21,866 NARRATOR: In late March,

300

00:16:21,866 --> 00:16:23,700 as the surviving ARVN forces

301

00:16:23,700 --> 00:16:25,366 straggled back across the border

302

00:16:25,366 --> 00:16:27,633 into South Vietnam,

303

00:16:27,633 --> 00:16:31,566 crowds of weeping women, children and old men--

304

00:16:31,566 --> 00:16:34,700 dressed in white, the color of mourning--

305

00:16:34,700 --> 00:16:38,300 begged for news of the soldiers who were missing.

306

00:16:38,300 --> 00:16:42,700 In Vietnam, the dead must receive proper burial

307

00:16:42,700 --> 00:16:46,633 so that their restless souls can have peace,

308

00:16:46,633 --> 00:16:48,733 and their families needed to know

309

00:16:48,733 --> 00:16:50,400 the time of their deaths

310

00:16:50,400 --> 00:16:53,366 so that they could honor them each year.[7]

311

00:16:55,900 --> 00:16:58,000 Even before the invasion was over,

312

00:16:58,000 --> 00:17:00,533 President Nixon had told an aide,

313

00:17:00,533 --> 00:17:02,766 "We must claim victory,

314

00:17:02,766 --> 00:17:05,233 whatever the outcome." HENRY KISSINGER: NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISOR: Now that I've seen the operation, this South Vietnamese army is not as good as we all thought - we knew that they weren't that good. PRESIDENT NIXON: Henry, I've become completely fatalistic about the goddamn thing. I don't think they're up to a real bang. KISSINGER: That's what worries me. NIXON: I don't think they're up to it. I'd rather have them get out, and then we're going to get the hell out and hope and pray that nothing happens before 1972. Let's face it. And if my re-election is important, let's remember, I've got to get this off our plate.[8]

315

00:17:39,633 --> 00:17:41,866 NIXON: Consequently, tonight, April 7, 1971.

316

00:17:41,866 --> 00:17:46,166 I can report that Vietnamization has succeeded.

317

00:17:46,166 --> 00:17:48,466 Because of the increased strength

318

00:17:48,466 --> 00:17:49,933 of the South Vietnamese,

319

00:17:49,933 --> 00:17:52,566 because of the success of the Cambodian operation,

320

00:17:52,566 --> 00:17:53,866 because of the achievements

321

00:17:53,866 --> 00:17:56,900 of the South Vietnamese operation in Laos,

322

00:17:56,900 --> 00:17:58,533 I am announcing an increase

323

00:17:58,533 --> 00:18:00,966 in the rate of American withdrawals.

324

00:18:00,966 --> 00:18:03,466 We have it in our power to leave Vietnam

325

00:18:03,466 --> 00:18:05,700 in a way that offers a brave people

326

00:18:05,700 --> 00:18:08,466 a realistic hope of freedom.

327

00:18:08,466 --> 00:18:09,866 We have it in our power

328

00:18:09,866 --> 00:18:12,133 to prove to our friends in the world

329

00:18:12,133 --> 00:18:15,000 that America's sense of responsibility

330

00:18:15,000 --> 00:18:18,466 remains the world's greatest single hope of peace.

331

00:18:18,466 --> 00:18:22,933 And generations in the future

332

00:18:22,933 --> 00:18:26,433 will look back at this difficult,

333

00:18:26,433 --> 00:18:30,200 trying time in America's history,

334

00:18:30,200 --> 00:18:32,800 and they will be proud

335

00:18:32,800 --> 00:18:36,100 that we demonstrated

336

00:18:36,100 --> 00:18:38,766 that we had the courage

337

00:18:38,766 --> 00:18:42,200 and the character of a great people.

338

00:18:42,200 --> 00:18:43,200 OPERATOR: Dr. Kissinger, sir.

339

00:18:43,200 --> 00:18:44,766 NIXON: Yeah.

340

00:18:44,766 --> 00:18:45,766 KISSINGER: Mr. President?

341

00:18:45,766 --> 00:18:47,066 NIXON: Yeah. Hi, Henry.

342

00:18:47,066 --> 00:18:48,400 KISSINGER: This was the best speech you've delivered

343

00:18:48,400 --> 00:18:49,600 since you've been in office.

344

00:18:49,600 --> 00:18:50,700 NIXON: Yeah.

345

00:18:50,700 --> 00:18:53,166 I'll tell you one thing, this was, uh...

346

00:18:53,166 --> 00:18:55,300 This little speech was a work of art.

347

00:18:55,300 --> 00:18:58,033 I mean, I-I know a little something about speechwriting.

348

00:18:58,033 --> 00:19:00,333 And it was no act, because no actor could do it.

349

00:19:00,333 --> 00:19:02,433 No actor in Hollywood could have done that that well.

350

00:19:02,433 --> 00:19:03,900 KISSINGER: It's the best...

351

00:19:03,900 --> 00:19:05,400 NIXON: I thought that was done well, didn't you think?

352

00:19:05,400 --> 00:19:06,533 KISSINGER: First of all, no actor could have written it,

353

00:19:06,533 --> 00:19:07,833 to begin with.

354

00:19:07,833 --> 00:19:09,566 You couldn't have done it unless you had meant it.

355

00:19:09,566 --> 00:19:10,900 NIXON: Yeah.

356

00:19:10,900 --> 00:19:13,266 And if it doesn't work, I don't care.

357

00:19:13,266 --> 00:19:15,533 I mean, right now, if it doesn't work...

358

00:19:15,533 --> 00:19:16,633 Then let me say, though,

359

00:19:16,633 --> 00:19:18,000 I'm going to find out soon,

360

00:19:18,000 --> 00:19:19,333 and then I'm going to turn right

361

00:19:19,333 --> 00:19:21,033 so goddamn hard it'll make your head spin.

362

00:19:21,033 --> 00:19:22,700 We'll bomb those bastards right out of the...

363

00:19:22,700 --> 00:19:25,633 off the earth. I really mean it.

364

00:19:25,633 --> 00:19:28,633 ("We Gotta Get Out of This Place" by the Animals playing)

365

00:19:32,833 --> 00:19:37,233 ♪ In this dirty old part of the city ♪

366

00:19:37,233 --> 00:19:41,700 ♪ Where the sun refuse to shine ♪

367

00:19:41,700 --> 00:19:44,866 ♪ People tell me there ain't no use in trying ♪

368

00:19:49,666 --> 00:19:51,466 REPORTER: Do you belong to the same generation

369

00:19:51,466 --> 00:19:52,733 that is protesting at home?

370

00:19:52,733 --> 00:19:54,000 Do you feel as if you belong

371

00:19:54,000 --> 00:19:55,700 to those people? SOLDIER: Very much.

372

00:19:55,700 --> 00:19:57,000 REPORTER: You do? SOLDIER: Very much.

373

00:19:57,000 --> 00:19:59,366 I wish they'd get us out of here, I really do.[9]

374

00:19:59,366 --> 00:20:02,566 ♪ We gotta get out of this place ♪

375

00:20:02,566 --> 00:20:06,533 ♪ If it's the last thing we ever do ♪

376

00:20:06,533 --> 00:20:09,766 ♪ We gotta get out of this place ♪

377

00:20:09,766 --> 00:20:11,500 ♪ Girl, there's a better life

378

00:20:11,500 --> 00:20:14,766 JAMES GILLAM: ARMY Almost all of us were draftees.

379

00:20:14,766 --> 00:20:17,766 None of us cared a damn about the war.

380

00:20:17,766 --> 00:20:20,466 We just didn't want to get blown up.

381

00:20:20,466 --> 00:20:22,666 We just didn't want to die in the jungle,

382

00:20:22,666 --> 00:20:25,166 holding your guts in.

383

00:20:25,166 --> 00:20:30,733 So the idea is do six months, maybe eight months,

384

00:20:30,733 --> 00:20:36,066 get an R&R, take a deep breath and try to finish up,

385

00:20:36,066 --> 00:20:39,900 try to do something that would get you sent to base camp.

386

00:20:39,900 --> 00:20:43,766 Just don't die because you're not gonna win.

MINUTES 20-30

387

00:20:43,766 --> 00:20:45,933 ANIMALS: ♪ We gotta get out of this place ♪

388

00:20:45,933 --> 00:20:49,433 ♪ If it's the last thing we ever do ♪

389

00:20:49,433 --> 00:20:51,700 REPORTER: Chess is the most serious contest

390

00:20:51,700 --> 00:20:53,500 Glen Hindley will engage in,

391

00:20:53,500 --> 00:20:56,400 for he has not fired a shot in his nine months

392

00:20:56,400 --> 00:20:58,000 in the field with Charlie Company.[10]

393

00:20:58,000 --> 00:20:59,766 HINDLEY: Well, I haven't shot anybody yet.

394

00:20:59,766 --> 00:21:01,633 I don't plan on it.

395

00:21:01,633 --> 00:21:03,700 I haven't fired my gun since I been here,

396

00:21:03,700 --> 00:21:05,833 and I like it that way.

397

00:21:05,833 --> 00:21:08,033 REPORTER: How can you get away with that?

398

00:21:08,033 --> 00:21:09,633 Just don't fire it.

399

00:21:09,633 --> 00:21:11,033 I plan to go across the...

400

00:21:11,033 --> 00:21:12,400 across country when I get back

401

00:21:12,400 --> 00:21:14,366 because I'll see the people I know over here,

402

00:21:14,366 --> 00:21:16,666 plus I'll be able to talk to a lot of other people,

403

00:21:16,666 --> 00:21:18,833 maybe convince them that killing for peace

404

00:21:18,833 --> 00:21:20,166 just doesn't make sense.

405

00:21:20,166 --> 00:21:23,266 ANIMALS: ♪ We gotta get out of this place ♪

406

00:21:23,266 --> 00:21:28,466 ♪ If it's the last thing we ever do ♪

407

00:21:28,466 --> 00:21:30,366 ♪ We gotta get out of this place. ♪

408

00:21:30,366 --> 00:21:32,533 NARRATOR: "The morale, discipline, and battleworthiness

409

00:21:32,533 --> 00:21:36,533 of the U.S. Armed Forces," a retired Marine colonel wrote

410

00:21:36,533 --> 00:21:38,933 in the spring of 1971,

411

00:21:38,933 --> 00:21:42,266 "are lower and worse than at any time,

412

00:21:42,266 --> 00:21:46,566 possibly in the history of the United States."

413

00:21:46,566 --> 00:21:48,800 An official report had found

414

00:21:48,800 --> 00:21:51,900 that one out of four enlisted men in Vietnam

415

00:21:51,900 --> 00:21:54,800 had used marijuana regularly--

416

00:21:54,800 --> 00:21:57,500 but almost never in combat.

417

00:21:57,500 --> 00:21:59,866 SOLDIER: There's, uh, drugs everywhere.

418

00:21:59,866 --> 00:22:01,266 Really, you could, uh...

419

00:22:01,266 --> 00:22:03,833 Well, within... within ten minutes in country,

420

00:22:03,833 --> 00:22:06,100 I-I had people approaching me selling scag.

421

00:22:06,100 --> 00:22:07,433 INTERVIEWER: What's scag?

422

00:22:07,433 --> 00:22:08,666 It's heroin.

423

00:22:08,666 --> 00:22:11,700 NARRATOR: Heroin was cheap,

424

00:22:11,700 --> 00:22:14,366 pure, and everywhere.

425

00:22:14,366 --> 00:22:17,033 The Pentagon would eventually acknowledge

426

00:22:17,033 --> 00:22:20,833 that 40,000 American troops had been addicted to it.

427

00:22:20,833 --> 00:22:24,166 ANIMALS: ♪ We gotta get out of this place ♪

428

00:22:24,166 --> 00:22:27,700 ♪ If it's the last thing we ever do ♪

429

00:22:27,700 --> 00:22:30,000 ♪ We gotta get out of this place ♪

430

00:22:30,000 --> 00:22:33,400 ♪ Girl, there's a better life

431

00:22:33,400 --> 00:22:34,633 (coughs)

432

00:22:34,633 --> 00:22:37,200 ♪ For me and you

433

00:22:37,200 --> 00:22:39,200 ♪ Ooh, baby

434

00:22:39,200 --> 00:22:43,100 "The rearguard of a once 500,000-man army,"

435

00:22:43,100 --> 00:22:44,466 an officer wrote,

436

00:22:44,466 --> 00:22:48,333 "is numbly extricating itself from a nightmare war

437

00:22:48,333 --> 00:22:51,566 "the armed forces feel they had foisted on them

438

00:22:51,566 --> 00:22:55,066 "by bright civilians who are now back on campus

439

00:22:55,066 --> 00:22:59,800 writing books about the folly of it all."

440

00:22:59,800 --> 00:23:02,600 Even General Creighton Abrams,

441

00:23:02,600 --> 00:23:05,833 commander of military operations in Vietnam,

442

00:23:05,833 --> 00:23:07,766 now admitted privately,

443

00:23:07,766 --> 00:23:11,100 "I need to get this army home to save it."

444

00:23:11,100 --> 00:23:12,633 ANIMALS: ♪ I know it, too, baby

445

00:23:12,633 --> 00:23:14,566 ♪ Oh, yeah.

446

00:23:22,566 --> 00:23:25,100 LIZ TROTTA: The telegrams and letters coming into this courthouse

447

00:23:25,100 --> 00:23:27,366 are from all parts of the country.

448

00:23:27,366 --> 00:23:30,300 From Baton Rouge, Louisiana, a man writes,

449

00:23:30,300 --> 00:23:32,933 "Congratulations to the Calley jurors.

450

00:23:32,933 --> 00:23:35,233 "A courageous and fair decision.

451

00:23:35,233 --> 00:23:37,366 Justice still exists."

452

00:23:37,366 --> 00:23:42,333 NARRATOR: On March 29, 1971,

453

00:23:42,333 --> 00:23:44,266 at Fort Benning, Georgia,

454

00:23:44,266 --> 00:23:47,400 a military court found Lieutenant William Calley--

455

00:23:47,400 --> 00:23:49,733 and only Lieutenant Calley--

456

00:23:49,733 --> 00:23:52,400 guilty of murdering Vietnamese civilians

457

00:23:52,400 --> 00:23:55,333 at My Lai back in 1968.

458

00:23:58,266 --> 00:24:02,733 He was sentenced to life imprisonment at hard labor.

459

00:24:02,733 --> 00:24:05,466 The commander of Calley's division,

460

00:24:05,466 --> 00:24:07,633 General Samuel Koster,

461

00:24:07,633 --> 00:24:10,533 who had watched some of the slaughter from a helicopter

462

00:24:10,533 --> 00:24:13,533 and done nothing to stop it, was now the superintendent

463

00:24:13,533 --> 00:24:16,866 of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point.

464

00:24:16,866 --> 00:24:20,766 He (Koster) was forced to resign.

465

00:24:20,766 --> 00:24:23,933 The other 23 officers and men

466

00:24:23,933 --> 00:24:26,300 who had been indicted were either acquitted

467

00:24:26,300 --> 00:24:29,066 or had their cases dismissed.

468

00:24:29,066 --> 00:24:32,600 The Calley verdict proved as controversial

469

00:24:32,600 --> 00:24:34,900 as the war itself.

470

00:24:34,900 --> 00:24:37,066 TROTTA: A lady in Cheyenne, Wyoming, says,

471

00:24:37,066 --> 00:24:39,433 "What the jury has done to Lieutenant Calley

472

00:24:39,433 --> 00:24:41,566 "is a disgrace to this nation.

473

00:24:41,566 --> 00:24:43,533 "The enemy is the enemy,

474

00:24:43,533 --> 00:24:46,333 the enemy is the enemy."

475

00:24:46,333 --> 00:24:48,700 From Bellefontaine, Ohio, a doctor says,

476

00:24:48,700 --> 00:24:51,466 "Let us not condemn Lieutenant Calley

477

00:24:51,466 --> 00:24:53,800 "when it is the character of the war

478

00:24:53,800 --> 00:24:56,533 which is at fault for such slaughters as My Lai."

479

00:24:56,533 --> 00:24:59,866 What is your initial reaction to this verdict, sir?

480

00:24:59,866 --> 00:25:02,200 MAN: I thought he would be found not guilty.

481

00:25:02,200 --> 00:25:04,166 'Cause you send in a man into combat,

482

00:25:04,166 --> 00:25:06,566 you train him to be a... a killer,

483

00:25:06,566 --> 00:25:08,833 and then, when he does, why then,

484

00:25:08,833 --> 00:25:10,666 uh, you prosecute him?

485

00:25:12,566 --> 00:25:16,333 NARRATOR: Some believed everyone involved should have gone to jail;

486

00:25:16,333 --> 00:25:19,500 others believed that Calley had been made a scapegoat

487

00:25:19,500 --> 00:25:23,466 for the criminal misdeeds of his superiors.

488

00:25:23,466 --> 00:25:27,433 And still others felt a systemic failure of leadership

489

00:25:27,433 --> 00:25:29,800 had occurred in a chain of command

490

00:25:29,800 --> 00:25:34,433 that stretched all the way up to the Commander in Chief.[11]

491

00:25:37,000 --> 00:25:38,866 According to a Gallup poll,

492

00:25:38,866 --> 00:25:44,100 79% of the American public disagreed with the verdict.

493

00:25:44,100 --> 00:25:47,500 Nixon decided to intervene.

494

00:25:49,866 --> 00:25:53,233 Calley spent just three days behind bars.

495

00:25:54,533 --> 00:25:57,200 The President ordered him transferred

496

00:25:57,200 --> 00:25:59,433 from federal prison to house arrest

497

00:25:59,433 --> 00:26:01,766 at Fort Benning, pending appeal.

498

00:26:01,766 --> 00:26:03,866 MAN: Okay, I'm gonna walk back from each side.

499

00:26:03,866 --> 00:26:06,066 NARRATOR: Captain Aubrey Daniel,

500

00:26:06,066 --> 00:26:08,700 who had successfully prosecuted Calley,

501

00:26:08,700 --> 00:26:11,966 wrote Nixon, accusing him of compromising

502

00:26:11,966 --> 00:26:14,633 "such a fundamental moral principle

503

00:26:14,633 --> 00:26:17,133 "as the inherent unlawfulness

504

00:26:17,133 --> 00:26:20,333 of the murder of innocent persons."

505

00:26:20,333 --> 00:26:22,833 A military appeals court

506

00:26:22,833 --> 00:26:26,733 eventually reduced Calley's term to 20 years,

507

00:26:26,733 --> 00:26:29,733 the Secretary of the Army cut it to ten,

508

00:26:29,733 --> 00:26:32,300 and after just three and a half years

509

00:26:32,300 --> 00:26:35,233 under house arrest, he was paroled.

510

00:26:39,466 --> 00:26:41,800 TIM O'BRIEN: Who's responsible?

511

00:26:44,066 --> 00:26:48,466 The human beings who did this...

512

00:26:48,466 --> 00:26:52,000 These are war crimes.

513

00:26:52,000 --> 00:26:55,966 The individual human beings who put a rifle muzzle

514

00:26:55,966 --> 00:26:57,133 up against a baby's head

515

00:26:57,133 --> 00:27:00,633 and shot the brains out of that baby--

516

00:27:00,633 --> 00:27:03,533 nothing happened to them.

517

00:27:03,533 --> 00:27:05,800 Nothing!

518

00:27:13,200 --> 00:27:17,000 HAL KUSHNER: And we walked up the Ho Chi Minh Trail.

519

00:27:19,166 --> 00:27:22,033 And they said we walked 900 kilometers--

520

00:27:22,033 --> 00:27:27,833 540 miles in 57 days.

521

00:27:27,833 --> 00:27:31,700 And we met all these people going both ways.

522

00:27:31,700 --> 00:27:35,300 We met civilians coming south.

523

00:27:35,300 --> 00:27:38,133 We met soldiers going north and south.

524

00:27:38,133 --> 00:27:41,366 We met people humping artillery rounds.

525

00:27:41,366 --> 00:27:42,733 We met a...

526

00:27:42,733 --> 00:27:44,700 I remember a whole unit,

527

00:27:44,700 --> 00:27:46,633 a company-size unit, of women.

528

00:27:49,033 --> 00:27:52,100 On the way, in one of these villages,

529

00:27:52,100 --> 00:27:55,533 I stole a uniform.

530

00:27:57,100 --> 00:27:58,933 Just khaki pants and khaki shirt.

531

00:27:58,933 --> 00:28:00,266 And I stole it.

532

00:28:00,266 --> 00:28:03,833 And I folded it up and I put it in my pack.

533

00:28:03,833 --> 00:28:07,166 NARRATOR: By early 1971,

534

00:28:07,166 --> 00:28:09,166 army doctor Hal Kushner

535

00:28:09,166 --> 00:28:11,033 had been a prisoner of the Viet Cong

536

00:28:11,033 --> 00:28:14,366 in South Vietnam for more than three years.

537

00:28:16,333 --> 00:28:20,133 He had survived ill treatment and a host of illnesses,

538

00:28:20,133 --> 00:28:23,600 and he had buried 13 of his fellow captives,

539

00:28:23,600 --> 00:28:25,533 who had died of starvation

540

00:28:25,533 --> 00:28:29,166 and sickness and despair.

541

00:28:29,166 --> 00:28:33,066 Now, he and the other survivors from his camp

542

00:28:33,066 --> 00:28:36,700 were being moved all the way to North Vietnam.

543

00:28:39,133 --> 00:28:40,833 Kushner and his companions

544

00:28:40,833 --> 00:28:43,266 eventually reached the city of Vinh,

545

00:28:43,266 --> 00:28:46,066 where they boarded a train to Hanoi.

546

00:28:46,066 --> 00:28:48,200 KUSHNER: And I put on this fresh uniform,

547

00:28:48,200 --> 00:28:50,066 and when I got off the train

548

00:28:50,066 --> 00:28:53,800 I was met with this officer in a jeep.

549

00:28:53,800 --> 00:28:55,500 And he just looked at me and he said,

550

00:28:55,500 --> 00:28:56,700 "You're an officer, aren't you?

551

00:28:56,700 --> 00:28:58,933 You come here."

552

00:28:58,933 --> 00:29:01,366 And he just... I felt very proud that I looked good

553

00:29:01,366 --> 00:29:03,266 when I came off that train.

554

00:29:09,666 --> 00:29:13,066 NARRATOR: Kushner joined hundreds of American captives

555

00:29:13,066 --> 00:29:15,700 who were scattered among five prisons

556

00:29:15,700 --> 00:29:18,900 in and around Hanoi.

557

00:29:18,900 --> 00:29:21,566 KUSHNER: We hadn't been there long when the word came down

558

00:29:21,566 --> 00:29:24,466 from the American senior ranking officer

559

00:29:24,466 --> 00:29:28,866 that nobody would go home unless everybody went home.

560

00:29:28,866 --> 00:29:31,933 That nobody would cooperate with the Vietnamese.

561

00:29:31,933 --> 00:29:33,866 (indistinct voice on radio)

562

00:29:37,233 --> 00:29:40,833 But we heard him on the camp radio once...

563

00:29:40,833 --> 00:29:42,833 (radio transmission continuing)

564

00:29:42,833 --> 00:29:45,766 ...telling us that we should cooperate.

565

00:29:48,033 --> 00:29:50,933 And it was obvious, from his voice and his inflection,

566

00:29:50,933 --> 00:29:53,066 that he had been tortured and beaten

567

00:29:53,066 --> 00:29:56,066 and was being made to say that.

568

00:29:56,066 --> 00:29:58,233 And that's what they did.

569

00:29:58,233 --> 00:30:02,733 NARRATOR: Eventually, Kushner, like most of the prisoners,

570

00:30:02,733 --> 00:30:05,533 would be forced to record a statement

571

00:30:05,533 --> 00:30:07,466 against the war.

MINUTES 30-40

572

00:30:08,700 --> 00:30:10,233 (light clicks on)

573

00:30:13,033 --> 00:30:15,566 KUSHNER (on recording): I have followed the course of the antiwar movement with great interest and enthusiasm. You, the veterans of this Vietnam War, know better than any other Americans what a tragic waste this has been. As a POW, I am truly grateful for your efforts on my behalf. Wishing you good luck and continued success, I am gratefully, Hal Kushner, M.D.

574

00:30:41,833 --> 00:30:43,500 KUSHNER: They wanted propaganda statements

575

00:30:43,500 --> 00:30:45,166 to say the war was criminal,

576

00:30:45,166 --> 00:30:47,766 to say that we were criminals.

577

00:30:47,766 --> 00:30:50,066 And they used our weakness against us.

578

00:30:50,066 --> 00:30:51,566 (light clicks off)

579

00:30:51,566 --> 00:30:54,566 ("Gimme Shelter" by the Rolling Stones playing)

580

00:30:54,566 --> 00:30:58,500 CROWD (chanting): No more war! No more war! No more war!

581

00:30:58,500 --> 00:31:02,433 No more war! No more war!

582

00:31:02,433 --> 00:31:04,533 JOHN MUSGRAVE: The first time in our history

583

00:31:04,533 --> 00:31:07,100 that veterans[12] came home from a war and said--

584

00:31:07,100 --> 00:31:08,633 while the war is still going on--

585

00:31:08,633 --> 00:31:11,733 and said, "This war's got to stop."

586

00:31:11,733 --> 00:31:14,700 And the American people

587

00:31:14,700 --> 00:31:17,133 might not listen to a bunch of long-haired hippie kids.

588

00:31:17,133 --> 00:31:19,066 What do they know?

589

00:31:19,066 --> 00:31:21,933 But the working class, the great "silent majority"--

590

00:31:21,933 --> 00:31:24,466 Richard Nixon always talked about his "silent majority"

591

00:31:24,466 --> 00:31:27,066 that would back him by being silent--

592

00:31:27,066 --> 00:31:29,666 we were their kids.[13]

593

00:31:29,666 --> 00:31:32,400 And it finally dawned on me--

594

00:31:32,400 --> 00:31:34,566 and this was a long, painful process--

595

00:31:34,566 --> 00:31:37,533 that... that I wasn't helping anybody

596

00:31:37,533 --> 00:31:40,733 by keeping my mouth shut.

597

00:31:40,733 --> 00:31:44,000 NARRATOR: Less than three weeks after Lieutenant Calley

598

00:31:44,000 --> 00:31:46,766 was found guilty, some 2,000 members

599

00:31:46,766 --> 00:31:48,800 of an organization called

600

00:31:48,800 --> 00:31:51,366 Vietnam Veterans Against the War

601

00:31:51,366 --> 00:31:56,166 and their followers descended upon Washington, D.C.

602

00:31:56,166 --> 00:32:00,200 MICK JAGGER: ♪ Ooh, storm is threatening

603

00:32:00,200 --> 00:32:03,866 ♪ My very life today

604

00:32:03,866 --> 00:32:08,900 ♪ If I don't get some shelter

605

00:32:08,900 --> 00:32:12,400 ♪ Oh, yeah, I'm gonna fade away ♪

606

00:32:12,400 --> 00:32:16,000 ♪ War, children

607

00:32:16,000 --> 00:32:18,533 ♪ It's just a shot away

608

00:32:18,533 --> 00:32:20,633 ♪ It's just a shot away ♪

609

00:32:20,633 --> 00:32:24,133 ♪ War, children

610

00:32:24,133 --> 00:32:26,066 ♪ It's just a shot away

611

00:32:26,066 --> 00:32:29,733 ♪ It's just a shot away. ♪

612

00:32:29,733 --> 00:32:33,266 RON FERRIZZI: VVAW was a-a... it was great therapy.

613

00:32:33,266 --> 00:32:35,466 We were working it out ourselves.

614

00:32:35,466 --> 00:32:37,833 Vets taking care of vets.

615

00:32:37,833 --> 00:32:39,633 We were generals in our own right.

616

00:32:39,633 --> 00:32:41,200 And we didn't join anything.

617

00:32:41,200 --> 00:32:42,866 We became something.

618

00:32:42,866 --> 00:32:45,066 MUSGRAVE: And that, yes, I was a Marine,

619

00:32:45,066 --> 00:32:46,900 but I was first and foremost

620

00:32:46,900 --> 00:32:49,266 a citizen of the United States of America.

621

00:32:49,266 --> 00:32:53,133 And being a citizen, I had certain responsibilities.

622

00:32:53,133 --> 00:32:56,233 And the largest of those responsibilities

623

00:32:56,233 --> 00:32:59,633 is standing up to your government and saying "no"

624

00:32:59,633 --> 00:33:01,833 when it's doing something that you think

625

00:33:01,833 --> 00:33:04,633 is not in this nation's best interest.

626

00:33:04,633 --> 00:33:09,966 That is the most important job that every citizen has.

627

00:33:09,966 --> 00:33:13,733 ROLLING STONES: ♪ Rape, murder

628

00:33:13,733 --> 00:33:16,966 MUSGRAVE: I served my country as honorably,

629

00:33:16,966 --> 00:33:20,166 when I was in Vietnam Veterans Against the War,

630

00:33:20,166 --> 00:33:23,866 as I did as a United States Marine.

631

00:33:23,866 --> 00:33:27,300 And, in fact, I conducted myself as a Marine

632

00:33:27,300 --> 00:33:30,100 the whole time I was in VVAW.

633

00:33:30,100 --> 00:33:31,733 I... My-my whole life,

634

00:33:31,733 --> 00:33:34,566 I conduct myself as a Marine.

635

00:33:34,566 --> 00:33:38,000 NARRATOR: Navy Lieutenant John Kerry,

636

00:33:38,000 --> 00:33:41,333 who had commanded a swift boat in the Mekong Delta

637

00:33:41,333 --> 00:33:43,966 and was one of the organization's leaders,

638

00:33:43,966 --> 00:33:45,400 was invited to address

639

00:33:45,400 --> 00:33:47,633 the Senate Foreign Relations Committee,

640

00:33:47,633 --> 00:33:50,700 still chaired by J. William Fulbright.

641

00:33:50,700 --> 00:33:52,200 FULBRIGHT: Thank you.

642

00:33:52,200 --> 00:33:55,666 MUSGRAVE: I went up for the presentation.

643

00:33:55,666 --> 00:33:57,966 And it was standing room only.

644

00:33:57,966 --> 00:34:01,933 And I was crammed up against the wall in the very back.

645

00:34:01,933 --> 00:34:05,066 And when John...

646

00:34:05,066 --> 00:34:07,966 gave that presentation... (gavel bangs)

647

00:34:07,966 --> 00:34:10,566 ...I felt like he was speaking for all of us.[14]

648

00:34:10,566 --> 00:34:14,033 KERRY: We could come back to this country and we could be quiet.

649

00:34:14,033 --> 00:34:15,666 We could hold our silence.

650

00:34:15,666 --> 00:34:19,233 We could not tell what went on in Vietnam, but we feel,

651

00:34:19,233 --> 00:34:22,166 because of what threatens this country,

652

00:34:22,166 --> 00:34:24,100 we have to speak out.

653

00:34:24,100 --> 00:34:26,033 Millions of men who have been

654

00:34:26,033 --> 00:34:29,199 taught to deal and to trade in violence

655

00:34:29,199 --> 00:34:31,600 and who were given the chance to die

656

00:34:31,600 --> 00:34:33,900 for the biggest nothing in history,

657

00:34:33,900 --> 00:34:37,633 men who have returned with a sense of anger

658

00:34:37,633 --> 00:34:39,133 and a sense of betrayal

659

00:34:39,133 --> 00:34:41,533 which no one has yet grasped.

660

00:34:41,533 --> 00:34:44,266 We rationalized destroying villages

661

00:34:44,266 --> 00:34:45,900 in order to save them.

662

00:34:45,900 --> 00:34:48,066 We saw America lose her sense of morality,

663

00:34:48,066 --> 00:34:51,133 as she accepted very coolly a My Lai

664

00:34:51,133 --> 00:34:53,633 and refused to give up the image of American soldiers

665

00:34:53,633 --> 00:34:56,366 that hand out chocolate bars and chewing gum.

666

00:34:56,366 --> 00:34:59,033 We learnt the meaning of free-fire zones,

667

00:34:59,033 --> 00:35:01,700 shoot anything that moves,[15]

668

00:35:01,700 --> 00:35:03,966 and we watched while America placed a cheapness

669

00:35:03,966 --> 00:35:06,233 on the lives of Orientals.

670

00:35:06,233 --> 00:35:10,233 We watched the United States' falsification of body counts--

671

00:35:10,233 --> 00:35:13,766 in fact, the glorification of body counts.

672

00:35:13,766 --> 00:35:16,433 We watched while men charged up hills

673

00:35:16,433 --> 00:35:19,666 because a general said that hill has to be taken.

674

00:35:19,666 --> 00:35:22,500 And after losing one platoon or two platoons,

675

00:35:22,500 --> 00:35:23,966 they marched away

676

00:35:23,966 --> 00:35:25,966 to leave the hill for the reoccupation

677

00:35:25,966 --> 00:35:28,933 of the North Vietnamese.

678

00:35:28,933 --> 00:35:31,600 And we are asking Americans to think about that.

679

00:35:31,600 --> 00:35:33,866 Because how do you ask a man

680

00:35:33,866 --> 00:35:36,700 to be the last man to die in Vietnam?

681

00:35:36,700 --> 00:35:41,366 How do you ask a man to be the last man to die for a mistake?

682

00:35:41,366 --> 00:35:44,500 And so, when, 30 years from now,

683

00:35:44,500 --> 00:35:47,300 our brothers go down the street without a leg,

684

00:35:47,300 --> 00:35:49,966 without an arm or a face,

685

00:35:49,966 --> 00:35:52,700 and small boys ask why,

686

00:35:52,700 --> 00:35:55,533 we will be able to say "Vietnam"

687

00:35:55,533 --> 00:35:59,200 and not mean a filthy, obscene memory

688

00:35:59,200 --> 00:36:04,666 but mean instead the place where America finally turned

689

00:36:04,666 --> 00:36:09,466 and where soldiers like us helped it in the turning.

690

00:36:09,466 --> 00:36:11,300 Thank you.

691

00:36:11,300 --> 00:36:13,233 (cheers and applause)

692

00:36:17,733 --> 00:36:20,733 MUSGRAVE: I thought, "I have never heard

693

00:36:20,733 --> 00:36:23,733 "so... such an incredible speech

694

00:36:23,733 --> 00:36:26,266 that says exactly what I'm feeling."

695

00:36:26,266 --> 00:36:29,766 You know? It was extraordinary.

696

00:36:29,766 --> 00:36:32,233 Extraordinary.

697

00:36:32,233 --> 00:36:35,900 NARRATOR: But some veterans remembered a different part

698

00:36:35,900 --> 00:36:37,833 of Kerry's testimony,

699

00:36:37,833 --> 00:36:41,500 testimony in which he repeated accounts of atrocities

700

00:36:41,500 --> 00:36:45,400 he had heard from other American veterans.

701

00:36:45,400 --> 00:36:48,666 KERRY: They told the stories of times

702

00:36:48,666 --> 00:36:53,733 that they had personally raped, cut off ears, cut off heads,

703

00:36:53,733 --> 00:36:57,533 taped wires from portable telephones to human genitals

704

00:36:57,533 --> 00:36:59,333 and turned up the power,

705

00:36:59,333 --> 00:37:02,866 cut off limbs, blown up bodies,

706

00:37:02,866 --> 00:37:05,533 randomly shot at civilians,

707

00:37:05,533 --> 00:37:09,866 razed villages in fashion reminiscent of Genghis Khan...

708

00:37:09,866 --> 00:37:12,400 GIOIA: What I saw in Vietnam was not the soldier

709

00:37:12,400 --> 00:37:14,400 that Mr. Kerry or his colleagues

710

00:37:14,400 --> 00:37:16,533 were describing at that time.

711

00:37:16,533 --> 00:37:19,066 There was no widespread atrocity.

712

00:37:19,066 --> 00:37:20,733 There was... there were a couple of units

713

00:37:20,733 --> 00:37:23,333 that went right off the rails, and we can talk about that.

714

00:37:23,333 --> 00:37:26,133 But they were not out-of-control animals,

715

00:37:26,133 --> 00:37:28,266 which was the way they were portrayed.

716

00:37:28,266 --> 00:37:31,933 And what was even worse was they were alluding to the fact

717

00:37:31,933 --> 00:37:33,333 that you would take ordinary kids

718

00:37:33,333 --> 00:37:35,933 and turn them into these savages,

719

00:37:35,933 --> 00:37:37,533 war criminals, and the...

720

00:37:37,533 --> 00:37:39,000 that the military was doing that.

721

00:37:39,000 --> 00:37:41,600 And it didn't. Didn't happen that way.

722

00:37:41,600 --> 00:37:44,066 I'm still very angry about that.[16]

723

00:37:44,066 --> 00:37:46,000 ROLLING STONES: ♪ War, children

724

00:37:46,000 --> 00:37:47,533 NARRATOR: The next day,

725

00:37:47,533 --> 00:37:50,800 700 Vietnam Veterans Against the War

726

00:37:50,800 --> 00:37:53,066 gathered at the Capitol.

727

00:37:53,066 --> 00:37:56,066 MUSGRAVE: We originally intended to put our medals in a body bag

728

00:37:56,066 --> 00:37:59,033 and have them delivered to Congress.

729

00:37:59,033 --> 00:38:02,500 But the Nixon administration erected

730

00:38:02,500 --> 00:38:08,100 this big wire and wood fence on the steps of our Capitol

731

00:38:08,100 --> 00:38:11,766 to keep us out.

732

00:38:11,766 --> 00:38:13,766 To keep out the young men and women

733

00:38:13,766 --> 00:38:16,433 who were fighting that war.

734

00:38:16,433 --> 00:38:18,900 And all that did was piss us off

735

00:38:18,900 --> 00:38:22,900 and give us the greatest photo opportunity

736

00:38:22,900 --> 00:38:25,733 that we could ever have.[17]

737

00:38:25,733 --> 00:38:26,900 Silver Star. STEVE SHAW: Purple Heart.

738

00:38:26,900 --> 00:38:29,133 MAN: Bronze Star.

739

00:38:29,133 --> 00:38:30,966 Cross of Gallantry. SACHS: Distinguished Flying Cross.

740

00:38:30,966 --> 00:38:32,433 And everything else! (cheering)

741

00:38:32,433 --> 00:38:34,233 FERRIZZI: I don't want these ... medals, man!

742

00:38:34,233 --> 00:38:37,566 The Silver Star, the third highest medal in the country,

743

00:38:37,566 --> 00:38:39,166 it doesn't mean anything!

744

00:38:39,166 --> 00:38:41,500 Bob Smeal died for these medals!

745

00:38:41,500 --> 00:38:44,033 Lieutenant Panamaroff died so I got a medal!

746

00:38:44,033 --> 00:38:46,466 Sergeant Johns died so I got a medal!

747

00:38:46,466 --> 00:38:48,466 I got a Silver Star, a Purple Heart,

748

00:38:48,466 --> 00:38:50,866 Army Commendation Medal, eight Air Medals,

749

00:38:50,866 --> 00:38:52,333 National Defense,

750

00:38:52,333 --> 00:38:53,500 and the rest of this garbage!

751

00:38:53,500 --> 00:38:55,366 It doesn't mean a thing![18]

752

00:38:55,366 --> 00:38:56,866 (cheering)

753

00:38:56,866 --> 00:39:00,600 JAGGER: ♪ Mm, the flood is threatening

754

00:39:00,600 --> 00:39:02,133 ♪ My very life

755

00:39:02,133 --> 00:39:04,333 FERRIZZI: Throwing my medals back was probably harder

756

00:39:04,333 --> 00:39:05,733 than going to the war.

757

00:39:05,733 --> 00:39:08,400 Was actually harder than going and serving in Vietnam.

758

00:39:08,400 --> 00:39:12,933 JAGGER: ♪ Or I'm gonna fade away

759

00:39:12,933 --> 00:39:15,433 FERRIZZI: If this medal is so important, let's make it important.

760

00:39:15,433 --> 00:39:17,166 Here it is. You can have it back.

761

00:39:17,166 --> 00:39:19,300 End the war in Vietnam.

762

00:39:19,300 --> 00:39:20,933 What else is there?

763

00:39:20,933 --> 00:39:22,300 I... There was nothing else.

764

00:39:22,300 --> 00:39:23,833 I wouldn't put 'em on my wall for my son.

765

00:39:23,833 --> 00:39:26,100 I never want... that was the last thing in the world

766

00:39:26,100 --> 00:39:28,800 I would ever want my son to revere.

767

00:39:28,800 --> 00:39:31,133 (indistinct shouting)

768

00:39:31,133 --> 00:39:34,066 TOM VALLELY: MARINES It was a difficult decision for me.

769

00:39:34,066 --> 00:39:39,066 I did it out of a disrespectful loyalty.

770

00:39:39,066 --> 00:39:43,033 I was proud of my military service.

771

00:39:43,033 --> 00:39:45,366 And I wanted to say, "You know, I don't think

772

00:39:45,366 --> 00:39:48,166 you guys know that much," the American military.

773

00:39:48,166 --> 00:39:51,300 "You know, I think you should think again

774

00:39:51,300 --> 00:39:52,766 "about this enterprise.

775

00:39:52,766 --> 00:39:55,233 And here you go, pal."[19]

776

00:39:55,233 --> 00:39:57,100 BAGWELL: Tim Bagwell from Sacramento, California,

777

00:39:57,100 --> 00:40:00,100 still on active duty, and I say get the hell out.

778

00:40:00,100 --> 00:40:01,166 (cheering)

779

00:40:01,166 --> 00:40:03,800 ("Gimme Shelter" continues)

780

00:40:13,366 --> 00:40:15,833 MUSGRAVE: When we threw our medals away,

781

00:40:15,833 --> 00:40:17,433 that got their attention,

782

00:40:17,433 --> 00:40:20,100 because America values those things.

783

00:40:20,100 --> 00:40:21,533 So do we.

784

00:40:21,533 --> 00:40:23,933 That's why it was so important.

MINUTES 40-50

785

00:40:23,933 --> 00:40:27,066 NARRATOR: The police had been ordered not to arrest

786

00:40:27,066 --> 00:40:29,666 any of the veterans, because,

787

00:40:29,666 --> 00:40:32,266 Pat Buchanan, a White House aide, wrote,

788

00:40:32,266 --> 00:40:35,733 they were "being received in a far more sympathetic fashion

789

00:40:35,733 --> 00:40:37,933 "than other demonstrators.

790

00:40:37,933 --> 00:40:41,600 The 'crazies' will be in town soon enough," he continued,

791

00:40:41,600 --> 00:40:43,766 "and if we want a confrontation,

792

00:40:43,766 --> 00:40:45,833 let's have it with them."

793

00:40:45,833 --> 00:40:48,233 He was right.

794

00:40:48,233 --> 00:40:50,566 In the days immediately following

795

00:40:50,566 --> 00:40:52,033 the veterans' protest,

796

00:40:52,033 --> 00:40:54,100 other groups of antiwar activists

797

00:40:54,100 --> 00:40:57,233 moved into the capital.

798

00:40:57,233 --> 00:41:01,066 The most radical called itself the May Day Tribe

799

00:41:01,066 --> 00:41:04,133 and threatened to close the city down.

800

00:41:04,133 --> 00:41:07,466 For three days, they staged hit-and-run raids

801

00:41:07,466 --> 00:41:09,333 throughout Washington--

802

00:41:09,333 --> 00:41:11,866 blocking bridges and traffic circles,

803

00:41:11,866 --> 00:41:13,300 smashing windows,

804

00:41:13,300 --> 00:41:15,800 hurling rocks, burning cars.

805

00:41:15,800 --> 00:41:16,866 (sirens wailing)

806

00:41:16,866 --> 00:41:18,266 RENNIE DAVIS: MAY DAY TRIBE If Richard Nixon thought

807

00:41:18,266 --> 00:41:21,666 that this week was something, wait until the next round.

808

00:41:21,666 --> 00:41:24,333 This is only a warm-up of what is going to come.

809

00:41:24,333 --> 00:41:27,166 This is going to continue until the war ends.

810

00:41:27,166 --> 00:41:29,500 NARRATOR: Some 12,000 were arrested--

811

00:41:29,500 --> 00:41:32,066 7,000 on a single day,

812

00:41:32,066 --> 00:41:35,633 the largest number of arrests in 24 hours

813

00:41:35,633 --> 00:41:38,133 in United States history.

814

00:41:38,133 --> 00:41:41,600 BILL ZIMMERMAN: I realized, coming away from Washington,

815

00:41:41,600 --> 00:41:44,000 that our whole strategy was wrong

816

00:41:44,000 --> 00:41:47,733 and that we were becoming more and more militant

817

00:41:47,733 --> 00:41:50,600 at a time when more and more Americans

818

00:41:50,600 --> 00:41:52,200 were opposing the war

819

00:41:52,200 --> 00:41:54,733 but were turned off by our militancy.

820

00:41:54,733 --> 00:41:57,733 So we were doing exactly the wrong thing.

821

00:41:57,733 --> 00:42:01,366 NARRATOR: The White House was initially pleased.

822

00:42:01,366 --> 00:42:04,566 Public sympathy for the veterans was largely forgotten

823

00:42:04,566 --> 00:42:08,600 in the face of days of battle in the streets.

824

00:42:08,600 --> 00:42:11,733 Polls showed that most Americans approved

825

00:42:11,733 --> 00:42:13,533 of the arrests.

826

00:42:16,366 --> 00:42:19,500 But those same polls also showed

827

00:42:19,500 --> 00:42:22,300 that most Americans no longer believed

828

00:42:22,300 --> 00:42:26,066 they were being told the truth about Vietnam.

829

00:42:31,033 --> 00:42:33,833 MUSGRAVE: When I got home, my... so my dad's pissed off.

830

00:42:33,833 --> 00:42:37,566 'Cause he's-he's a true believer, you know?

831

00:42:39,133 --> 00:42:41,400 He was already receiving threats

832

00:42:41,400 --> 00:42:44,533 because I'd thrown away their medals.

833

00:42:46,300 --> 00:42:49,366 And that pissed my dad off then.

834

00:42:49,366 --> 00:42:52,100 And you would've thought I hadn't done anything wrong.

835

00:42:52,100 --> 00:42:55,166 Because then somebody outside the family was messing with me.

836

00:42:55,166 --> 00:42:57,300 And he said, "Son, don't worry.

837

00:42:57,300 --> 00:42:59,300 "Those were your medals. You paid for 'em.

838

00:42:59,300 --> 00:43:00,700 "You can do anything you want with 'em.

839

00:43:00,700 --> 00:43:02,933 "They want to jack with us, they'll face us both.

840

00:43:02,933 --> 00:43:04,666 We'll-we'll take 'em on in the driveway."

841

00:43:04,666 --> 00:43:07,333 You know? "Yo, Dad."

842

00:43:08,600 --> 00:43:10,533 (applause)

843

00:43:12,266 --> 00:43:14,800 (band playing "Thank Heaven for Little Girls")

844

00:43:14,800 --> 00:43:17,800 NARRATOR: On June 12, 1971,

845

00:43:17,800 --> 00:43:20,133 Richard Nixon's daughter, Tricia,

846

00:43:20,133 --> 00:43:24,833 married Edward Cox in the White House Rose Garden.

847

00:43:24,833 --> 00:43:28,433 The country watched it all on television.

848

00:43:31,866 --> 00:43:35,133 The wedding was still news the next day.

849

00:43:35,133 --> 00:43:38,733 But another story on the front page of the New York Times

850

00:43:38,733 --> 00:43:41,566 caught the President's attention.

851

00:43:41,566 --> 00:43:44,766 The article, by Neil Sheehan,[20]

852

00:43:44,766 --> 00:43:47,566 was the first report of what came to be called

853

00:43:47,566 --> 00:43:49,433 the Pentagon Papers,[21]

854

00:43:49,433 --> 00:43:53,033 7,000 pages of highly classified documents

855

00:43:53,033 --> 00:43:55,100 and historical narrative,

856

00:43:55,100 --> 00:43:57,433 compiled secretly at the orders

857

00:43:57,433 --> 00:44:01,366 of former Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara.

858

00:44:01,366 --> 00:44:04,700 He had hoped a study of the decision-making process

859

00:44:04,700 --> 00:44:08,300 that had led the United States to become so deeply involved

860

00:44:08,300 --> 00:44:11,633 in Vietnam would help future policymakers

861

00:44:11,633 --> 00:44:14,233 avoid similar errors.

862

00:44:15,866 --> 00:44:18,000 SHEEHAN: I thought I knew a great deal.

863

00:44:18,000 --> 00:44:20,133 I thought I knew most of what was worth knowing

864

00:44:20,133 --> 00:44:21,466 about the war.

865

00:44:21,466 --> 00:44:25,333 And, suddenly, I didn't.

866

00:44:25,333 --> 00:44:28,400 It wasn't a reporter's version of an event.

867

00:44:28,400 --> 00:44:30,333 It was their version of an event.

868

00:44:30,333 --> 00:44:32,666 It was their telegrams, their orders,

869

00:44:32,666 --> 00:44:34,500 their memoranda, et cetera. MCNAMARA (On screen script) The solution lies in girding, openly, for a longer war

870

00:44:48,900 --> 00:44:52,100 NARRATOR: The documents proved[22] that American Presidents

871

00:44:52,100 --> 00:44:53,966 and their closest advisors

872

00:44:53,966 --> 00:44:56,033 had steered the United States

873

00:44:56,033 --> 00:44:58,833 toward deeper involvement in Vietnam,

874

00:44:58,833 --> 00:45:03,300 despite their own grave doubts about the chances for victory.

KENNEDY: (on screen titles) We would be almost certain to get mired down in an inconclusive struggle. It would be a mistake for the U.S. to commit itself.

875

00:45:12,166 --> 00:45:14,766 They had known that the Saigon government

876

00:45:14,766 --> 00:45:17,166 was weak and incompetent...

KENNEDY(On screen text) There is graft and corruption in the Vietnamese administration of our aid. The "heart of the army is not in the war".

877

00:45:24,633 --> 00:45:28,566 ...that the enemy was disciplined and resilient...

McNAMARA: Hanoi's determination appears as firm as ever.

878

00:45:34,666 --> 00:45:38,433 ...and that the bombing of the North wasn't working.

JOHNSON: (on screen text) no sign that the bombing has reduced Hanoi's will to resist.

879

00:45:45,933 --> 00:45:50,100 Yet, they had routinely lied about all these things

880

00:45:50,100 --> 00:45:52,566 to Congress and the American people.

MCNAMARA: (On screen script) The prognosis is bad. Success ia a mere possibility. The odds are less than even. We have failed consistently since 1961 to make a dent in the problem.

881

00:46:16,833 --> 00:46:18,600 (sighs)

882

00:46:18,600 --> 00:46:21,633 ROBERT GARD: PENTAGON I certainly don't endorse

883

00:46:21,633 --> 00:46:26,600 anyone releasing top-secret material to the press.

884

00:46:28,300 --> 00:46:32,333 Um, on the other hand, uh...

885

00:46:32,333 --> 00:46:35,566 I was very concerned

886

00:46:35,566 --> 00:46:38,100 about the fact that the, uh,

887

00:46:38,100 --> 00:46:43,400 government was not being up front with the American people

888

00:46:43,400 --> 00:46:47,166 in certain respects with the Vietnam War.

889

00:46:47,166 --> 00:46:50,433 NARRATOR: Two copies of the report had been stored

890

00:46:50,433 --> 00:46:53,800 at the RAND Corporation, a California think tank,

891

00:46:53,800 --> 00:46:55,866 where Daniel Ellsberg,

892

00:46:55,866 --> 00:47:00,666 one of the study's 36 authors, worked as an analyst.

893

00:47:00,666 --> 00:47:03,800 Ellsberg had once supported the war.

894

00:47:03,800 --> 00:47:05,800 He'd served in the Pentagon,

895

00:47:05,800 --> 00:47:08,300 and spent two years working for the State Department

896

00:47:08,300 --> 00:47:10,533 in Vietnam.

897

00:47:10,533 --> 00:47:15,033 But he had come to see the war as profoundly immoral,[23]

898

00:47:15,033 --> 00:47:17,633 and hoped that if Americans understood

899

00:47:17,633 --> 00:47:22,066 how administration after administration had misled them

900

00:47:22,066 --> 00:47:24,700 about what was being done in their name,

901

00:47:24,700 --> 00:47:27,333 they might help bring it to an end.

902

00:47:27,333 --> 00:47:31,166 He and Anthony Russo, another RAND employee,

903

00:47:31,166 --> 00:47:34,666 secretly copied most of the report.

904

00:47:34,666 --> 00:47:38,900 Ellsberg offered it to three leading antiwar senators,

905

00:47:38,900 --> 00:47:42,833 hoping they would be willing to reveal its contents.

906

00:47:42,833 --> 00:47:45,566 None dared do it.

907

00:47:45,566 --> 00:47:49,166 Meanwhile, Neil Sheehan of theNew York Times,

908

00:47:49,166 --> 00:47:53,300 who had been reporting on Vietnam since 1962,

909

00:47:53,300 --> 00:47:57,100 and had already secretly read some of the documents,

910

00:47:57,100 --> 00:48:01,166 asked Ellsberg to show him the whole report.

911

00:48:01,166 --> 00:48:04,366 SHEEHAN: At that point, I was very passionate about the war.

912

00:48:04,366 --> 00:48:07,900 I felt that it was really wrong,

913

00:48:07,900 --> 00:48:09,900 because we were getting a lot of Americans

914

00:48:09,900 --> 00:48:12,233 and a lot of Vietnamese killed for no purpose.

915

00:48:12,233 --> 00:48:16,066 We were gonna lose this war.

916

00:48:16,066 --> 00:48:20,366 And so I vowed to myself when I saw this material[24]

917

00:48:20,366 --> 00:48:22,233 that this is never gonna go back

918

00:48:22,233 --> 00:48:23,900 into a government safe again.

919

00:48:23,900 --> 00:48:25,733 The American public had paid for it

920

00:48:25,733 --> 00:48:28,500 with the lives of their sons and with their treasure,

921

00:48:28,500 --> 00:48:30,300 and it's gonna be published.

922

00:48:30,300 --> 00:48:31,966 NIXON: That piece in theTimes

923

00:48:31,966 --> 00:48:33,300 is, of course,

924

00:48:33,300 --> 00:48:36,433 a massive security leak from the Pentagon, you know.

925

00:48:36,433 --> 00:48:38,233 ROGERS: Yeah.

926

00:48:38,233 --> 00:48:41,300 NIXON: It all relates, of course, to everything up until we came in.

927

00:48:41,300 --> 00:48:43,033 ROGERS: Yeah.

928

00:48:43,033 --> 00:48:45,566 NIXON: And it's, uh, it's ver... it's hard on Johnson,

929

00:48:45,566 --> 00:48:49,000 it's hard on Kennedy, it's hard on Lodge.

930

00:48:49,000 --> 00:48:52,500 NARRATOR: At first, Nixon was not unduly disturbed

931

00:48:52,500 --> 00:48:54,933 by the newspaper's revelations.

932

00:48:54,933 --> 00:48:58,566 They reflected badly on his Democratic predecessors,

933

00:48:58,566 --> 00:49:01,100 not on him.

934

00:49:01,100 --> 00:49:04,400 But Henry Kissinger quickly convinced Nixon

935

00:49:04,400 --> 00:49:06,300 that if the Times were permitted

936

00:49:06,300 --> 00:49:10,133 to reveal the classified secrets of earlier Presidents,

937

00:49:10,133 --> 00:49:15,233 it was only a matter of time until someone leaked his own.[25]

938

00:49:15,233 --> 00:49:19,200 The Justice Department obtained a temporary court order

939

00:49:19,200 --> 00:49:22,866 forbidding the Times from publishing further installments

940

00:49:22,866 --> 00:49:26,066 on the grounds of national security.

941

00:49:26,066 --> 00:49:29,866 But soon, both the Boston Globe

942

00:49:29,866 --> 00:49:33,733 and the Washington Post were also printing excerpts.

943

00:49:35,366 --> 00:49:38,000 On June 30, 1971,

944

00:49:38,000 --> 00:49:40,700 the United States Supreme Court,

945

00:49:40,700 --> 00:49:42,966 citing the First Amendment,

946

00:49:42,966 --> 00:49:46,633 ruled six to three that the Times had the right

947

00:49:46,633 --> 00:49:50,233 to publish the stolen documents.

948

00:49:50,233 --> 00:49:52,433 SHEEHAN: And I went down into the basement

949

00:49:52,433 --> 00:49:54,833 to wait for the presses to start to roll,

950

00:49:54,833 --> 00:49:57,533 and they had these huge round reams of paper.

951

00:49:57,533 --> 00:49:58,733 (whirring)

952

00:49:58,733 --> 00:50:00,333 And, finally, the presses started to roll.

953

00:50:00,333 --> 00:50:04,866 And it was just an exquisite moment of vindication

954

00:50:04,866 --> 00:50:07,100 of the freedom of the press in this country

955

00:50:07,100 --> 00:50:08,800 and how important it is.

956

00:50:08,800 --> 00:50:10,866 (rhythmic rattling)

MINUTES 50-60

957

00:50:10,866 --> 00:50:13,633 KARL MARLANTES: MARINES: That changed

958

00:50:13,633 --> 00:50:15,633 our whole attitude toward government.

959

00:50:15,633 --> 00:50:18,100 Up until then, the president wouldn't lie.

960

00:50:18,100 --> 00:50:20,333 After then, they always lie.

961

00:50:20,333 --> 00:50:22,900 NARRATOR: The day the presses began to roll again,

962

00:50:22,900 --> 00:50:26,333 Nixon ordered attorney general John Mitchell

963

00:50:26,333 --> 00:50:30,000 to try to discredit Daniel Ellsberg, who had just

964

00:50:30,000 --> 00:50:32,300 been indicted by a federal grand jury

965

00:50:32,300 --> 00:50:34,566 for theft and conspiracy

966

00:50:34,566 --> 00:50:38,533 under the Espionage Act of 1917.

NIXON: Don't you agree that we have to pursue the Ellsberg case?

JOHN MITCHELL: (Attorney General) No question about it. No question about it. The is the one sanction we have, is to get back at the individuals.

NIXON: Let's get the son of a bitch into jail.

HENRY KISSINGER: (National Security Advisor) We've got to get him, we've got to get him.

NIXON: Don't worry about his trial. Just get everything out. Try him in the press. Try him in the press. Everything, John, that there is on the investigation, get it out, leak it out. We want to destroy him in the press. Is that clear?

MITCHELL: Yes.

967

00:51:13,466 --> 00:51:17,766 NARRATOR: Nixon feared Ellsberg possessed more classified documents

968

00:51:17,766 --> 00:51:20,300 that would show that he himself had lied

969

00:51:20,300 --> 00:51:24,166 about the secret bombing of Cambodia and Laos,

970

00:51:24,166 --> 00:51:27,000 and he believed that Ellsberg had had help

971

00:51:27,000 --> 00:51:30,566 and wanted to know the names of his co-conspirators.

972

00:51:30,566 --> 00:51:33,000 The President created a private,

973

00:51:33,000 --> 00:51:36,400 clandestine investigative unit within the White House.

974

00:51:36,400 --> 00:51:39,400 It came to be called "The Plumbers."

975

00:51:39,400 --> 00:51:43,033 John Ehrlichman, one of Nixon's closest aides,

976

00:51:43,033 --> 00:51:46,500 eventually ordered them to burglarize the office

977

00:51:46,500 --> 00:51:49,533 of Ellsberg's Los Angeles psychiatrist

978

00:51:49,533 --> 00:51:51,600 in search of material

979

00:51:51,600 --> 00:51:55,333 with which he could be blackmailed into silence.

980

00:51:55,333 --> 00:51:59,633 Nixon may have privately feared something else as well.

981

00:51:59,633 --> 00:52:02,600 He was told that the safe at another think tank,

982

00:52:02,600 --> 00:52:06,333 the Brookings Institution in Washington, D.C.,

983

00:52:06,333 --> 00:52:10,500 contained files that might reveal the secret role

984

00:52:10,500 --> 00:52:14,466 his campaign had played in torpedoing the peace talks

985

00:52:14,466 --> 00:52:17,766 on the eve of his election three years earlier,

986

00:52:17,766 --> 00:52:22,466 which President Johnson had then considered treason.

987

00:52:22,466 --> 00:52:26,333 Nixon wanted his "plumbers" to break into Brookings,

988

00:52:26,333 --> 00:52:30,766 crack the safe, and remove the files.

989

00:52:30,766 --> 00:52:33,066 None of it was legal.

990

00:52:33,066 --> 00:52:36,200 Nixon did not care.

NIXON: Well, I mean, I want it implemented on a thievery basis. Goddamn it, get in and get those files. Blow the safe and get it.

July 1, 1971 NIXON: Did they get the Brookings Institute raided last night? HALDEMAN (Chief of Staff) No. NIXON: Get it done. I want it done. I want the Brookings Institute safe cleaned out. Bob, get on the Brookings thing right away. I've got to get that safe cracked over there.

991

00:53:06,900 --> 00:53:11,266 NARRATOR: The Brookings break-in would never take place.

992

00:53:11,266 --> 00:53:13,833 The burglars would be unable

993

00:53:13,833 --> 00:53:17,033 to find Ellsberg's file in his doctor's office.

994

00:53:17,033 --> 00:53:20,566 But Nixon's obsession with his enemies

995

00:53:20,566 --> 00:53:24,300 would be the undoing of his Presidency.

996

00:53:25,666 --> 00:53:29,133 ("Embryonic Journey" by Jefferson Airplane playing)

997

00:53:33,100 --> 00:53:35,066 MONTREAL (laughter and chatter)

998

00:53:41,566 --> 00:53:43,500 (indistinct voice of man speaking French over microphone)

999

00:53:44,933 --> 00:53:47,300 JACK TODD: Once a month, I have a dream

1000

00:53:47,300 --> 00:53:51,933 that I'm... I'm back... I'm back in basic training.

1001

00:53:51,933 --> 00:53:53,466 But I'm the age I am now,

1002

00:53:53,466 --> 00:53:55,766 which is way too old to be in the military.

1003

00:53:55,766 --> 00:53:58,233 But, you know, somehow I've gotten a waiver,

1004

00:53:58,233 --> 00:53:59,933 and I'm going through all the training,

1005

00:53:59,933 --> 00:54:02,166 and there's some major war going on.

1006

00:54:02,166 --> 00:54:05,400 And I'm going to get there, and I'm going to be a hero

1007

00:54:05,400 --> 00:54:10,800 and vindicate myself and be taken back by my country.

1008

00:54:10,800 --> 00:54:12,733 (car horn honks)

1009

00:54:12,733 --> 00:54:17,100 NARRATOR: Jack Todd had crossed into Canada in early 1970,

1010

00:54:17,100 --> 00:54:18,933 rather than take part

1011

00:54:18,933 --> 00:54:21,566 in what he believed to be a dishonorable war.

1012

00:54:23,966 --> 00:54:27,900 He found himself living in a strange underground world

1013

00:54:27,900 --> 00:54:30,066 of deserters and draft evaders

1014

00:54:30,066 --> 00:54:34,466 and the disaffected Canadians who gathered around them.

1015

00:54:34,466 --> 00:54:38,633 In 1971, he was living in Montreal,

1016

00:54:38,633 --> 00:54:40,766 restless and often depressed,

1017

00:54:40,766 --> 00:54:44,400 increasingly alienated from his country,

1018

00:54:44,400 --> 00:54:47,633 but also anxious always for news from home,

1019

00:54:47,633 --> 00:54:50,533 and eager to know how his boyhood friends

1020

00:54:50,533 --> 00:54:53,600 from Scottsbluff, Nebraska, were doing.

1021

00:54:53,600 --> 00:54:56,300 One, named Ron Bales,

1022

00:54:56,300 --> 00:54:59,466 had lived just down the street.

1023

00:54:59,466 --> 00:55:04,400 And, uh... my mother sent me a letter, um,

1024

00:55:04,400 --> 00:55:06,666 and I remember taking the clipping out of it.

1025

00:55:06,666 --> 00:55:10,266 I had walked up to Mount Royal in Montreal to read the letter.

1026

00:55:10,266 --> 00:55:13,233 And the clipping was from the Scottsbluff Star-Herald,

1027

00:55:13,233 --> 00:55:16,000 and it was about Ron being killed in Vietnam.

1028

00:55:19,233 --> 00:55:22,300 Why? Why?

1029

00:55:22,300 --> 00:55:26,466 It was long after we knew how wrong the war was,

1030

00:55:26,466 --> 00:55:30,533 and guys like Ron were still dying, you know.

1031

00:55:32,366 --> 00:55:34,300 Why?

1032

00:55:35,600 --> 00:55:38,033 CHET HUNTLEY: The government today restricted the use

1033

00:55:38,033 --> 00:55:40,633 of the weed killer 2,4,5-T on the ground

1034

00:55:40,633 --> 00:55:42,566 that the chemical has caused birth defects

1035

00:55:42,566 --> 00:55:45,100 in some laboratory animals.

1036

00:55:47,000 --> 00:55:51,800 NARRATOR: Since 1962, American and South Vietnamese forces

1037

00:55:51,800 --> 00:55:55,200 had sprayed some 20 million gallons of herbicides

1038

00:55:55,200 --> 00:55:59,533 over roughly one quarter of South Vietnam.

1039

00:55:59,533 --> 00:56:02,866 The idea had been to reduce casualties

1040

00:56:02,866 --> 00:56:06,433 by clearing areas around U.S. installations,

1041

00:56:06,433 --> 00:56:10,733 and to deny the enemy crops and forest cover.

1042

00:56:10,733 --> 00:56:14,900 The most frequently used defoliant was Agent Orange,

1043

00:56:14,900 --> 00:56:17,900 which contained 2,4,5-T.

1044

00:56:17,900 --> 00:56:20,066 When environmentalists convinced

1045

00:56:20,066 --> 00:56:23,233 the Nixon administration to ban the weed killer

1046

00:56:23,233 --> 00:56:24,966 on American farms,

1047

00:56:24,966 --> 00:56:27,866 the Pentagon had reluctantly agreed

1048

00:56:27,866 --> 00:56:31,633 to stop using Agent Orange in Vietnam.

1049

00:56:31,633 --> 00:56:36,466 The ecological damage defoliants did was obvious.[26]

1050

00:56:36,466 --> 00:56:40,566 The damage done to soldiers and civilians

1051

00:56:40,566 --> 00:56:44,700 would be the subject of angry debate for decades.[27]

1052

00:56:48,000 --> 00:56:51,000 (crowd shouting in Vietnamese)

1053

00:56:51,000 --> 00:56:53,766 TED KOPPEL: Opposition to the Saigon government

1054

00:56:53,766 --> 00:56:56,200 is not just Viet Cong.

1055

00:56:56,200 --> 00:56:57,800 TUE: How many governments

1056

00:56:57,800 --> 00:57:00,900 actually care for the Vietnamese people?

1057

00:57:00,900 --> 00:57:04,833 KOPPEL: The student antiwar, anti-American movement

1058

00:57:04,833 --> 00:57:07,366 is larger than its small demonstrations indicate.

1059

00:57:07,366 --> 00:57:10,133 TUE: You don't need military aid...

1060

00:57:12,200 --> 00:57:14,700 ...to promote democracy in Vietnam.

1061

00:57:14,700 --> 00:57:18,066 To return to the Vietnamese people

1062

00:57:18,066 --> 00:57:20,500 their right that...

1063

00:57:20,500 --> 00:57:22,766 their right to speak freely.

1064

00:57:22,766 --> 00:57:25,600 You don't need even one penny.

1065

00:57:25,600 --> 00:57:28,800 You don't need to consult the White House,

1066

00:57:28,800 --> 00:57:31,833 you don't need to care about the American media,

1067

00:57:31,833 --> 00:57:34,433 you don't need French, you don't need Chinese,

1068

00:57:34,433 --> 00:57:36,100 you don't need Americans.

1069

00:57:36,100 --> 00:57:40,666 If you really care for Vietnam then you turn back inside.[28]

1070

00:57:40,666 --> 00:57:44,233 NARRATOR: South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu

1071

00:57:44,233 --> 00:57:46,300 was campaigning for reelection.

1072

00:57:46,300 --> 00:57:48,733 The Americans had insisted on it

1073

00:57:48,733 --> 00:57:51,500 and urged him not to rig the race,

1074

00:57:51,500 --> 00:57:54,533 for fear it would resemble too closely

1075

00:57:54,533 --> 00:57:57,066 the fraudulent communist "elections"

1076

00:57:57,066 --> 00:58:00,633 routinely denounced by the United States.

1077

00:58:00,633 --> 00:58:02,300 But Thieu made sure

1078

00:58:02,300 --> 00:58:05,300 no serious candidates ran against him,

1079

00:58:05,300 --> 00:58:09,166 and claimed to have won 94% of the vote.

1080

00:58:09,166 --> 00:58:13,000 It became known as "the one-man election,"

1081

00:58:13,000 --> 00:58:14,266 and added to the ranks

1082

00:58:14,266 --> 00:58:17,366 of what was called the "Third Force":

1083

00:58:17,366 --> 00:58:21,233 South Vietnamese hoping for a negotiated settlement

1084

00:58:21,233 --> 00:58:23,400 and an end to the bloodshed.

NIXON: From a political standpoint, our major goal is to get our ground forces the hell out of there long before the elections.

1085

00:58:40,200 --> 00:58:42,366 NARRATOR: By the middle of 1971,

1086

00:58:42,366 --> 00:58:45,400 Nixon and Kissinger were looking for a way

1087

00:58:45,400 --> 00:58:48,900 to get all U.S. troops out of Vietnam

1088

00:58:48,900 --> 00:58:51,500 before his re-election campaign began

1089

00:58:51,500 --> 00:58:53,500 the following year,

1090

00:58:53,500 --> 00:58:55,933 but to do so without causing

1091

00:58:55,933 --> 00:58:58,866 Saigon to fall too soon.

KISSINGER: The only problem is to prevent the collapse in '72. If it's got to go to the Communists, it'd be better to have it happen in the first six months of the new term than have it go on and on and on. I'm being very cold blooded about it. NIXON: I know exactly what we're up to. KISSINGER: But on the other hand, if Cambodai, Laos, and Vietnam go down the drain in September '72, then they'll say you went into these, you spoiled so many lives, just to wind up where you could've been in the first year. NIXON: Yeah.

1092

00:59:35,833 --> 00:59:38,333 NARRATOR: At the secret talks in Paris,

1093

00:59:38,333 --> 00:59:41,433 Kissinger had offered his North Vietnamese counterpart,

1094

00:59:41,433 --> 00:59:44,733 Le Duc Tho, the most significant concessions

1095

00:59:44,733 --> 00:59:47,800 the United States had yet made:

1096

00:59:47,800 --> 00:59:51,433 North Vietnam could keep its troops in the South--

1097

00:59:51,433 --> 00:59:53,433 tens of thousands of them.

1098

00:59:53,433 --> 00:59:57,933 And in exchange for the release of American prisoners of war,

1099

00:59:57,933 --> 00:59:59,633 all American troops

1100

00:59:59,633 --> 01:00:02,900 would be withdrawn within seven months.

1101

01:00:05,100 --> 01:00:08,566 Le Duc Tho countered with a new offer of his own:

1102

01:00:08,566 --> 01:00:10,866 Hanoi would release the prisoners

1103

01:00:10,866 --> 01:00:14,766 simultaneously with the departure of U.S. forces.

1104

01:00:14,766 --> 01:00:18,033 But he still insisted that Washington remove 1105

01:00:18,033 --> 01:00:21,600 President Thieu from power.[29]

1106

01:00:21,600 --> 01:00:24,500 Kissinger was encouraged that the North Vietnamese

1107

01:00:24,500 --> 01:00:28,433 seemed, for the first time, to be negotiating seriously.[30]

1108

01:00:28,433 --> 01:00:33,300 He could almost "taste peace," he told a friend.

1109

01:00:33,300 --> 01:00:34,966 Thieu knew nothing

1110

01:00:34,966 --> 01:00:38,200 about the new American concessions to Hanoi.

1111

01:00:38,200 --> 01:00:42,000 He was worried about something else.

MINUTES 60-70

1112

01:00:45,133 --> 01:00:47,166 ANNOUNCER: NBC News interrupts regular programming

1113

01:00:47,166 --> 01:00:49,066 to bring you a special report.

1114

01:00:49,066 --> 01:00:51,633 NIXON: The announcement I shall now read is being issued

1115

01:00:51,633 --> 01:00:56,333 simultaneously in Peking and in the United States.

1116

01:00:56,333 --> 01:00:58,133 NARRATOR: Richard Nixon,

1117

01:00:58,133 --> 01:01:01,400 famous for the ferocity of his anticommunism,

1118

01:01:01,400 --> 01:01:04,033 astonished the world by announcing

1119

01:01:04,033 --> 01:01:07,666 that he was planning to restore relations with China

1120

01:01:07,666 --> 01:01:11,133 that had been severed for more than two decades.

1121

01:01:11,133 --> 01:01:14,866 The United States had gone to war in Vietnam

1122

01:01:14,866 --> 01:01:18,000 in part to block Chinese expansionism.

1123

01:01:18,000 --> 01:01:22,233 What would Nixon's visit mean for Thieu's future

1124

01:01:22,233 --> 01:01:24,566 or for that of his country?

1125

01:01:24,566 --> 01:01:27,833 Thieu was afraid he knew.

1126

01:01:27,833 --> 01:01:30,600 "America has been looking for a new mistress,"

1127

01:01:30,600 --> 01:01:32,000 he told an aide,

1128

01:01:32,000 --> 01:01:34,833 "and now Nixon has discovered China.

1129

01:01:34,833 --> 01:01:38,666 "He does not want to have the old mistress around.

1130

01:01:38,666 --> 01:01:42,400 Vietnam has become old and ugly."

1131

01:01:54,033 --> 01:01:57,633 KUSHNER: I believe it was in the fall of 1971.

1132

01:02:00,233 --> 01:02:04,533 And they called us out and they hung a bed sheet

1133

01:02:04,533 --> 01:02:09,300 and they had a projector and they showed us

1134

01:02:09,300 --> 01:02:12,866 color and black and white movies

1135

01:02:12,866 --> 01:02:16,266 of these protests in Washington.

1136

01:02:16,266 --> 01:02:18,200 (shouting)

1137

01:02:20,966 --> 01:02:23,000 And in the same film

1138

01:02:23,000 --> 01:02:25,333 it showed John Kerry.

1139

01:02:25,333 --> 01:02:27,566 And I remember he was very articulate,

1140

01:02:27,566 --> 01:02:29,833 very, very well spoken,

1141

01:02:29,833 --> 01:02:32,900 very fluent

1142

01:02:32,900 --> 01:02:35,600 and a good spokesman

1143

01:02:35,600 --> 01:02:37,100 for his cause.

1144

01:02:37,100 --> 01:02:39,300 Someone has to die so that President Nixon

1145

01:02:39,300 --> 01:02:41,933 won't be-- and these are his words--

1146

01:02:41,933 --> 01:02:45,766 KERRY: "the first President to lose a war."

1147

01:02:45,766 --> 01:02:47,033 KUSHNER: And I remember very well,

1148

01:02:47,033 --> 01:02:49,666 he's sitting with his fatigue jacket

1149

01:02:49,666 --> 01:02:51,366 and long hair

1150

01:02:51,366 --> 01:02:53,533 and testifying about atrocities

1151

01:02:53,533 --> 01:02:55,566 and war crimes that...

1152

01:02:55,566 --> 01:02:57,666 we perpetrated.

1153

01:02:57,666 --> 01:03:00,800 KERRY: Cut off limbs, blown up bodies,

1154

01:03:00,800 --> 01:03:03,166 randomly shot at civilians...

1155

01:03:03,166 --> 01:03:05,233 KUSHNER: But I was shocked by what he said.

1156

01:03:05,233 --> 01:03:07,066 And I didn't believe it.

1157

01:03:07,066 --> 01:03:10,433 I didn't believe it at all.

1158

01:03:12,200 --> 01:03:15,166 I mean, I'm sophisticated to know, and I knew then,

1159

01:03:15,166 --> 01:03:17,766 that bad things happen in war and they happen on both sides,

1160

01:03:17,766 --> 01:03:21,500 and I had seen the evidence of the other side too, also.

1161

01:03:21,500 --> 01:03:22,900 And I knew it.

1162

01:03:22,900 --> 01:03:25,266 And... but still, to hear the testimony

1163

01:03:25,266 --> 01:03:30,333 and to hear it used as a weapon

1164

01:03:30,333 --> 01:03:32,966 against our further prosecution of this war

1165

01:03:32,966 --> 01:03:37,900 that we were suffering for was very powerful indeed.

1166

01:03:37,900 --> 01:03:40,633 NARRATOR: A few months later

1167

01:03:40,633 --> 01:03:43,833 Kushner got an even bigger shock.

1168

01:03:43,833 --> 01:03:46,233 VALERIE KUSHNER (on recording): My son has no father.

1169

01:03:46,233 --> 01:03:49,933 This Christmas Day we celebrate the birth of a son to Mary

1170

01:03:49,933 --> 01:03:52,600 and this Christmas Day some other mother's son

1171

01:03:52,600 --> 01:03:54,966 will die in Vietnam.

1172

01:03:54,966 --> 01:03:57,633 That death takes away all that was taught to us


1173

01:03:57,633 --> 01:04:00,300 by Christ's birth.

1174

01:04:00,300 --> 01:04:02,766 KUSHNER: The whole time I was in the South

1175

01:04:02,766 --> 01:04:05,200 I never got one letter, one bit of information.

1176

01:04:05,200 --> 01:04:07,333 When I got to North Vietnam I got no letter,

1177

01:04:07,333 --> 01:04:09,866 no bit of information, nothing.

1178

01:04:09,866 --> 01:04:15,600 Then, I think it may have been Christmas of '71,

1179

01:04:15,600 --> 01:04:20,166 my wife wrote an op-ed piece in the New York Times.

1180

01:04:20,166 --> 01:04:23,733 She had become politically active.

1181

01:04:23,733 --> 01:04:26,133 NARRATOR: The families of POWs

1182

01:04:26,133 --> 01:04:29,900 overwhelmingly supported the Nixon administration.

1183

01:04:29,900 --> 01:04:32,900 Valerie Kushner did not,

1184

01:04:32,900 --> 01:04:34,633 and the North Vietnamese were quick

1185

01:04:34,633 --> 01:04:37,966 to exploit her antiwar views.

1186

01:04:37,966 --> 01:04:39,900 They broadcast a message

1187

01:04:39,900 --> 01:04:42,866 they had permitted her husband to record for her.

1188

01:04:42,866 --> 01:04:45,666 It was the first time she had heard his voice

1189

01:04:45,666 --> 01:04:47,600 in four years.

1190

01:04:49,933 --> 01:04:52,800 KUSHNER (on recording): I received the glasses, Val,

1191

01:04:52,800 --> 01:04:55,600 and my eyes have improved considerably.

1192

01:04:55,600 --> 01:04:58,333 Please let me know about Brother John.

1193

01:04:58,333 --> 01:05:00,900 He or she is almost four now,

1194

01:05:00,900 --> 01:05:03,633 and he or she is old enough to understand

1195

01:05:03,633 --> 01:05:07,166 where Daddy is and that I love him or her

1196

01:05:07,166 --> 01:05:10,533 immeasurably despite our never meeting.

1197

01:05:10,533 --> 01:05:14,266 I calculate that T-Bird is now in second grade,

1198

01:05:14,266 --> 01:05:16,400 and I know she is doing well.

1199

01:05:16,400 --> 01:05:18,300 She is a grown-up lady now

1200

01:05:18,300 --> 01:05:22,233 and I hope you have plans for piano or ballet lessons soon.

1201

01:05:22,233 --> 01:05:24,866 Happy eighth birthday, dear T-Bird,

1202

01:05:24,866 --> 01:05:26,500 and Merry Christmas.

1203

01:05:26,500 --> 01:05:28,833 When I left you I promised to come home

1204

01:05:28,833 --> 01:05:30,466 before you were five.

1205

01:05:30,466 --> 01:05:34,300 I didn't fulfill that promise, but when I do return,

1206

01:05:34,300 --> 01:05:36,966 I will never leave you again.

1207

01:05:36,966 --> 01:05:39,766 VALERIE KUSHNER: His optimism about the whole situation amazes me.

1208

01:05:39,766 --> 01:05:41,166 I'm just very happy

1209

01:05:41,166 --> 01:05:43,633 that he can't see this morning's newspaper.

1210

01:05:43,633 --> 01:05:46,700 Because I-I don't have the same optimism

1211

01:05:46,700 --> 01:05:48,466 or the same confidence in this government

1212

01:05:48,466 --> 01:05:51,266 that he seems to have.

1213

01:05:55,166 --> 01:06:00,833 NARRATOR: President Nixon's visit to China in February of 1972

1214

01:06:00,833 --> 01:06:03,466 not only alarmed President Thieu,

1215

01:06:03,466 --> 01:06:06,433 it worried Hanoi as well.

1216

01:06:06,433 --> 01:06:09,666 The North Vietnamese remembered how Ho Chi Minh

1217

01:06:09,666 --> 01:06:12,666 had felt betrayed in 1954

1218

01:06:12,666 --> 01:06:15,366 when Moscow and Beijing had compelled them

1219

01:06:15,366 --> 01:06:19,600 to sign the Geneva Accords, dividing Vietnam in two.

1220

01:06:19,600 --> 01:06:22,800 Now, they were concerned that warmer relations

1221

01:06:22,800 --> 01:06:25,166 between the United States and China

1222

01:06:25,166 --> 01:06:29,133 might soon mean less support from Beijing.

1223

01:06:29,133 --> 01:06:33,100 Nixon was also planning to travel to Moscow

1224

01:06:33,100 --> 01:06:36,666 to meet with Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev,

1225

01:06:36,666 --> 01:06:38,566 seeking to ease tensions

1226

01:06:38,566 --> 01:06:42,400 with North Vietnam's other communist patron.

1227

01:06:42,400 --> 01:06:47,200 Before that summit took place, First Secretary Le Duan,

1228

01:06:47,200 --> 01:06:50,166 the man who headed the Politburo in Hanoi,

1229

01:06:50,166 --> 01:06:53,566 decided to undertake a new kind of offensive.[31]

1230

01:06:53,566 --> 01:06:57,366 It would be conventional warfare this time,

1231

01:06:57,366 --> 01:07:01,400 and on a scale he had never before attempted.

1232

01:07:01,400 --> 01:07:04,333 Le Duan had several goals in mind:

1233

01:07:04,333 --> 01:07:06,766 to strengthen his hand at the peace talks

1234

01:07:06,766 --> 01:07:09,300 by altering the military balance of power

1235

01:07:09,300 --> 01:07:10,966 in South Vietnam,

1236

01:07:10,966 --> 01:07:14,466 to show that the ARVN could not stand on their own,

1237

01:07:14,466 --> 01:07:18,266 and to convince the Soviets and the Chinese

1238

01:07:18,266 --> 01:07:22,133 his revolution was still worth supporting.

1239

01:07:26,333 --> 01:07:30,366 The assault began on March 30, 1972.[32]

1240

01:07:30,366 --> 01:07:33,900 14 North Vietnamese infantry divisions--

1241

01:07:33,900 --> 01:07:36,633 more than 120,000 men--

1242

01:07:36,633 --> 01:07:39,266 now, for the first time,

1243

01:07:39,266 --> 01:07:43,233 supported by hundreds of Soviet and Chinese-made tanks

1244

01:07:43,233 --> 01:07:48,400 and other armored vehicles, attacked on three fronts:

1245

01:07:48,400 --> 01:07:52,166 across the demilitarized zone,

1246

01:07:52,166 --> 01:07:56,600 in the Central Highlands

1247

01:07:56,600 --> 01:08:01,233 and west of Saigon.

1248

01:08:01,233 --> 01:08:06,366 Americans would call it "The Easter Offensive."

1249

01:08:06,366 --> 01:08:09,266 To the South Vietnamese,

1250

01:08:09,266 --> 01:08:12,933 it would be remembered as "The Summer of Flames."

1251

01:08:12,933 --> 01:08:16,100 REPORTER: The South Vietnamese Army knew this day was coming:

1252

01:08:16,100 --> 01:08:17,466 the day without Americans.

1253

01:08:17,466 --> 01:08:18,899 It was to be the big test,

1254

01:08:18,899 --> 01:08:20,233 both for them

1255

01:08:20,233 --> 01:08:23,266 and for President Nixon's Vietnamization program.

1256

01:08:23,266 --> 01:08:26,300 The results in so far are not encouraging.

1257

01:08:26,300 --> 01:08:29,366 Whole battalions of the government's third division

1258

01:08:29,366 --> 01:08:31,766 joined the refugees on the road south.

1259

01:08:31,766 --> 01:08:35,700 They had been outnumbered, overpowered, overwhelmed.

1260

01:08:35,700 --> 01:08:38,000 NARRATOR: An entire ARVN regiment

1261

01:08:38,000 --> 01:08:40,300 surrendered at Camp Carroll.

1262

01:08:40,300 --> 01:08:42,100 North Vietnamese troops

1263

01:08:42,100 --> 01:08:45,033 then swiftly overran Quang Tri Province,

1264

01:08:45,033 --> 01:08:50,100 driving tens of thousands of terrified refugees southward.[33]

1265

01:08:50,100 --> 01:08:53,666 They nearly cut South Vietnam in half

1266

01:08:53,666 --> 01:08:56,500 through the Central Highlands

1267

01:08:56,500 --> 01:09:00,866 and drove toward Saigon, hoping to seize large areas

1268

01:09:00,866 --> 01:09:03,899 along the Cambodian border.

1269

01:09:03,899 --> 01:09:06,800 It looked as if it were going to be

1270

01:09:06,800 --> 01:09:09,566 a total defeat for the ARVN.

1271

01:09:09,566 --> 01:09:13,600 There were only 60,000 U.S. military personnel

1272

01:09:13,600 --> 01:09:15,666 left in South Vietnam,

1273

01:09:15,666 --> 01:09:18,666 and very few of them were combat troops.

1274

01:09:21,233 --> 01:09:24,433 Suddenly, the survival of everything Nixon and Kissinger

1275

01:09:24,433 --> 01:09:26,833 had worked for was in peril.

1276

01:09:26,833 --> 01:09:31,166 They had to do something-- and fast.

HENRY KISSINGER: And I think we shouldn't panic now. In a way it was a godsend. We should give them a tremendous punishment.

NIXON: Let's don't talk about if the ARVN collapses. We's playing a much bigger game. We're playing a Russian game, a Chinese game, an election game. And we're not gonna have the ARVN collapse.[34]

1277

01:09:53,300 --> 01:09:56,833 NARRATOR: Nixon ordered up Operation Linebacker--

1278

01:09:56,833 --> 01:09:59,433 massive air attacks

1279

01:09:59,433 --> 01:10:00,833 on the advancing North Vietnamese.

1280

01:10:02,633 --> 01:10:04,833 "The bastards have never been bombed

1281

01:10:04,833 --> 01:10:07,766 "like they're going to be this time," he said.[35]

1282

01:10:11,466 --> 01:10:14,766 The most crucial battle of the Easter Offensive

1283

01:10:14,766 --> 01:10:16,600 was fought at An Loc,

1284

01:10:16,600 --> 01:10:19,266 a city that commanded Route 13,

1285

01:10:19,266 --> 01:10:22,600 a paved highway that led directly to Saigon,

1286

01:10:22,600 --> 01:10:24,900 just 60 miles away.

1287

01:10:27,866 --> 01:10:30,300 North Vietnamese artillery fire

1288

01:10:30,300 --> 01:10:32,333 and a massive infantry and armor attack

1289

01:10:32,333 --> 01:10:34,533 drove the city's ARVN defenders

1290

01:10:34,533 --> 01:10:38,933 into an area less than a mile square.

1291

01:10:38,933 --> 01:10:44,300 Repeated efforts to reinforce and resupply them failed.

1292

01:10:44,300 --> 01:10:47,700 The ARVN bravely held out.

MINUTES 70-80

1293

01:10:47,700 --> 01:10:50,233 JAMES WILLBANKS: ARMY ADVISOR The number one thing we did

1294

01:10:50,233 --> 01:10:52,933 was coordinate the air strikes.

1295

01:10:52,933 --> 01:10:55,400 General Hollingsworth went to General Abrams

1296

01:10:55,400 --> 01:10:57,600 and begged for all the B-52s he could get,

1297

01:10:57,600 --> 01:10:59,566 and on the 10th and 11th of May,

1298

01:10:59,566 --> 01:11:05,333 he planned a B-52 strike every 50 minutes for 24 hours.

1299

01:11:16,000 --> 01:11:17,333 NARRATOR: In the end,

1300

01:11:17,333 --> 01:11:21,733 American airpower made the difference.

1301

01:11:27,266 --> 01:11:30,033 The North Vietnamese and their armored columns,

1302

01:11:30,033 --> 01:11:31,600 massed in the open,

1303

01:11:31,600 --> 01:11:35,533 proved easy targets for American pilots.

1304

01:11:35,533 --> 01:11:39,600 "This," one American advisor said,

1305

01:11:39,600 --> 01:11:43,566 "was the kind of war we came to fight."

1306

01:11:54,166 --> 01:11:57,133 PHAM LUC: NORTH VIETNAMESE ARMY The Vietnam War was a meat grinder. Most young men were given just three months of training. They weren'y even taught to handle a gun properly. And they were sent to the front. They knew nothing of war, and still they were sacrificed. They hadn't thought about love yet, or anything else. They just grew up, and were sent into battle.

1307

01:12:35,566 --> 01:12:37,400 (explosion)

1308

01:12:37,400 --> 01:12:40,766 NARRATOR: The North Vietnamese suffered 10,000 casualties

1309

01:12:40,766 --> 01:12:42,600 at An Loc alone

1310

01:12:42,600 --> 01:12:46,833 and lost most of their tanks and heavy artillery.

1311

01:12:46,833 --> 01:12:48,333 (explosions continue)

1312

01:12:50,133 --> 01:12:52,666 WILLBANKS: The bottom line was that all the air power

1313

01:12:52,666 --> 01:12:54,300 in the world would not make a difference

1314

01:12:54,300 --> 01:12:55,733 if the ARVN hadn't stood and fought. 1315

01:12:55,733 --> 01:12:57,266 (people shouting)

1316

01:12:57,266 --> 01:13:00,800 They had held Kon Tum, they had held An Loc,

1317

01:13:00,800 --> 01:13:02,566 they had re-taken Quang Tri.

1318

01:13:02,566 --> 01:13:04,733 They had taken the best that the North Vietnamese

1319

01:13:04,733 --> 01:13:06,466 had to throw at them.

1320

01:13:06,466 --> 01:13:09,800 So I thought if we continue to maintain that support,

1321

01:13:09,800 --> 01:13:11,100 perhaps they had a chance.

1322

01:13:11,100 --> 01:13:15,133 DUONG VAN MAI ELLIOTT: The Easter Offensive, to me,

1323

01:13:15,133 --> 01:13:18,466 showed that the South Vietnamese could fight,

1324

01:13:18,466 --> 01:13:21,533 but only up to a certain point.

1325

01:13:21,533 --> 01:13:24,300 So, my question would be,

1326

01:13:24,300 --> 01:13:26,366 what would happen when the Americans left

1327

01:13:26,366 --> 01:13:29,033 with their B-52s, you know?

1328

01:13:29,033 --> 01:13:30,633 (protestors chanting)

1329

01:13:30,633 --> 01:13:33,800 NARRATOR: Americans may have approved of the renewed use

1330

01:13:33,800 --> 01:13:37,166 of American air power to stop the communist advance

1331

01:13:37,166 --> 01:13:38,633 into the South,

1332

01:13:38,633 --> 01:13:43,233 but Nixon had also ordered American planes to resume

1333

01:13:43,233 --> 01:13:46,566 sustained bombing of North Vietnam,

1334

01:13:46,566 --> 01:13:50,233 which had been halted since the Johnson administration.

1335

01:13:50,233 --> 01:13:54,066 Some saw the new bombing, which vastly exceeded

1336

01:13:54,066 --> 01:13:56,166 all previous campaigns,

1337

01:13:56,166 --> 01:14:01,066 as evidence that a war Nixon had promised was winding down

1338

01:14:01,066 --> 01:14:03,933 was once again being escalated.[36]

1339

01:14:03,933 --> 01:14:07,366 (plane soaring)

1340

01:14:07,366 --> 01:14:08,900 LESLIE GELB: The bombing campaign

1341

01:14:08,900 --> 01:14:10,466 was much more extensive

1342

01:14:10,466 --> 01:14:15,033 than the bombing campaign under Lyndon Johnson.

1343

01:14:15,033 --> 01:14:16,200 And from a standpoint

1344

01:14:16,200 --> 01:14:18,833 of pressuring them to make concessions

1345

01:14:18,833 --> 01:14:20,766 at the negotiating table,

1346

01:14:20,766 --> 01:14:23,233 historically, that's how you did it.

1347

01:14:23,233 --> 01:14:25,566 Only it didn't work with these guys.

1348

01:14:25,566 --> 01:14:27,566 (bombs exploding)

1349

01:14:27,566 --> 01:14:29,233 They took the pounding.

1350

01:14:31,300 --> 01:14:33,100 (men yelling in Vietnamese)

1351

01:14:36,366 --> 01:14:40,066 NARRATOR: Le Minh Khue, who had served four years

1352

01:14:40,066 --> 01:14:43,466 as a Youth Volunteer on the Ho Chi Minh trail,

1353

01:14:43,466 --> 01:14:46,100 was now back home in North Vietnam.

1354

01:14:47,400 --> 01:14:50,600 LE MINH KHUE: NORTH VIETNAM The American bombings were horrific for me. Later on I visited America, and people pointed out a man who had been a pilot, and bombed Vietnam. I stared at him and thought, "He looks like such a normal person. So how, back then, could he have dropped bombs on so many people?"[37]

1355

01:15:28,300 --> 01:15:31,300 NARRATOR: Among the thousands of South Vietnamese

1356

01:15:31,300 --> 01:15:34,100 who lost their lives in the Easter Offensive

1357

01:15:34,100 --> 01:15:37,366 was the brother of Phan Quang Tue.

What is the picture of a bombed out Cathedral at 1:15 in North Vietnam or in Tay Ninh, South Vietnam?

1358

01:15:37,366 --> 01:15:40,000 PHAN QUANG TUE: I had a brother, Tuan.

1359

01:15:40,000 --> 01:15:44,133 And we were raised together.

1360

01:15:44,133 --> 01:15:47,933 He would have been now 67.

1361

01:15:47,933 --> 01:15:50,766 When his plane was shot down

1362

01:15:50,766 --> 01:15:54,866 and later on they weren't able to recover him,

1363

01:15:54,866 --> 01:15:57,533 his body, so he disappeared,

1364

01:15:57,533 --> 01:16:02,100 he was missing in action, he was 26 years old.

1365

01:16:02,100 --> 01:16:05,566 He has his full life ahead of him.

1366

01:16:05,566 --> 01:16:08,566 (voice breaking): Tuan never had a chance to live his life.

1367

01:16:10,666 --> 01:16:14,400 And I can never overcome the feeling,

1368

01:16:14,400 --> 01:16:18,600 as to himself

1369

01:16:18,600 --> 01:16:20,933 and his generation,

1370

01:16:20,933 --> 01:16:24,166 sacrifice their lives for what?

1371

01:16:26,033 --> 01:16:30,500 And the frustrating thing is that even Vietnamese themself

1372

01:16:30,500 --> 01:16:32,433 do not seem to value that loss.

1373

01:16:38,766 --> 01:16:41,800 NIXON: There's only one way to stop the killing.

1374

01:16:41,800 --> 01:16:45,533 That is to keep the weapons of war out of the hands

1375

01:16:45,533 --> 01:16:51,366 of the international outlaws of North Vietnam.

1376

01:16:51,366 --> 01:16:52,733 Throughout the war in Vietnam,

1377

01:16:52,733 --> 01:16:55,500 the United States has exercised a degree of restraint

1378

01:16:55,500 --> 01:16:57,733 unprecedented in the annals of war...

1379

01:16:57,733 --> 01:16:59,333 (planes flying overhead)

1380

01:16:59,333 --> 01:17:02,300 NARRATOR: Le Duan's Easter Offensive, like Tet,

1381

01:17:02,300 --> 01:17:04,633 had been a great gamble.

1382

01:17:04,633 --> 01:17:07,500 So was Nixon's next move.

1383

01:17:07,500 --> 01:17:10,633 The massive North Vietnamese assault had failed,

1384

01:17:10,633 --> 01:17:12,133 the President said,

1385

01:17:12,133 --> 01:17:15,266 but it could never have been mounted in the first place

1386

01:17:15,266 --> 01:17:17,866 without weapons and supplies provided by China

1387

01:17:17,866 --> 01:17:20,533 and the Soviet Union.

1388

01:17:20,533 --> 01:17:24,800 Accordingly, he ordered 11,000 mines laid

1389

01:17:24,800 --> 01:17:28,366 in North Vietnamese waters to block further access

1390

01:17:28,366 --> 01:17:30,133 to Haiphong harbor.

1391

01:17:30,133 --> 01:17:33,966 It was something the Joint Chiefs had been asking for

1392

01:17:33,966 --> 01:17:35,900 for years.

1393

01:17:35,900 --> 01:17:38,133 The scheduled summit with the Soviets

1394

01:17:38,133 --> 01:17:39,966 was just two weeks away,

1395

01:17:39,966 --> 01:17:42,200 and some advisors had urged the President

1396

01:17:42,200 --> 01:17:45,233 not to take any action that directly threatened

1397

01:17:45,233 --> 01:17:49,100 Soviet ships, for fear they would cancel it.

1398

01:17:49,100 --> 01:17:51,800 Nixon thought he had to take the risk.

1399

01:17:51,800 --> 01:17:55,900 And so he spoke directly to Moscow.

1400

01:17:55,900 --> 01:17:59,433 NIXON: Let us not slide back toward the dark shadows

1401

01:17:59,433 --> 01:18:02,433 of a previous age.

1402

01:18:02,433 --> 01:18:07,200 We do not ask you to sacrifice your principles

1403

01:18:07,200 --> 01:18:09,300 or your friends,

1404

01:18:09,300 --> 01:18:12,766 but neither should you permit Hanoi's intransigence

1405

01:18:12,766 --> 01:18:15,466 to blot out the prospects we together

1406

01:18:15,466 --> 01:18:16,833 have so patiently prepared.

1407

01:18:19,666 --> 01:18:22,500 NARRATOR: Nixon's gamble paid off.

1408

01:18:22,500 --> 01:18:24,166 The Soviets and the Chinese denounced

1409

01:18:24,166 --> 01:18:29,766 the President's action, but then did nothing.

1410

01:18:29,766 --> 01:18:34,933 On May 26, the United States and the Soviet Union signed

1411

01:18:34,933 --> 01:18:38,966 an historic Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty,

1412

01:18:38,966 --> 01:18:42,200 the first agreement to limit nuclear armaments

1413

01:18:42,200 --> 01:18:44,666 since the Cold War began.

1414

01:18:44,666 --> 01:18:47,866 For the Soviet Union, for China,

1415

01:18:47,866 --> 01:18:50,333 as well as for the United States,

1416

01:18:50,333 --> 01:18:54,766 Vietnam's significance was steadily receding. RICHARD NIXON: Let's be perfectly cold-blooded about it. Because I look at the tide of history out there, South Vietnam probably can never even survive anyway. We also have to realize, Henry, that winning an election is terribly important. It's terribly important this year. HENRY KISSINGER: If a year or two years from now North Vietnam gobbles up South Vietnam we can have a viable foreign policy if it looks as if it's the result of South Vietnamese incompetence. So we've got to find some formula that holds the thing together a year or two, after which -- after a year, Mr. President, Vietnam will be a backwater. If we settle it, say, this October, by January '74 no one will give a damn.

1417

01:19:31,533 --> 01:19:33,300 NIXON: I know.

1418

01:19:57,166 --> 01:19:59,100 (camera shutter clicks)

MINUTES 80-90

1419

01:20:01,300 --> 01:20:05,966 NARRATOR: On the morning of June 8, 1972,

1420

01:20:05,966 --> 01:20:10,466 Nick Ut, a 21-year-old South Vietnamese photographer

1421

01:20:10,466 --> 01:20:12,800 working for the Associated Press,

1422

01:20:12,800 --> 01:20:16,333 was accompanying ARVN troops on Highway One,

1423

01:20:16,333 --> 01:20:18,900 moving toward a village called Trang Bang,

1424

01:20:18,900 --> 01:20:21,766 to dislodge North Vietnamese forces

1425

01:20:21,766 --> 01:20:25,666 that had occupied it during the Easter Offensive.

1426

01:20:25,666 --> 01:20:29,000 Ut was beginning to put his cameras away,

1427

01:20:29,000 --> 01:20:31,033 ready to return to Saigon,

1428

01:20:31,033 --> 01:20:35,866 when he saw a South Vietnamese fighter suddenly dip down

1429

01:20:35,866 --> 01:20:38,000 toward the fleeing refugees,

1430

01:20:38,000 --> 01:20:40,933 whom the pilot mistook for the enemy.

1431

01:20:40,933 --> 01:20:45,266 (explosions)

1432

01:20:45,266 --> 01:20:50,066 (camera shutter clicking)

1433

01:20:54,233 --> 01:20:57,466 NICK UT: PHOTOGRAPHER (speaking English): Napalm, they're very slow. They go like this before they come down. And bomb, napalm explosion, you know? I took a lot of pictures of the bomb. I said, "Oh, my God, it's a good picture." I see smoke and people running. I said. "Oh, my God, people still there." In the black smoke, I saw the girl put here arms like this. I said, "Oh, my God, what happened? The girl, she's naked." I don't know what happened to her. I took a lot of pictures of the girl when she was naked, running.

1434

01:21:31,766 --> 01:21:33,300 She said, "Too hot, too hot." (speaking Vietnamese) Nong qua, Nong qua. "Please help me. Please help me. Please Help me." She said that. Her back, her skin kept coming off. All her skin keep coming off." I know she be die. I have water. Me and BBC London. We brought her water, help her. I borrow one of the rain coats of a south Vietnamese soldier. I cover her body. Then her uncle, he running, he looked for me, he said, "Can anyone help pull my, all children to the hospital?"

1435

01:22:04,366 --> 01:22:09,533 NARRATOR: Ut drove the badly burned girl, Kim Phuc,

1436

01:22:09,533 --> 01:22:11,866 and several other injured children

1437

01:22:11,866 --> 01:22:14,200 to a hospital in Saigon.

1438

01:22:14,200 --> 01:22:18,666 She had been burned over 30% of her body.

1439

01:22:18,666 --> 01:22:22,000 Then, Ut raced to the AP darkroom

1440

01:22:22,000 --> 01:22:25,400 to find out what he had caught on film. NICK UT: I kept thinking, "Oh, my God, I know I have a good picture." I worry. I want to see my film, you know? I want to look my picture, first. I saw the picture, I said, "I have!" I know I have a good picture.

1441

01:22:42,666 --> 01:22:45,633 NARRATOR: His photo editor in Saigon told him

1442

01:22:45,633 --> 01:22:48,700 they could not send the picture out on the wire,

1443

01:22:48,700 --> 01:22:51,166 because the girl was naked.

1444

01:22:51,166 --> 01:22:53,633 But then Ut's boss,

1445

01:22:53,633 --> 01:22:57,400 the legendary combat photographer Horst Faas,

1446

01:22:57,400 --> 01:22:59,333 saw the pictures.

1447

01:22:59,800 --> 01:23:01,533 UT: He looked at all the pictures. "I want to send picture right away." He yelled at an editor, "I want write caption picture right away." Just send directly to AP New York headquarters.

1448

01:23:11,333 --> 01:23:15,366 NARRATOR: Nick Ut's photograph appeared

1449

01:23:15,366 --> 01:23:18,266 on front pages around the world

1450

01:23:18,266 --> 01:23:22,300 and won the Pulitzer Prize.

1451

01:23:22,300 --> 01:23:25,300 For many Americans,

1452

01:23:25,300 --> 01:23:28,700 even many of those who had supported the war,

1453

01:23:28,700 --> 01:23:33,300 the image seemed to signal that enough was enough.

1454

01:23:36,900 --> 01:23:39,366 Kim Phuc would survive.

1455

01:23:39,366 --> 01:23:44,733 She eventually left Vietnam and settled outside Toronto.[38]

1456

01:23:50,233 --> 01:23:54,466 (cheers and applause) July, 1972 Democratic National Convention, Miami

1457

01:23:54,466 --> 01:23:56,533 (rhythmic clapping)

1458

01:24:00,133 --> 01:24:04,300 I introduce Valerie Kushner of Virginia

1459

01:24:04,300 --> 01:24:07,066 to second the nomination of George McGovern.

1460

01:24:07,066 --> 01:24:09,366 (applause and cheering)

1461

01:24:09,366 --> 01:24:13,066 VALERIE KUSHNER: Mr. Chairman, Democrats,

1462

01:24:13,066 --> 01:24:17,633 my participation in this convention is a tribute

1463

01:24:17,633 --> 01:24:20,933 to the reforms instituted by the Democratic Party,

1464

01:24:20,933 --> 01:24:24,966 for I am a woman, and I am under 30.

1465

01:24:24,966 --> 01:24:28,700 But I also represent an even smaller minority:

1466

01:24:28,700 --> 01:24:31,533 the wives of Americans who are missing

1467

01:24:31,533 --> 01:24:34,066 or imprisoned in Southeast Asia.

1468

01:24:34,066 --> 01:24:37,700 (cheers and applause)

1469

01:24:37,700 --> 01:24:40,466 NARRATOR: Valerie Kushner,

1470

01:24:40,466 --> 01:24:43,966 hoping to get her husband, Hal, home as soon as possible,

1471

01:24:43,966 --> 01:24:47,000 had become an ardent supporter of the candidacy

1472

01:24:47,000 --> 01:24:50,700 of Senator George McGovern of South Dakota.

1473

01:24:50,700 --> 01:24:54,800 A decorated bomber pilot in World War II,

1474

01:24:54,800 --> 01:24:57,600 McGovern had called for an early end

1475

01:24:57,600 --> 01:24:59,000 to the bombing of the North,

1476

01:24:59,000 --> 01:25:02,266 a halt to Congressional funding for the war,

1477

01:25:02,266 --> 01:25:04,266 and immediate withdrawal

1478

01:25:04,266 --> 01:25:08,933 from Vietnam once the POWs were released.

1479

01:25:08,933 --> 01:25:12,433 VALERIE KUSHNER: I knew that he would bring my husband home.

1480

01:25:12,433 --> 01:25:15,066 (applause)

1481

01:25:16,600 --> 01:25:21,366 But even more important, he will bring America home.

1482

01:25:21,366 --> 01:25:24,433 (applause and cheering)

1483

01:25:24,433 --> 01:25:27,633 And it is for that reason

1484

01:25:27,633 --> 01:25:30,000 that I am proud to second the nomination

1485

01:25:30,000 --> 01:25:34,833 of our next President, Senator George S. McGovern.

1486

01:25:34,833 --> 01:25:37,766 (applause and cheering)

1487

01:25:40,300 --> 01:25:42,566 NARRATOR: By the time her candidate

1488

01:25:42,566 --> 01:25:45,066 finally accepted the nomination,

1489

01:25:45,066 --> 01:25:47,800 it was 2:48 in the morning.

1490

01:25:47,800 --> 01:25:50,833 Most Americans were asleep.

1491

01:25:50,833 --> 01:25:55,700 McGOVERN: During four administrations of both parties,

1492

01:25:55,700 --> 01:26:00,866 a terrible war has been charted behind closed doors.

1493

01:26:00,866 --> 01:26:03,000 (cheers and applause)

1494

01:26:03,000 --> 01:26:05,466 I want those doors opened,

1495

01:26:05,466 --> 01:26:08,566 and I want that war closed.

1496

01:26:08,566 --> 01:26:11,333 (raucous cheers and applause)

1497

01:26:11,333 --> 01:26:12,900 (static)

1498

01:26:12,900 --> 01:26:16,700 NARRATOR: McGovern's campaign quickly collapsed.

1499

01:26:16,700 --> 01:26:20,000 He botched the selection of his running mate,

1500

01:26:20,000 --> 01:26:23,366 and secretly asked an aide in Paris

1501

01:26:23,366 --> 01:26:26,800 to talk with the North Vietnamese about POWs,

1502

01:26:26,800 --> 01:26:32,000 and then denied he'd meddled in the peace process.

1503

01:26:32,000 --> 01:26:34,100 Organized labor,

1504

01:26:34,100 --> 01:26:37,266 traditionally the Democrats' most reliable ally,

1505

01:26:37,266 --> 01:26:40,200 refused to endorse the party's candidate

1506

01:26:40,200 --> 01:26:43,766 for the first time in 20 years.

1507

01:26:43,766 --> 01:26:49,600 McGovern's poll numbers eroded steadily over the summer.

1508

01:26:49,600 --> 01:26:52,633 Still, hoping to find material

1509

01:26:52,633 --> 01:26:55,566 that might be used to smear the opposition,

1510

01:26:55,566 --> 01:26:59,300 Nixon's aides[39] had already authorized the Plumbers

1511

01:26:59,300 --> 01:27:01,666 to make another break-in,

1512

01:27:01,666 --> 01:27:05,400 this time at Democratic National Headquarters

1513

01:27:05,400 --> 01:27:08,333 in the Washington, D.C., apartment complex

1514

01:27:08,333 --> 01:27:11,366 called the Watergate.

1515

01:27:11,366 --> 01:27:13,466 They had been caught.

1516

01:27:13,466 --> 01:27:16,200 JOHN CHANCELLOR: One of the most fascinating and exotic stories

1517

01:27:16,200 --> 01:27:18,000 ever to come out of Washington, D.C.,

1518

01:27:18,000 --> 01:27:20,033 is the talk of the Capitol today.

1519

01:27:20,033 --> 01:27:22,100 Five men were arrested early Saturday

1520

01:27:22,100 --> 01:27:25,000 while trying to install eavesdropping equipment

1521

01:27:25,000 --> 01:27:27,266 at the Democratic National Committee.

1522

01:27:27,266 --> 01:27:29,566 And it turns out that one of them has an office

1523

01:27:29,566 --> 01:27:31,933 in the headquarters of the Committee

1524

01:27:31,933 --> 01:27:33,766 for the Re-Election of the President.

1525

01:27:33,766 --> 01:27:37,066 (camera shutter clicking)

1526

01:27:41,866 --> 01:27:44,066 ("Barbarella" by Bob Crewe and Charles Fox playing)

1527

01:27:44,066 --> 01:27:49,700 ♪ It's a wonder, wonder woman ♪

1528

01:27:49,700 --> 01:27:55,300 ♪ You're so wild and wonderful ♪

1529

01:27:55,300 --> 01:28:00,366 ♪ 'Cause it seems whenever

1530

01:28:00,366 --> 01:28:02,933 ♪ We're together

1531

01:28:02,933 --> 01:28:04,700 ♪ The planets all...

1532

01:28:04,700 --> 01:28:08,266 JOHN MUSGRAVE: Barbarella-- Jane Fonda was...

1533

01:28:08,266 --> 01:28:12,433 was one of our major fantasies.

1534

01:28:12,433 --> 01:28:16,666 You know? I mean, major fantasies.

1535

01:28:16,666 --> 01:28:20,000 And, uh, we couldn't believe it

1536

01:28:20,000 --> 01:28:24,433 when that fantasy went to North Vietnam.

1537

01:28:24,433 --> 01:28:27,166 She was held to a different standard of conduct

1538

01:28:27,166 --> 01:28:31,133 by being our fantasy, you know, our dream girl.

1539

01:28:31,133 --> 01:28:34,766 It's like our dream girl betrayed us.

1540

01:28:34,766 --> 01:28:36,066 ("Where Have All the Flowers Gone" by Joan Baez playing)

1541

01:28:36,066 --> 01:28:38,233 ♪ Where have all the young men gone? ♪

1542

01:28:38,233 --> 01:28:42,533 ♪ They are all in uniform

1543

01:28:42,533 --> 01:28:48,166 ♪ When will they ever learn?

1544

01:28:48,166 --> 01:28:53,100 ♪ When will they ever learn? ♪

1545

01:28:53,100 --> 01:28:55,000 ♪ Where have all...

1546

01:28:55,000 --> 01:28:57,600 NARRATOR: Over the years, a steady stream

1547

01:28:57,600 --> 01:29:01,266 of Americans opposed to the war would visit Hanoi,

1548

01:29:01,266 --> 01:29:04,600 including the folk singer Joan Baez,

1549

01:29:04,600 --> 01:29:08,266 David Dellinger of the War Resisters League,

1550

01:29:08,266 --> 01:29:11,566 the writer Susan Sontag,

1551

01:29:11,566 --> 01:29:16,033 and Tom Hayden of the Indochina Peace Campaign.

1552

01:29:16,033 --> 01:29:19,266 But no visitor made more headlines

1553

01:29:19,266 --> 01:29:21,733 than the actress Jane Fonda.

1554

01:29:21,733 --> 01:29:25,166 During two weeks in the summer of 1972,

1555

01:29:25,166 --> 01:29:29,566 she broadcast at least ten times over Radio Hanoi,

1556

01:29:29,566 --> 01:29:32,033 denouncing American POWs

1557

01:29:32,033 --> 01:29:34,500 for having committed war crimes,

1558

01:29:34,500 --> 01:29:37,100 urging the North Vietnamese to hold out

1559

01:29:37,100 --> 01:29:40,566 against American imperialism.

1560

01:29:40,566 --> 01:29:43,966 Many Americans would never forgive her

1561

01:29:43,966 --> 01:29:47,333 for what she did and said.

1562

01:29:47,333 --> 01:29:49,866 FONDA: According to international law,

1563

01:29:49,866 --> 01:29:52,366 these men are war criminals.

1564

01:29:52,366 --> 01:29:53,966 That's according to law,

1565

01:29:53,966 --> 01:29:55,300 according to the Nuremberg principles,

1566

01:29:55,300 --> 01:29:57,800 according to the Geneva Accord, and others.

1567

01:29:57,800 --> 01:30:00,800 They should be tried in front of a court

1568

01:30:00,800 --> 01:30:03,333 and probably executed for what they did.

MINUTES 90-100

1569

01:30:03,333 --> 01:30:07,000 MUSGRAVE: She's taken a lot of heat for what she did.

1570

01:30:07,000 --> 01:30:09,666 And deservedly so.

1571

01:30:09,666 --> 01:30:13,266 She did some things that were terrible.

1572

01:30:13,266 --> 01:30:15,933 And-and, yes,

1573

01:30:15,933 --> 01:30:18,533 we have a right to be pissed off at her.

1574

01:30:18,533 --> 01:30:21,533 But, you know,

1575

01:30:21,533 --> 01:30:24,366 she wasn't the only one.

1576

01:30:24,366 --> 01:30:28,933 She's just the only one we fantasized about.

1577

01:30:29,966 --> 01:30:34,400 (cheers and applause) August 1972 Republican National Convention Miami

1578

01:30:39,166 --> 01:30:41,333 CROWD: Four more years!

1579

01:30:41,333 --> 01:30:44,266 Four more years! Four more years!

1580

01:30:44,266 --> 01:30:46,766 NIXON: We have brought over half a million men home,

1581

01:30:46,766 --> 01:30:48,766 and more will be coming home.

1582

01:30:48,766 --> 01:30:51,900 We have ended America's ground combat role.

1583

01:30:51,900 --> 01:30:54,500 No draftees are being sent to Vietnam.

1584

01:30:54,500 --> 01:30:57,500 We have reduced our casualties by 98%.

1585

01:30:57,500 --> 01:30:59,433 We've gone the extra mile.

1586

01:30:59,433 --> 01:31:02,300 In fact, we've gone tens of thousands of miles

1587

01:31:02,300 --> 01:31:04,800 trying to seek a negotiated settlement of the war.

1588

01:31:04,800 --> 01:31:06,566 (applause)

1589

01:31:06,566 --> 01:31:09,366 There are three things, however, that we have not

1590

01:31:09,366 --> 01:31:11,500 and that we will not offer.

1591

01:31:11,500 --> 01:31:14,700 We will never abandon our prisoners of war.

1592

01:31:14,700 --> 01:31:16,100 (cheers and applause)

1593

01:31:21,966 --> 01:31:23,700 And, second,

1594

01:31:23,700 --> 01:31:27,366 we will not join our enemies

1595

01:31:27,366 --> 01:31:30,966 in imposing a communist government on our ally,

1596

01:31:30,966 --> 01:31:33,433 the 17 million people of South Vietnam.

1597

01:31:33,433 --> 01:31:36,133 (cheers and applause)

1598

01:31:39,466 --> 01:31:41,466 And we will never stain the honor

1599

01:31:41,466 --> 01:31:43,633 of the United States of America.

1600

01:31:43,633 --> 01:31:45,566 (cheers) HENRY KISSINGER: Everything that we ever planned for is happening. The Russians are pressing them. The Chinese are pressing them. And I actually think we can settle it. But, and I also think that Thieu is right, that our terms will eventually destroy him. NIXON: Well, if they're that collapsible, maybe they just have to be collapsed. We've got to remember, we cannot -- we cannot keep this child sucking at the tit when the child is four years old.

1601

01:32:26,600 --> 01:32:29,866 NARRATOR: Back in Paris, Henry Kissinger was determined

1602

01:32:29,866 --> 01:32:34,400 to hammer out a peace agreement before Election Day.

1603

01:32:34,400 --> 01:32:37,766 Now Le Duc Tho made a key concession.

1604

01:32:37,766 --> 01:32:40,100 Hanoi no longer insisted

1605

01:32:40,100 --> 01:32:43,666 that President Thieu had to go.

1606

01:32:43,666 --> 01:32:46,500 JOHN NEGROPONTE: STATE DEPARTMENT There was somehow this compulsion

1607

01:32:46,500 --> 01:32:50,100 to come to some kind of an agreement.

1608

01:32:50,100 --> 01:32:53,100 I remember Le Duc Tho when he produced the draft agreement

1609

01:32:53,100 --> 01:32:59,366 in October 8 of '72 to Kissinger, saying,

1610

01:32:59,366 --> 01:33:00,833 "You're in a hurry, aren't you?

1611

01:33:00,833 --> 01:33:02,833 You want to do this quickly."

1612

01:33:02,833 --> 01:33:06,500 And-and the response was, "Yes."

1613

01:33:06,500 --> 01:33:10,033 NARRATOR: The two sides soon had a tentative deal,

1614

01:33:10,033 --> 01:33:12,033 a "cease-fire in place"

1615

01:33:12,033 --> 01:33:14,566 to be followed within 60 days

1616

01:33:14,566 --> 01:33:17,566 by a complete withdrawal of U.S. troops

1617

01:33:17,566 --> 01:33:21,166 and the return of all American POWs.

1618

01:33:21,166 --> 01:33:25,433 The United States stopped bombing the North.

1619

01:33:25,433 --> 01:33:31,000 No one had told President Thieu any of the terms.

1620

01:33:32,633 --> 01:33:36,433 The day before Kissinger was to arrive in Saigon to brief him,

1621

01:33:36,433 --> 01:33:40,166 Thieu was handed a document found in an enemy bunker

1622

01:33:40,166 --> 01:33:42,333 in Quang Tin Province.

1623

01:33:42,333 --> 01:33:46,800 It was entitled "General Instructions for Cease-Fire."

1624

01:33:46,800 --> 01:33:51,566 It meant that communist cadres in an isolated province

1625

01:33:51,566 --> 01:33:55,933 of his own country already knew more about what Kissinger

1626

01:33:55,933 --> 01:34:00,966 and Le Duc Tho had agreed to in Paris than he did.

1627

01:34:00,966 --> 01:34:04,466 NEGROPONTE: And imagine being given an agreement

1628

01:34:04,466 --> 01:34:09,933 concerning the fate of your own country and, uh,

1629

01:34:09,933 --> 01:34:11,700 being told that you really don't have

1630

01:34:11,700 --> 01:34:15,366 any input in the matter.

1631

01:34:15,366 --> 01:34:18,933 And, oh, by the way, we didn't even yet have

1632

01:34:18,933 --> 01:34:20,866 the Vietnamese translation,

1633

01:34:20,866 --> 01:34:22,700 because that hadn't been completed.

1634

01:34:22,700 --> 01:34:26,266 And we gave him the English version.

1635

01:34:26,266 --> 01:34:29,666 So, I mean, as a professional diplomat,

1636

01:34:29,666 --> 01:34:32,933 somebody who's been in this business all my life, uh,

1637

01:34:32,933 --> 01:34:35,700 I've got to tell you, that just an awful lot

1638

01:34:35,700 --> 01:34:38,500 of diplomatic rules were broken there.

1639

01:34:38,500 --> 01:34:42,366 NARRATOR: Thieu refused to accept the terms.

1640

01:34:42,366 --> 01:34:45,633 Allowing North Vietnamese troops to remain in the South

1641

01:34:45,633 --> 01:34:48,800 would be the death of his country.

1642

01:34:48,800 --> 01:34:53,066 Nonetheless, after Kissinger returned home

1643

01:34:53,066 --> 01:34:55,566 12 days before the election,

1644

01:34:55,566 --> 01:34:59,833 he told the press, "Peace is at hand."

1645

01:34:59,833 --> 01:35:02,366 ("Tail Dragger" by Link Wray playing)

1646

01:35:05,466 --> 01:35:08,500 On November 7, 1972,

1647

01:35:08,500 --> 01:35:11,666 Richard Nixon won a stunning victory.

1648

01:35:11,666 --> 01:35:16,500 He was reelected with more than 60% of the popular vote--

1649

01:35:16,500 --> 01:35:22,500 521 electoral votes to McGovern's 17.

1650

01:35:22,500 --> 01:35:26,300 He took every single state except Massachusetts

1651

01:35:26,300 --> 01:35:29,000 and the District of Columbia.

1652

01:35:29,000 --> 01:35:32,200 Now, the president resolved to rid himself

1653

01:35:32,200 --> 01:35:37,866 of Vietnam completely before his second inauguration.

1654

01:35:37,866 --> 01:35:40,733 To calm Thieu's fears of what was to come,

1655

01:35:40,733 --> 01:35:43,600 Nixon launched another massive airlift

1656

01:35:43,600 --> 01:35:46,533 of military equipment to South Vietnam.

1657

01:35:46,533 --> 01:35:49,633 "If we had given this aid to the North Vietnamese,"

1658

01:35:49,633 --> 01:35:51,533 one American general said,

1659

01:35:51,533 --> 01:35:55,866 "they could have fought us for the rest of the century."

1660

01:35:55,866 --> 01:35:59,866 The Paris peace talks resumed.

1661

01:35:59,866 --> 01:36:03,300 But then, Le Duc Tho suddenly announced

1662

01:36:03,300 --> 01:36:07,566 he needed to return to Hanoi for consultation.

1663

01:36:07,566 --> 01:36:09,500 NEGROPONTE: We could only conclude that maybe they were

1664

01:36:09,500 --> 01:36:11,066 having some doubts about whether

1665

01:36:11,066 --> 01:36:13,066 they wanted to go through with the agreement,

1666

01:36:13,066 --> 01:36:15,766 because we had sent so many supplies

1667

01:36:15,766 --> 01:36:18,966 to Saigon in the intervening weeks.

1668

01:36:18,966 --> 01:36:21,666 NARRATOR: There turned out to be dissension

1669

01:36:21,666 --> 01:36:24,300 on the communist side as well.

1670

01:36:24,300 --> 01:36:27,933 Hanoi, like Washington, had not bothered to consult

1671

01:36:27,933 --> 01:36:30,166 with its southern comrades.

1672

01:36:30,166 --> 01:36:32,966 It had dropped the two demands that meant the most

1673

01:36:32,966 --> 01:36:37,033 to the Viet Cong-- the removal of Thieu, and the release

1674

01:36:37,033 --> 01:36:40,266 of some 30,000 of their prisoners.

1675

01:36:40,266 --> 01:36:43,266 "Hanoi's message was clear,"

1676

01:36:43,266 --> 01:36:45,733 one bitter Viet Cong official said.

1677

01:36:45,733 --> 01:36:49,633 "It cared more about American prisoners of war

1678

01:36:49,633 --> 01:36:52,400 than it did for us."

1679

01:36:52,400 --> 01:36:55,966 Nixon ordered Kissinger to suspend the talks,

1680

01:36:55,966 --> 01:36:59,000 and then he resumed the bombing of North Vietnam

1681

01:36:59,000 --> 01:37:01,333 to further punish Hanoi,

1682

01:37:01,333 --> 01:37:04,266 and to signal to both Hanoi and Saigon

1683

01:37:04,266 --> 01:37:07,966 that the United States might use its airpower

1684

01:37:07,966 --> 01:37:10,233 to defend South Vietnam

1685

01:37:10,233 --> 01:37:14,633 even after a peace agreement was signed.[40]

1686

01:37:16,033 --> 01:37:17,966 On December 18,

1687

01:37:17,966 --> 01:37:21,433 Nixon unleashed round-the-clock air strikes

1688

01:37:21,433 --> 01:37:24,600 that flattened targets around Hanoi and Haiphong.

1689

01:37:24,600 --> 01:37:26,433 (explosions)

1690

01:37:26,433 --> 01:37:29,766 It would be remembered as the Christmas Bombing.

1691

01:37:29,766 --> 01:37:33,200 (bombs exploding, people shouting)

1692

01:37:33,200 --> 01:37:35,066 HAL KUSHNER: And all of a sudden,

1693

01:37:35,066 --> 01:37:37,166 around Christmastime,

1694

01:37:37,166 --> 01:37:39,566 we hear an Arc Light operation,

1695

01:37:39,566 --> 01:37:42,100 B-52s-- bom-bom-bom-bom-bom.

1696

01:37:42,100 --> 01:37:44,066 And it's all around, and it is just exploding.

1697

01:37:44,066 --> 01:37:48,966 And everyone knew they were B-52s.

1698

01:37:48,966 --> 01:37:51,300 And is... in the two years that I was there,

1699

01:37:51,300 --> 01:37:54,000 that was the first time I ever heard a bomb.

1700

01:37:54,000 --> 01:37:55,533 And it was close.

1701

01:37:55,533 --> 01:37:57,900 It was really close.

1702

01:37:57,900 --> 01:38:00,133 It was frightening, but we were still cheering.

1703

01:38:00,133 --> 01:38:03,966 I mean, we were cheering because something was happening.

1704

01:38:03,966 --> 01:38:06,300 (explosions) [Same often repeated air strike is pictured]

1705

01:38:06,300 --> 01:38:08,100 HUY DUC: NORTH VIETNAM I was ten years old at that time. I witnessed all of it. My village was shattered. No trees were left. Fish in the river were killed. Water buffaloes and people died. Six of my neighbors were killed, including a woman who was pregnant.[41]

1706

01:38:37,066 --> 01:38:38,533 NARRATOR: Around the world,

1707

01:38:38,533 --> 01:38:41,800 antiwar demonstrators returned to the streets.

1708

01:38:41,800 --> 01:38:45,000 The Prime Minister of Sweden compared the United States

1709

01:38:45,000 --> 01:38:46,733 to Nazi Germany.

1710

01:38:46,733 --> 01:38:48,966 The Pope called the bombing,

1711

01:38:48,966 --> 01:38:51,766 which killed more than 1,600 civilians,[42]

1712

01:38:51,766 --> 01:38:54,900 "the object of daily grief."

1713

01:38:54,900 --> 01:38:59,300 James Reston of the New York Times pronounced the raids

1714

01:38:59,300 --> 01:39:01,266 "war by tantrum."

1715

01:39:01,266 --> 01:39:05,800 Republican Senator William Saxbe of Ohio said

1716

01:39:05,800 --> 01:39:10,500 the President had taken leave of his senses.

1717

01:39:10,500 --> 01:39:12,133 (gunfire)

1718

01:39:12,133 --> 01:39:16,200 North Vietnam shot down 15 B-52s,

1719

01:39:16,200 --> 01:39:20,600 along with 11 other aircraft.

1720

01:39:20,600 --> 01:39:24,666 93 crewmen were reported missing.

1721

01:39:24,666 --> 01:39:29,500 45 new prisoners of war were locked up in Hanoi,

1722

01:39:29,500 --> 01:39:34,200 one of whom died in captivity.

1723

01:39:34,200 --> 01:39:39,200 Meanwhile, both the Chinese and the Soviets pressed Hanoi

1724

01:39:39,200 --> 01:39:41,733 to resume negotiations.

1725

01:39:41,733 --> 01:39:45,433 "The most important thing is to let the Americans leave,"

1726

01:39:45,433 --> 01:39:48,700 Zhou Enlai told a North Vietnamese official.

1727

01:39:48,700 --> 01:39:53,400 "The situation will change in six months or a year."

1728

01:39:55,500 --> 01:39:59,666 On December 26, Hanoi signaled its willingness

1729

01:39:59,666 --> 01:40:02,000 to return to Paris.

1730

01:40:02,000 --> 01:40:06,666 It would take just six days to reach a final agreement.

1731

01:40:06,666 --> 01:40:12,966 NEGROPONTE: We bombed them into accepting our concessions.

1732

01:40:12,966 --> 01:40:17,166 We bombed them into accepting our concessions.

1733

01:40:17,166 --> 01:40:21,000 And I stand by that statement, because, in effect,

1734

01:40:21,000 --> 01:40:27,366 what we did was to carry out this massive bombing campaign

1735

01:40:27,366 --> 01:40:32,333 in order to basically get back to pretty much exactly

1736

01:40:32,333 --> 01:40:35,966 where we were at the end of October in '72.

MINUTES 100-END

1737

01:40:37,933 --> 01:40:40,900 NARRATOR: President Thieu still balked at signing on.

1738

01:40:40,900 --> 01:40:43,266 Nixon was adamant.

1739

01:40:43,266 --> 01:40:46,366 Thieu had to go along with what Washington and Hanoi

1740

01:40:46,366 --> 01:40:48,033 had worked out.

1741

01:40:48,033 --> 01:40:50,833 But without informing Congress,

1742

01:40:50,833 --> 01:40:53,833 the president assured Thieu in writing

1743

01:40:53,833 --> 01:40:57,600 that the United States would "respond with full force"

1744

01:40:57,600 --> 01:41:01,400 if the North ever violated the agreement.

1745

01:41:01,400 --> 01:41:05,033 "The Americans really leave me no choice," Thieu said.

1746

01:41:05,033 --> 01:41:09,000 "Either sign or they will cut off aid.

1747

01:41:09,000 --> 01:41:13,200 "On the other hand, we have an absolute guarantee from Nixon

1748

01:41:13,200 --> 01:41:15,500 "to defend the country.

1749

01:41:15,500 --> 01:41:20,066 "I am going to agree to sign and hold him to his word.

1750

01:41:20,066 --> 01:41:23,766 He is an honest man and I am going to trust him."

1751

01:41:31,433 --> 01:41:35,633 On January 22, 1973,

1752

01:41:35,633 --> 01:41:39,633 at his ranch in the Hill Country of Texas,

1753

01:41:39,633 --> 01:41:42,666 Lyndon Baines Johnson,

1754

01:41:42,666 --> 01:41:45,366 the President who had committed the United States

1755

01:41:45,366 --> 01:41:48,333 to a ground war in Vietnam,

1756

01:41:48,333 --> 01:41:52,733 and had seen that war undercut his domestic social programs

1757

01:41:52,733 --> 01:41:55,766 and end his political career,

1758

01:41:55,766 --> 01:41:57,933 died of congestive heart failure.

1759

01:42:03,233 --> 01:42:08,166 The following evening, Richard Nixon spoke to the nation.

1760

01:42:08,166 --> 01:42:10,866 28 years after the United States

1761

01:42:10,866 --> 01:42:13,766 first became involved in Vietnam,

1762

01:42:13,766 --> 01:42:16,733 it was finally getting out.

1763

01:42:16,733 --> 01:42:18,266 NIXON: I have asked for this radio

1764

01:42:18,266 --> 01:42:20,633 and television time tonight

1765

01:42:20,633 --> 01:42:24,200 for the purpose of announcing that we today

1766

01:42:24,200 --> 01:42:27,566 have concluded an agreement to end the war

1767

01:42:27,566 --> 01:42:31,733 and bring peace with honor in Vietnam and in Southeast Asia.

1768

01:42:31,733 --> 01:42:35,233 A cease-fire, internationally supervised,

1769

01:42:35,233 --> 01:42:39,133 will begin at 7:00 p.m. this Saturday, January 27,

1770

01:42:39,133 --> 01:42:40,933 Washington time.

1771

01:42:40,933 --> 01:42:43,033 Within 60 days from this Saturday,

1772

01:42:43,033 --> 01:42:47,366 all Americans held prisoners of war throughout Indochina

1773

01:42:47,366 --> 01:42:49,800 will be released.

1774

01:42:51,566 --> 01:42:56,433 NARRATOR: American prisoners of war, 591 of them,

1775

01:42:56,433 --> 01:42:59,733 were to be released in batches of 40.

1776

01:42:59,733 --> 01:43:02,800 Those who had been in captivity the longest

1777

01:43:02,800 --> 01:43:05,466 were to come home first.

1778

01:43:05,466 --> 01:43:09,500 JOHN CHANCELLOR: Today the largest contingents of repatriated prisoners so far,

1779

01:43:09,500 --> 01:43:11,366 60 men, were flown from Clark

1780

01:43:11,366 --> 01:43:13,333 to Travis Air Force Base, California.

1781

01:43:13,333 --> 01:43:15,300 ROGER PETERSON: Today's most dramatic moment came

1782

01:43:15,300 --> 01:43:18,000 when Everett Alvarez made his happy trek down the ramp,

1783

01:43:18,000 --> 01:43:19,200 home at last.

1784

01:43:19,200 --> 01:43:20,633 For almost as long as most Americans

1785

01:43:20,633 --> 01:43:22,200 have been aware of Vietnam,

1786

01:43:22,200 --> 01:43:26,133 Lieutenant Commander Alvarez has been a prisoner in Hanoi.

1787

01:43:26,133 --> 01:43:29,133 He was shot down August 5, 1964, during the first raids flown

1788

01:43:29,133 --> 01:43:32,200 in retaliation for the Tonkin Gulf incident.

1789

01:43:32,200 --> 01:43:34,100 And finally, today, he was home.

1790

01:43:34,100 --> 01:43:36,566 ALVAREZ: For years and years,

1791

01:43:36,566 --> 01:43:42,833 we dreamed of this day, and we kept faith.

1792

01:43:42,833 --> 01:43:47,666 Faith in God, in our President,

1793

01:43:47,666 --> 01:43:49,333 and in our country.

1794

01:43:49,333 --> 01:43:52,466 ("America the Beautiful" by Ray Charles playing)

1795

01:43:54,200 --> 01:43:58,833 NARRATOR: Hal Kushner's turn came in mid-March.

1796

01:43:58,833 --> 01:44:01,433 CHARLES: ♪ Oh, beautiful

1797

01:44:01,433 --> 01:44:05,466 ♪ For heroes proved

1798

01:44:08,033 --> 01:44:11,933 ♪ In liberating strife

1799

01:44:11,933 --> 01:44:14,566 KUSHNER: And they... then they called our name.

1800

01:44:14,566 --> 01:44:17,200 And I walked out in the sunlight.

1801

01:44:17,200 --> 01:44:20,133 And the first thing I saw was a girl in a miniskirt.

1802

01:44:20,133 --> 01:44:22,933 She was a reporter for one of the news organizations.

1803

01:44:22,933 --> 01:44:24,966 I'd never seen a real-life miniskirt.

1804

01:44:24,966 --> 01:44:30,733 CHARLES: ♪ And mercy more than life

1805

01:44:30,733 --> 01:44:33,100 KUSHNER: And there was a table with the Vietnamese

1806

01:44:33,100 --> 01:44:35,233 and American authorities on one side,

1807

01:44:35,233 --> 01:44:37,833 and there was a Brigadier General, Air Force general

1808

01:44:37,833 --> 01:44:40,233 in Class A uniform.

1809

01:44:40,233 --> 01:44:43,433 And he looked magnificent.

1810

01:44:43,433 --> 01:44:46,333 And I looked at him...

1811

01:44:46,333 --> 01:44:48,166 (voice breaking): and he had breadth,

1812

01:44:48,166 --> 01:44:52,266 he had thickness that we didn't have.

1813

01:44:52,266 --> 01:44:55,500 And his hair was... he had on a garrison cap.

1814

01:44:55,500 --> 01:44:58,633 And his hair was plump and moist,

1815

01:44:58,633 --> 01:45:01,300 and our hair was like straw, you know.

1816

01:45:01,300 --> 01:45:03,600 It was dry and we were skinny.

1817

01:45:03,600 --> 01:45:04,600 (clears throat)

1818

01:45:05,933 --> 01:45:07,733 And I went out and I saluted,

1819

01:45:07,733 --> 01:45:10,500 which was a courtesy that had been denied us

1820

01:45:10,500 --> 01:45:13,333 for so many years.

1821

01:45:13,333 --> 01:45:15,833 And he saluted me, and he...

1822

01:45:15,833 --> 01:45:17,900 I shook hands with him and he hugged me,

1823

01:45:17,900 --> 01:45:19,433 he actually hugged me,

1824

01:45:19,433 --> 01:45:23,133 and he said, "Welcome home, Major.

1825

01:45:23,133 --> 01:45:24,833 We're glad to see you, doctor."

1826

01:45:24,833 --> 01:45:27,733 And the tears were streaming down his cheeks.

1827

01:45:27,733 --> 01:45:30,933 And it was just a-a powerful moment.

1828

01:45:30,933 --> 01:45:35,566 CHARLES: ♪ For purple mountains

1829

01:45:35,566 --> 01:45:37,033 ♪ Majesty

1830

01:45:37,033 --> 01:45:39,400 KUSHNER: And then this liaison officer they called

1831

01:45:39,400 --> 01:45:42,900 that came out and got me and escorted me on this C-141.

1832

01:45:42,900 --> 01:45:46,833 It was this beautiful white airplane with a flag.

1833

01:45:46,833 --> 01:45:50,233 (sighs)

1834

01:45:50,233 --> 01:45:55,400 An American flag on the tail and USAF.

1835

01:45:55,400 --> 01:45:57,933 CHARLES: ♪ America

1836

01:45:57,933 --> 01:45:59,366 ♪ You know

1837

01:45:59,366 --> 01:46:04,033 ♪ God done shed his grace on thee ♪

1838

01:46:04,033 --> 01:46:07,700 KUSHNER: And they had these real cute flight nurses on there.

1839

01:46:07,700 --> 01:46:09,733 They were all tall and blonde and, you know,

1840

01:46:09,733 --> 01:46:11,766 they-they were just gorgeous.

1841

01:46:11,766 --> 01:46:14,200 And we got on this thing and, and she said,

1842

01:46:14,200 --> 01:46:17,300 this nurse-- we sat in these seats and she said,

1843

01:46:17,300 --> 01:46:18,966 "We have anything you want, you know.

1844

01:46:18,966 --> 01:46:20,100 "Do... what do you want?"

1845

01:46:20,100 --> 01:46:22,266 And I-I wanted a Coke with crushed ice

1846

01:46:22,266 --> 01:46:24,500 and some chewing gum.

1847

01:46:24,500 --> 01:46:27,966 CHARLES: ♪ You know, I wish had somebody to help me sing this ♪

1848

01:46:27,966 --> 01:46:32,033 ♪ America

1849

01:46:32,033 --> 01:46:34,433 ♪ America ♪ America

1850

01:46:34,433 --> 01:46:35,866 ♪ I love you, America

1851

01:46:35,866 --> 01:46:38,600 ♪ God shed ♪ You see

1852

01:46:38,600 --> 01:46:40,866 ♪ My God, he done shed ♪ His grace

1853

01:46:40,866 --> 01:46:43,400 ♪ His grace on thee ♪ On thee

1854

01:46:43,400 --> 01:46:45,700 ♪ And you ought to love him for it ♪

1855

01:46:45,700 --> 01:46:50,233 ♪ 'Cause he, he, he, he crowned thy good ♪

1856

01:46:50,233 --> 01:46:52,066 ♪ He told me he would

1857

01:46:52,066 --> 01:46:55,700 ♪ With brotherhood

1858

01:46:55,700 --> 01:46:57,966 ♪ From sea

1859

01:46:57,966 --> 01:47:00,200 ♪ To shining

1860

01:47:00,200 --> 01:47:02,800 ♪ Shining sea ♪ Sea

1861

01:47:02,800 --> 01:47:04,766 ♪ Oh, Lord

1862

01:47:04,766 --> 01:47:06,000 ♪ Oh, Lord!

1863

01:47:06,000 --> 01:47:08,400 ♪ I thank you, Lord

1864

01:47:08,400 --> 01:47:13,933 ♪ Shining sea.

1865

01:47:20,533 --> 01:47:22,466 ("The Lord Is in This Place" by Fairport Convention playing)

1866

01:47:26,133 --> 01:47:29,400 NARRATOR: Within a few days of Hal Kushner's release,

1867

01:47:29,400 --> 01:47:34,400 the last American combat troops would leave Vietnam.

1868

01:47:34,400 --> 01:47:39,233 But they would leave behind many unanswered questions.

1869

01:47:39,233 --> 01:47:44,000 How long could the South Vietnamese government survive?

1870

01:47:44,000 --> 01:47:47,300 What was the value of American promises,

1871

01:47:47,300 --> 01:47:50,233 and American sacrifice?

1872

01:47:50,233 --> 01:47:54,333 And how long would it take for the wounds of war to heal?

1873

01:48:07,500 --> 01:48:09,433 ("What's Going On?" by Marvin Gaye playing)

1874

01:48:11,066 --> 01:48:13,000 (indistinct conversations) March 29, 1973 58,126 Americans and more than 2,000,000 Vietnamese have died.

1875

01:48:17,133 --> 01:48:19,766 ♪ Mother, mother

1876

01:48:19,766 --> 01:48:23,833 ♪ There's too many of you crying ♪

1877

01:48:26,733 --> 01:48:29,033 ♪ Brother, brother, brother

1878

01:48:29,033 --> 01:48:33,033 ♪ There's far too many of you dying ♪

1879

01:48:35,000 --> 01:48:38,133 ♪ You know we've got to find a way ♪

1880

01:48:39,933 --> 01:48:42,866 ♪ To bring some loving here today ♪

1881

01:48:42,866 --> 01:48:45,800 ♪ Yeah

1882

01:48:45,800 --> 01:48:47,400 ♪ Father, father

1883

01:48:49,266 --> 01:48:51,566 ♪ We don't need to escalate

1884

01:48:54,366 --> 01:48:58,633 ♪ You see, war is not the answer ♪

1885

01:48:58,633 --> 01:49:03,433 ♪ For only love can conquer hate ♪

1886

01:49:03,433 --> 01:49:06,300 ♪ You know we've got to find a way ♪

1887

01:49:08,366 --> 01:49:11,666 ♪ To bring some loving here today ♪

1888

01:49:11,666 --> 01:49:14,166 ♪ Oh

1889

01:49:14,166 --> 01:49:16,300 ♪ Picket lines ♪ Sister

1890

01:49:16,300 --> 01:49:18,700 ♪ And picket signs ♪ Sister

1891

01:49:18,700 --> 01:49:20,466 ♪ Don't punish me ♪ Sister

1892

01:49:20,466 --> 01:49:23,766 ♪ With brutality ♪ Sister

1893

01:49:23,766 --> 01:49:25,700 ♪ Talk to me ♪ Sister

1894

01:49:25,700 --> 01:49:27,733 ♪ So you can see ♪ Sister

1895

01:49:27,733 --> 01:49:30,300 ♪ Oh, what's going on ♪ What's going on

1896

01:49:30,300 --> 01:49:32,366 ♪ What's going on ♪ What's going on

1897

01:49:32,366 --> 01:49:34,733 ♪ Yeah, what's going on ♪ What's going on

1898

01:49:34,733 --> 01:49:37,000 ♪ Ah, what's going on ♪ What's going on

1899

01:49:37,000 --> 01:49:39,866 ♪ Ah ♪ Right on

1900

01:49:39,866 --> 01:49:41,533 ♪ Whoo! Right on, brother

1901

01:49:41,533 --> 01:49:43,000 (indistinct conversations)

1902

01:49:43,000 --> 01:49:44,933 (scatting)

1903

01:49:46,400 --> 01:49:48,600 MAN: Hey, man, what's your name? Whoo!

1904

01:49:48,600 --> 01:49:50,433 ♪ Right on, baby

1905

01:49:50,433 --> 01:49:52,300 Right on. ♪ Right on

1906

01:49:52,300 --> 01:49:55,233 (scatting)

1907

01:50:08,000 --> 01:50:09,333 Whoo! ♪ Whoo

1908

01:50:09,333 --> 01:50:12,200 ♪ Right on, baby

1909

01:50:12,200 --> 01:50:14,133 (scatting)

1910

01:50:26,466 --> 01:50:27,633 Whoo!

1911

01:50:27,633 --> 01:50:29,100 -♪ Right on, baby -(man whooping)

1912

01:50:29,100 --> 01:50:30,166 ♪ Come on

1913

01:50:30,166 --> 01:50:31,566 ♪ Right on

1914

01:50:31,566 --> 01:50:33,500 (singer scatting, man whooping)

1915

01:50:36,700 --> 01:50:39,800 ♪ Whoo! Right on

1916

01:50:39,800 --> 01:50:41,133 ♪ Go slow

1917

01:50:41,133 --> 01:50:43,066 (scatting)

1918

01:50:44,300 --> 01:50:45,300 (song fading out)

1919

01:50:53,700 --> 01:50:54,900 ANNOUNCER: LEARN MORE ABOUT THE FILM

1920

01:50:54,900 --> 01:50:57,766 AND FIND ADDITIONAL RESOURCES AT PBS.ORG/VIETNAMWAR

1921

01:50:57,766 --> 01:51:01,766 AND JOIN THE CONVERSATION USING HASHTAG VIETNAMWARPBS.

1922

01:51:01,766 --> 01:51:03,233 "THE VIETNAM WAR" IS AVAILABLE

1923

01:51:03,233 --> 01:51:04,900 ON BLU-RAY AND DVD.

1924

01:51:04,900 --> 01:51:06,566 THE COMPANION BOOK, SOUNDTRACK,

1925

01:51:06,566 --> 01:51:07,966 AND ORIGINAL SCORE FROM THE FILM

1926

01:51:07,966 --> 01:51:09,100 ARE ALSO AVAILABLE.

1927

01:51:09,100 --> 01:51:11,200 TO ORDER, VISIT SHOPPBS.ORG

1928

01:51:11,200 --> 01:51:13,666 OR CALL 1-800-PLAY-PBS.

1929

01:51:13,666 --> 01:51:15,100 EPISODES OF THIS SERIES ALSO

1930

01:51:15,100 --> 01:51:16,200 AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD

1931

01:51:16,200 --> 01:51:17,300 FROM iTUNES.

1932

01:51:20,566 --> 01:51:22,700 ANNOUNCER: BANK OF AMERICA PROUDLY SUPPORTS

1933

01:51:22,700 --> 01:51:27,600 KEN BURNS' AND LYNN NOVICK'S FILM "THE VIETNAM WAR"

1934

01:51:27,600 --> 01:51:30,000 BECAUSE FOSTERING DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES

1935

01:51:30,000 --> 01:51:32,600 AND CIVIL DISCOURSE AROUND IMPORTANT ISSUES

1936

01:51:32,600 --> 01:51:34,900 FURTHERS PROGRESS, EQUALITY,

1937

01:51:34,900 --> 01:51:36,900 AND A MORE CONNECTED SOCIETY.

1938

01:51:41,366 --> 01:51:45,400 GO TO BANKOFAMERICA.COM/ BETTERCONNECTED TO LEARN MORE.

1939

01:51:48,866 --> 01:51:50,300 ANNOUNCER: MAJOR SUPPORT FOR "THE VIETNAM WAR"

1940

01:51:50,300 --> 01:51:53,800 WAS PROVIDED BY MEMBERS OF THE BETTER ANGELS SOCIETY,

1941

01:51:53,800 --> 01:51:57,766 INCLUDING JONATHAN AND JEANNIE LAVINE,

1942

01:51:57,766 --> 01:52:00,733 DIANE AND HAL BRIERLEY,

1943

01:52:00,733 --> 01:52:03,133 AMY AND DAVID ABRAMS,

1944

01:52:03,133 --> 01:52:05,633 JOHN AND CATHERINE DEBS,

1945

01:52:05,633 --> 01:52:08,533 THE FULLERTON FAMILY CHARITABLE FUND,

1946

01:52:08,533 --> 01:52:10,600 THE MONTRONE FAMILY,

1947

01:52:10,600 --> 01:52:12,933 LYNDA AND STEWART RESNICK,

1948

01:52:12,933 --> 01:52:15,700 THE PERRY AND DONNA GOLKIN FAMILY FOUNDATION,

1949

01:52:15,700 --> 01:52:16,700 THE LYNCH FOUNDATION,

1950

01:52:16,700 --> 01:52:19,566 THE ROGER AND ROSEMARY ENRICO FOUNDATION,

1951

01:52:19,566 --> 01:52:23,000 AND BY THESE ADDITIONAL FUNDERS.

1952

01:52:23,000 --> 01:52:24,900 MAJOR FUNDING WAS ALSO PROVIDED

1953

01:52:24,900 --> 01:52:26,633 BY DAVID H. KOCH...

1954

01:52:28,933 --> 01:52:31,133 THE BLAVATNIK FAMILY FOUNDATION...

1955

01:52:33,466 --> 01:52:35,900 THE PARK FOUNDATION,

1956

01:52:35,900 --> 01:52:38,066 THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES,

1957

01:52:38,066 --> 01:52:40,266 THE PEW CHARITABLE TRUSTS,

1958

01:52:40,266 --> 01:52:42,933 THE JOHN S. AND JAMES L. KNIGHT FOUNDATION,

1959

01:52:42,933 --> 01:52:45,700 THE ANDREW W. MELLON FOUNDATION,

1960

01:52:45,700 --> 01:52:48,300 THE ARTHUR VINING DAVIS FOUNDATIONS,

1961

01:52:48,300 --> 01:52:50,500 THE FORD FOUNDATION JUSTFILMS,

1962

01:52:50,500 --> 01:52:51,700 BY THE CORPORATION

1963

01:52:51,700 --> 01:52:52,933 FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING,

1964

01:52:52,933 --> 01:52:54,900 AND BY VIEWERS LIKE YOU.

1965

01:52:54,900 --> 01:52:56,033 THANK YOU.

References

  1. See Protestors vs. Veterans
  2. see Charles Wiley
  3. See Foreign Influences in Peace Movements during the Vietnam War
  4. And Soviet arms.
  5. Since the enemy was there, why tie your own hands?
  6. See Operation El Paso
  7. The North Vietnamese had far more unaccounted losses during the war, but the mourning of their families is not considered relevant in this documentary
  8. Burns decided to cherry pick tape extracts rather than interviewing principal participants
  9. Video shows operational footage that is likely to be of a much earlier date in the war.
  10. 1st Cav C/2/7. I wonder how his fellow troopers felt about it?
  11. Johnson was President when My Lai occurred. Nixon was President when Calley was tried.
  12. VVAW was a very small number of the total
  13. now turned long-haired hippie, see video at 31:45
  14. All VVAW. Vietnam veterans as a whole despise Kerry and the untrue charges he cast upon us. It was primarily the actions of those veterans that led to Kerry's failed presidential bid in 2004.
  15. See Free Fire Zones
  16. A feeling seconded by many of Gioia's fellow veterans.
  17. They had purchased the medals they threw by the bucket from an Army-Navy Store. Kerry later admitted to having kept his medals, but that is a story for another time.
  18. Ferrizzi should ask Kerry why he kept his medals on the wall.
  19. Vallely still cites his Silver Star in his bios.
  20. See Neil Sheehan
  21. See Pentagon Papers
  22. The Pentagon Papers can be cherry-picked to support almost any viewpoint you wish to espouse, unlike the FRUS which is the State Department history, assembled by trained historians, under directives that have been followed since the Presidency of Andrew Johnson.
  23. About the time he married Barbara Marx' sister, Patricia.
  24. See Neil Sheehan
  25. Kissinger was more concerned with Ellsberg's role in and knowledge of the theories behind our nuclear strategy than about the Vietnam War. That was the leak that he feared.
  26. Despite rumors to the contrary, the defoliant only worked a single season.
  27. And still is debatable
  28. Why is Tue living in California?
  29. See Negotiations
  30. What planet was HAK living on?
  31. The planning came before the Nixon visit.
  32. Had Le Duan waited til after the 1972 elections, he would have tested out the theory that Kissinger would no longer care what happened to the South Vietnamese. He didn't wait.
  33. Note they didn't stay to welcome their Communist brethern.
  34. If it was winnable in 1972 with U.S. air support, it would be winnable in 1975, but Congress barred the air option in 1973.
  35. The pictures are unrelated to Linebacker I
  36. Linebacker was in response to a North Vietnamese invasion. Who should be held at fault?
  37. I am sure the Viet Cong who eviscerated the families of village leaders and the NVA who buried people alive at Hue looked like normal people, too.
  38. She was used as Communist propaganda and defected when the opportunity presented itself.
  39. Are we talking about John Dean? see Silent Coup.
  40. There would be no need to use airpower if an agreement, once signed, was respected by the signatories.
  41. Very few casualties for the tonnage of bombs dropped indicates that most of the bombs fell on military rather than civilian targets.
  42. Again, very few casualties for the tonnage of bombs dropped indicates that most of the bombs fell on military rather than civilian targets.

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