Annotated Transcript Of Episode 8

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ANNOTATED TRANSCRIPT BURNS EPISODE 8 The History of the World (April 1969-May 1970)

Color Coding: Red = False statement; Yellow = Warning; Green = Not yet used; Blue = Interesting, warranting Attention;

Gray = I’ve got to study and verify this item; Pink = Loaded Words?

MINUTES 1-10

1

00:00:01,566 --> 00:00:03,000 ANNOUNCER: MAJOR SUPPORT FOR "THE VIETNAM WAR"

2

00:00:03,000 --> 00:00:06,500 WAS PROVIDED BY MEMBERS OF THE BETTER ANGELS SOCIETY,

3

00:00:06,500 --> 00:00:10,466 INCLUDING JONATHAN AND JEANNIE LAVINE,

4

00:00:10,466 --> 00:00:13,366 DIANE AND HAL BRIERLEY,

5

00:00:13,366 --> 00:00:15,766 AMY AND DAVID ABRAMS,

6

00:00:15,766 --> 00:00:18,266 JOHN AND CATHERINE DEBS,

7

00:00:18,266 --> 00:00:21,166 THE FULLERTON FAMILY CHARITABLE FUND,

8

00:00:21,166 --> 00:00:23,233 THE MONTRONE FAMILY,

9

00:00:23,233 --> 00:00:25,566 LYNDA AND STEWART RESNICK,

10

00:00:25,566 --> 00:00:28,333 THE PERRY AND DONNA GOLKIN FAMILY FOUNDATION,

11

00:00:28,333 --> 00:00:29,333 THE LYNCH FOUNDATION,

12

00:00:29,333 --> 00:00:32,200 THE ROGER AND ROSEMARY ENRICO FOUNDATION,

13

00:00:32,200 --> 00:00:35,633 AND BY THESE ADDITIONAL FUNDERS.

14

00:00:35,633 --> 00:00:37,533 MAJOR FUNDING WAS ALSO PROVIDED

15

00:00:37,533 --> 00:00:39,266 BY DAVID H. KOCH...

16

00:00:41,566 --> 00:00:43,766 THE BLAVATNIK FAMILY FOUNDATION...

17

00:00:46,100 --> 00:00:48,533 THE PARK FOUNDATION,

18

00:00:48,533 --> 00:00:50,700 THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES,

19

00:00:50,700 --> 00:00:52,900 THE PEW CHARITABLE TRUSTS,

20

00:00:52,900 --> 00:00:55,566 THE JOHN S. AND JAMES L. KNIGHT FOUNDATION,

21

00:00:55,566 --> 00:00:58,333 THE ANDREW W. MELLON FOUNDATION,

22

00:00:58,333 --> 00:01:01,000 THE ARTHUR VINING DAVIS FOUNDATIONS,

23

00:01:01,000 --> 00:01:03,200 THE FORD FOUNDATION JUSTFILMS,

24

00:01:03,200 --> 00:01:04,400 BY THE CORPORATION

25

00:01:04,400 --> 00:01:05,633 FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING,

26

00:01:05,633 --> 00:01:07,600 AND BY VIEWERS LIKE YOU.

27

00:01:07,600 --> 00:01:08,733 THANK YOU.

28

00:01:13,266 --> 00:01:15,400 ANNOUNCER: BANK OF AMERICA PROUDLY SUPPORTS

29

00:01:15,400 --> 00:01:20,300 KEN BURNS' AND LYNN NOVICK'S FILM "THE VIETNAM WAR"

30

00:01:20,300 --> 00:01:22,700 BECAUSE FOSTERING DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES

31

00:01:22,700 --> 00:01:25,300 AND CIVIL DISCOURSE AROUND IMPORTANT ISSUES

32

00:01:25,300 --> 00:01:27,600 FURTHERS PROGRESS, EQUALITY,

33

00:01:27,600 --> 00:01:29,600 AND A MORE CONNECTED SOCIETY.

34

00:01:34,066 --> 00:01:38,100 GO TO BANKOFAMERICA.COM/ BETTERCONNECTED TO LEARN MORE.

35

00:01:41,400 --> 00:01:43,266 ♪ MOVIE "SO PROUDLY WE HAIL":

36

00:01:46,300 --> 00:01:48,733 ...you got through! Did you pass Chee on the road?

37

00:01:48,733 --> 00:01:50,200 No. Where are the children?

38

00:01:50,200 --> 00:01:51,900 Kansas found a shelter for them.

39

00:01:51,900 --> 00:01:53,633 Get down, everybody!

40

00:01:56,633 --> 00:01:59,533 JOAN FUREY: My older sister and I one time,

41

00:01:59,533 --> 00:02:03,766 uh, we're watching the movie So Proudly We Hail on TV.

42

00:02:03,766 --> 00:02:05,233 MOVIE: Listen, we still have a few minutes!

43

00:02:05,233 --> 00:02:07,133 FUREY: That's a story about the nurses

44

00:02:07,133 --> 00:02:12,033 who were trapped on Bataan and Corregidor during World War II.

45

00:02:12,033 --> 00:02:14,133 MOVIE: (explosion)

46

00:02:14,133 --> 00:02:17,866 It was the first, probably, time in my life that...

47

00:02:17,866 --> 00:02:19,800 I, uh...

48

00:02:19,800 --> 00:02:24,100 I realized that women could do brave and courageous things.

49

00:02:24,100 --> 00:02:26,733 It wasn't just something men could do.

50

00:02:26,733 --> 00:02:29,133 (helicopter blades whirring)

51

00:02:29,133 --> 00:02:32,300 ♪

52

00:02:32,300 --> 00:02:35,266 NARRATOR: Second Lieutenant Joan Furey

53

00:02:35,266 --> 00:02:40,166 had wanted to be a nurse ever since she was a small child.

54

00:02:40,166 --> 00:02:41,933 She attended nursing school,

55

00:02:41,933 --> 00:02:45,333 and, when a high school classmate was killed during Tet,

56

00:02:45,333 --> 00:02:49,600 joined the Army to do what she could for the wounded.

57

00:02:51,033 --> 00:02:54,833 Furey was assigned to the 71st Evacuation Hospital

58

00:02:54,833 --> 00:02:58,500 at Pleiku, in the heart of the Central Highlands.

59

00:03:00,100 --> 00:03:03,833 Nothing had prepared her for what she saw and did

60

00:03:03,833 --> 00:03:06,233 over the next 12 months.

61

00:03:06,233 --> 00:03:07,766 (indistinct chatter)

62

00:03:08,900 --> 00:03:10,200 (grunts)

63

00:03:10,200 --> 00:03:12,466 Wounded men were choppered in

64

00:03:12,466 --> 00:03:15,233 at all times of the day and night.

65

00:03:15,233 --> 00:03:18,300 So were Viet Cong and NVA soldiers,

66

00:03:18,300 --> 00:03:21,366 who sometimes spat at the medical personnel

67

00:03:21,366 --> 00:03:25,200 trying to save their limbs or lives.

68

00:03:25,200 --> 00:03:28,366 (explosions)

69

00:03:28,366 --> 00:03:31,000 Whenever the hospital came under mortar fire,

70

00:03:31,000 --> 00:03:34,700 Furey stayed with the most seriously wounded men

71

00:03:34,700 --> 00:03:36,033 in the ICU.

72

00:03:36,033 --> 00:03:37,866 (distant explosions)

73

00:03:37,866 --> 00:03:39,400 FUREY: We had flak vests and helmets,

74

00:03:39,400 --> 00:03:41,200 and we crawled around on the floor.

75

00:03:41,200 --> 00:03:42,700 (explosion, clattering, men shouting)

76

00:03:42,700 --> 00:03:43,966 I mean, you really,

77

00:03:43,966 --> 00:03:45,933 you just could not leave them unattended.

78

00:03:45,933 --> 00:03:47,466 (explosion)

79

00:03:47,466 --> 00:03:50,733 We just kind of had to swallow your own fear.

80

00:03:52,266 --> 00:03:55,100 NARRATOR: A triage officer made the grim decisions

81

00:03:55,100 --> 00:03:57,266 as to who might be saved

82

00:03:57,266 --> 00:04:00,766 and those for whom there was no hope.

83

00:04:00,766 --> 00:04:03,900 FUREY: One of the things that initially was so difficult

84

00:04:03,900 --> 00:04:06,833 was what we called "expected" patients.

85

00:04:06,833 --> 00:04:09,533 And these were patients that would be brought in

86

00:04:09,533 --> 00:04:12,100 from the battlefield and it was determined

87

00:04:12,100 --> 00:04:14,800 they had no chance to survive.

88

00:04:14,800 --> 00:04:17,399 But they weren't dead yet.

89

00:04:18,533 --> 00:04:19,966 They brought in a...

90

00:04:19,966 --> 00:04:23,433 a young soldier who had a head injury,

91

00:04:23,433 --> 00:04:27,000 and they said, "He's expected."

92

00:04:27,000 --> 00:04:29,366 I kind of freaked out, uh,

93

00:04:29,366 --> 00:04:32,533 and I decided that, no, they were wrong,

94

00:04:32,533 --> 00:04:35,700 and I was gonna take care of this patient.

95

00:04:35,700 --> 00:04:38,300 I told the corpsman to get me blood.

96

00:04:38,300 --> 00:04:40,066 And he's saying, "Well, Lieutenant,

97

00:04:40,066 --> 00:04:41,866 the patient is expected."

98

00:04:41,866 --> 00:04:43,866 I said, "Get me blood."

99

00:04:43,866 --> 00:04:46,933 So, I take off the dressing, and...

100

00:04:46,933 --> 00:04:50,566 the whole back of his head had been gone.

101

00:04:50,566 --> 00:04:52,200 When that happened,

102

00:04:52,200 --> 00:04:55,533 all the blood I had been giving him came out.

103

00:04:55,533 --> 00:04:59,900 A friend of mine who came over just walked me out of there.

104

00:04:59,900 --> 00:05:03,533 And a few minutes later, you walk right back in...

105

00:05:05,500 --> 00:05:07,466 ...and you get back to doing it.

106

00:05:10,900 --> 00:05:12,800 (amplified heartbeat)

107

00:05:14,666 --> 00:05:19,433 ("Dazed and Confused" by Led Zeppelin playing)

108

00:05:31,100 --> 00:05:33,233 ♪ Been dazed and confused

109

00:05:33,233 --> 00:05:35,266 ♪ For so long, it's not true... ♪

110

00:05:35,266 --> 00:05:38,266 NARRATOR: Richard Nixon had taken office as president

111

00:05:38,266 --> 00:05:41,333 in January of 1969,

112

00:05:41,333 --> 00:05:43,666 pledged to restore law and order

113

00:05:43,666 --> 00:05:46,000 and end the war with honor.

114

00:05:46,000 --> 00:05:48,266 (gunfire) Things were calmer at home,

115

00:05:48,266 --> 00:05:51,266 but in Vietnam, peace was no closer.

116

00:05:51,266 --> 00:05:54,900 ("Dazed and Confused" continues)

117

00:05:54,900 --> 00:05:58,400 American soldiers still died pursuing guerrillas

118

00:05:58,400 --> 00:06:01,300 who appeared and disappeared like phantoms.

119

00:06:02,500 --> 00:06:05,566 Americans still died capturing hills

120

00:06:05,566 --> 00:06:08,966 only to give them up and have to take them back again.

121

00:06:08,966 --> 00:06:13,233 Men and materiel were still flowing into the south

122

00:06:13,233 --> 00:06:16,866 despite the controversial bombing of Cambodia.

123

00:06:16,866 --> 00:06:20,566 Through it all, Hanoi remained immovable.

124

00:06:20,566 --> 00:06:23,666 The communists insisted there could be no peace

125

00:06:23,666 --> 00:06:27,500 until the Saigon government was replaced

126

00:06:27,500 --> 00:06:32,000 and the United States withdrew from Vietnam.[1]

127

00:06:32,000 --> 00:06:36,033 Meanwhile, the American public was losing patience.

128

00:06:36,033 --> 00:06:37,733 ♪

129

00:06:43,100 --> 00:06:44,933 (men shouting)

130

00:06:44,933 --> 00:06:46,933 (gunfire fades)

131

00:06:46,933 --> 00:06:51,866 Privately, Nixon knew that military victory was impossible,

132

00:06:51,866 --> 00:06:53,500 that things would have to be settled

133

00:06:53,500 --> 00:06:56,800 at the bargaining table in Paris.

134

00:06:56,800 --> 00:06:58,233 He had to find a way

135

00:06:58,233 --> 00:07:00,633 to extricate Americans from Vietnam

136

00:07:00,633 --> 00:07:02,866 without seeming to surrender.

137

00:07:02,866 --> 00:07:04,833 Nixon also believed

138

00:07:04,833 --> 00:07:07,800 his reputation as an implacable anti-communist

139

00:07:07,800 --> 00:07:10,766 could work to his advantage with Hanoi.

140

00:07:10,766 --> 00:07:13,200 "We'll just slip the word to them," he said,

141

00:07:13,200 --> 00:07:17,166 "you know, 'Nixon's obsessed about communism.

142

00:07:17,166 --> 00:07:19,533 "'We can't restrain him when he's angry,

143

00:07:19,533 --> 00:07:22,533 "and he has his hand on the nuclear button,'

144

00:07:22,533 --> 00:07:25,800 "and Ho Chi Minh will be in Paris in two days

145

00:07:25,800 --> 00:07:28,800 begging for peace."

146

00:07:28,800 --> 00:07:32,966 But Ho Chi Minh was old and ailing now.

147

00:07:32,966 --> 00:07:35,133 And Le Duan and the other men

148

00:07:35,133 --> 00:07:38,300 who had been calling the shots in Hanoi for years

149

00:07:38,300 --> 00:07:40,800 had no intention of giving up their goal

150

00:07:40,800 --> 00:07:44,566 of uniting their country under communist control.

151

00:07:44,566 --> 00:07:46,733 ("While My Guitar Gently Weeps" by the Beatles playing)

152

00:07:46,733 --> 00:07:50,366 Richard Nixon, having promised a swift end to the war,

153

00:07:50,366 --> 00:07:53,600 would, like all the presidents who came before him,

154

00:07:53,600 --> 00:07:55,933 end up widening it.

155

00:07:55,933 --> 00:07:59,633 In the process, he would re-ignite opposition to the war

156

00:07:59,633 --> 00:08:01,466 on American campuses

157

00:08:01,466 --> 00:08:05,100 that threatened to tear the country apart again.

158

00:08:05,100 --> 00:08:08,700 ♪ I look at you all

159

00:08:08,700 --> 00:08:12,366 ♪ See the love there that's sleeping ♪

160

00:08:12,366 --> 00:08:14,700 (crowd clamoring)

161

00:08:14,700 --> 00:08:17,200 ♪ While my guitar

162

00:08:17,200 --> 00:08:19,133 ♪ Gently weeps

163

00:08:22,233 --> 00:08:25,200 ♪ I look at the floor...

164

00:08:25,200 --> 00:08:27,266 MERRILL McPEAK: The late '60s

165

00:08:27,266 --> 00:08:31,466 were a kind of confluence of several rivulets.

166

00:08:31,466 --> 00:08:33,400 BEATLES: ♪ Still my guitar...

167

00:08:33,400 --> 00:08:36,433 McPEAK: There was the antiwar movement itself...

168

00:08:36,433 --> 00:08:39,600 ♪

169

00:08:39,600 --> 00:08:44,366 ...the whole movement towards racial equality,

170

00:08:44,366 --> 00:08:46,933 the environment...

171

00:08:46,933 --> 00:08:49,833 the role of women.

172

00:08:49,833 --> 00:08:52,333 And the anthems for that counterculture

173

00:08:52,333 --> 00:08:56,866 were provided by the most brilliant rock-and-roll music

174

00:08:56,866 --> 00:08:58,900 that you can imagine.

175

00:08:58,900 --> 00:09:00,766 BEATLES: ♪ And I notice...

176

00:09:00,766 --> 00:09:05,233 I don't know how we could exist today as a country

177

00:09:05,233 --> 00:09:09,400 without that experience.[2]

178

00:09:09,400 --> 00:09:12,533 With all of its warts and ups and downs,

179

00:09:12,533 --> 00:09:16,333 that produced the America we have today,

180

00:09:16,333 --> 00:09:18,000 and we are better for it.

181

00:09:18,000 --> 00:09:19,933 (gunfire) ♪ Surely be learning...

182

00:09:19,933 --> 00:09:21,966 McPEAK: And I felt that way in Vietnam.

183

00:09:21,966 --> 00:09:23,900 ♪ Still my guitar...

184

00:09:23,900 --> 00:09:26,433 McPEAK: I turned the volume up on all that stuff.

185

00:09:28,533 --> 00:09:32,166 That represented what I was trying to defend.

186

00:09:32,166 --> 00:09:35,133 ♪ EPISODE 8: THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD (APRIL 1969 - MAY 1970)

187

00:09:35,133 --> 00:09:38,433 (gunfire, artillery fire, shouting)

188

00:09:43,100 --> 00:09:44,500 (explosion)

189

00:09:46,366 --> 00:09:48,900 ♪ Oh, oh

190

00:09:48,900 --> 00:09:51,800 (fading): ♪ Ooh, ooh, oh, oh...

191

00:09:55,466 --> 00:09:57,300 HAL KUSHNER: PRISONER OF WAR I never prayed

192

00:09:57,300 --> 00:09:59,966 the whole time I was in the P.O.W. camp,

193

00:09:59,966 --> 00:10:02,900 but I had, like, a mantra.

194

00:10:02,900 --> 00:10:05,266 Every night when I went to sleep,

195

00:10:05,266 --> 00:10:08,466 after a certain point, I would say,

196

00:10:08,466 --> 00:10:12,766 "I'll be here when the morning comes."

197

00:10:12,766 --> 00:10:15,066 And I felt if I could just live one more day,

198

00:10:15,066 --> 00:10:18,533 then I could live one more day, and then one more day.

MINUTES 10-20

199

00:10:18,533 --> 00:10:21,466 NARRATOR: At the peace talks in Paris,

200

00:10:21,466 --> 00:10:26,100 the Nixon administration had introduced a new demand--[3]

201

00:10:26,100 --> 00:10:28,233 U.S. troops would not withdraw

202

00:10:28,233 --> 00:10:31,600 until all American prisoners had come home

203

00:10:31,600 --> 00:10:34,266 and Hanoi had provided a strict accounting

204

00:10:34,266 --> 00:10:36,633 of those missing in action.

205

00:10:36,633 --> 00:10:40,100 No one knew how many prisoners there were.

206

00:10:40,100 --> 00:10:44,066 Most were airmen held in or around Hanoi,

207

00:10:44,066 --> 00:10:46,866 but a handful of others, like Hal Kushner,

208

00:10:46,866 --> 00:10:50,400 were struggling to survive in makeshift jungle camps

209

00:10:50,400 --> 00:10:53,200 in South Vietnam.

210

00:10:53,200 --> 00:10:56,866 Hanoi would not reveal the names of the men they held,

211

00:10:56,866 --> 00:11:00,933 because they still insisted they were not prisoners of war,

212

00:11:00,933 --> 00:11:03,133 but war criminals.

213

00:11:03,133 --> 00:11:06,466 They subjected many to brutal torture,

214

00:11:06,466 --> 00:11:08,666 extracted "confessions,"

215

00:11:08,666 --> 00:11:10,933 and refused to permit inspections[4]

216

00:11:10,933 --> 00:11:13,966 by the International Red Cross.

217

00:11:13,966 --> 00:11:18,133 The Johnson administration had generally downplayed the issue,

218

00:11:18,133 --> 00:11:22,200 hoping quiet diplomacy might bring the men home.

219

00:11:22,200 --> 00:11:23,900 The Nixon administration

220

00:11:23,900 --> 00:11:26,833 launched a "go public" campaign instead,

221

00:11:26,833 --> 00:11:29,533 meant to put the plight of American prisoners

222

00:11:29,533 --> 00:11:31,700 and those missing in action

223

00:11:31,700 --> 00:11:33,800 at the center of things.

224

00:11:33,800 --> 00:11:36,000 It also provided a rebuke

225

00:11:36,000 --> 00:11:38,166 to those in the antiwar movement

226

00:11:38,166 --> 00:11:40,333 who seemed more sympathetic

227

00:11:40,333 --> 00:11:43,566 to North Vietnamese civilians who had been bombed

228

00:11:43,566 --> 00:11:45,333 than they were to U.S. airmen

229

00:11:45,333 --> 00:11:48,966 who had been shot down doing that bombing.

230

00:11:48,966 --> 00:11:53,566 Sybil Stockdale, whose husband, Commander James Stockdale,

231

00:11:53,566 --> 00:11:56,366 was the highest-ranking prisoner in Hanoi,

232

00:11:56,366 --> 00:11:58,766 formed the National League of Families

233

00:11:58,766 --> 00:12:02,366 of Prisoners and Missing in Southeast Asia,

234

00:12:02,366 --> 00:12:05,100 and led delegations of wives to Paris

235

00:12:05,100 --> 00:12:08,600 to confront North Vietnamese negotiators.

236

00:12:08,600 --> 00:12:13,300 Five million Americans began wearing tin or copper bracelets

237

00:12:13,300 --> 00:12:15,933 engraved with a missing man's name

238

00:12:15,933 --> 00:12:18,433 and date of loss.

239

00:12:18,433 --> 00:12:22,766 More than 50 million P.O.W./M.I.A. bumper stickers

240

00:12:22,766 --> 00:12:26,466 would be sold over the next four years.

241

00:12:26,466 --> 00:12:28,900 Despite what their jailers had told them,

242

00:12:28,900 --> 00:12:33,200 the prisoners had not been forgotten by their country.

243

00:12:33,200 --> 00:12:35,733 Eventually, one journalist wrote,

244

00:12:35,733 --> 00:12:38,000 many "people began to speak

245

00:12:38,000 --> 00:12:42,100 "as though the North Vietnamese had kidnapped 400 Americans

246

00:12:42,100 --> 00:12:46,633 and the United States had gone to war to retrieve them."

247

00:12:46,633 --> 00:12:51,200 At the same time, the Saigon government of Nguyen Van Thieu

248

00:12:51,200 --> 00:12:54,533 was holding prisoners of its own.[5]

249

00:12:54,533 --> 00:12:56,466 There would eventually be

250

00:12:56,466 --> 00:13:00,333 some 40,000 North Vietnamese and Viet Cong soldiers

251

00:13:00,333 --> 00:13:02,433 in four crowded camps. [6]

252

00:13:02,433 --> 00:13:06,466 Another 200,000 South Vietnamese civilians

253

00:13:06,466 --> 00:13:10,366 would also be held, many without trial.

254

00:13:12,066 --> 00:13:14,400 NGUYEN TAI: Puppet intelligence officers tortured me on the orders of the C.I.A. They wanted me to confess. They used different methods of torture. They used electricity from the wall outlet to shock me. They poured water in my mouth and held my mouth shut so the water couldn't come out. When I stopped breathing, they had to stop. The most painful thing was being hung up and beaten at night. I still feel pain. The pain was unbelievably deep.[7]

255

00:14:31,766 --> 00:14:34,766 JAMES GILLAM: ARMY There are certain rules to tunnel warfare.

256

00:14:37,000 --> 00:14:39,800 Don't turn on the light

257

00:14:39,800 --> 00:14:42,900 unless you're really, really, really sure you're alone.

258

00:14:42,900 --> 00:14:46,600 Use your senses.

259

00:14:46,600 --> 00:14:49,833 Do your first killing as quietly as you can.

260

00:14:49,833 --> 00:14:51,900 That means don't shoot.

261

00:14:53,200 --> 00:14:56,000 I chased somebody into a tunnel,

262

00:14:56,000 --> 00:15:01,433 met them at a bend in the corner, in the dark.

263

00:15:01,433 --> 00:15:03,033 I thought I was alone

264

00:15:03,033 --> 00:15:06,333 and then I smelled their breath.

265

00:15:06,333 --> 00:15:12,433 And we had a wrestling match in the dark.

266

00:15:12,433 --> 00:15:14,900 And I got the upper hand

267

00:15:14,900 --> 00:15:18,233 and crushed this person's trachea,

268

00:15:18,233 --> 00:15:20,866 held him down while he died...

269

00:15:22,600 --> 00:15:24,500 ...and then got out.

270

00:15:27,233 --> 00:15:30,033 I beat and strangled someone to death

271

00:15:30,033 --> 00:15:31,933 in a tunnel

272

00:15:31,933 --> 00:15:34,000 in the dark.

273

00:15:34,000 --> 00:15:35,700 Um...

274

00:15:35,700 --> 00:15:38,233 But that wasn't the only casualty.

275

00:15:38,233 --> 00:15:42,500 The other casualty was the civilized version of me.

276

00:15:51,333 --> 00:15:53,433 (gunfire)

277

00:15:59,300 --> 00:16:01,233 (gunfire continuing)

278

00:16:01,233 --> 00:16:03,066 (shouting)

279

00:16:03,066 --> 00:16:06,066 NARRATOR: April 1969

280

00:16:06,066 --> 00:16:09,133 marked the high point of American military commitment

281

00:16:09,133 --> 00:16:10,666 to South Vietnam.

282

00:16:10,666 --> 00:16:18,133 543,482 men and women were now in country,

283

00:16:18,133 --> 00:16:22,266 and tens of thousands more were stationed

284

00:16:22,266 --> 00:16:25,266 at airbases and aboard ships beyond its borders.

285

00:16:26,566 --> 00:16:31,366 40,794 had died.

286

00:16:31,366 --> 00:16:36,400 And more than $70 billion had been spent.

287

00:16:36,400 --> 00:16:40,000 (explosion in distance)

288

00:16:40,000 --> 00:16:42,433 That spring, a new battle

289

00:16:42,433 --> 00:16:44,633 caught the attention of the American public,

290

00:16:44,633 --> 00:16:49,433 a struggle to take still another numbered hill--

291

00:16:49,433 --> 00:16:53,166 Hill 937 on military maps.

292

00:16:53,166 --> 00:16:55,166 CHET HUNTLEY: For nine days,

293

00:16:55,166 --> 00:16:57,133 American and South Vietnamese troops have been trying

294

00:16:57,133 --> 00:16:59,166 to take a mountain near the Laotian border,

295

00:16:59,166 --> 00:17:02,200 and ten times they have been thrown back.

296

00:17:02,200 --> 00:17:03,466 (booming, shouting)

297

00:17:06,366 --> 00:17:07,433 (gunfire)

298

00:17:17,500 --> 00:17:19,700 (shouting over radio)

299

00:17:26,666 --> 00:17:29,366 The casualties have been so high--

300

00:17:29,366 --> 00:17:32,733 50 Americans and 250 North Vietnamese killed--

301

00:17:32,733 --> 00:17:35,500 that the mountain has come to be known as "Hamburger Hill."

302

00:17:35,500 --> 00:17:39,233 Today, another 600 allied[8] troops were thrown into the battle.

303

00:17:39,233 --> 00:17:41,833 (helicopter blades whirring)

304

00:17:41,833 --> 00:17:44,300 (gunfire)

305

00:17:44,300 --> 00:17:47,000 (explosion, screaming)

306

00:17:50,866 --> 00:17:53,266 NARRATOR: A weary G.I. told a reporter

307

00:17:53,266 --> 00:17:55,400 that his battalion commander

308

00:17:55,400 --> 00:18:00,366 "won't stop until he kills every damn one of us."

309

00:18:00,366 --> 00:18:01,733 (explosion, gunfire)

310

00:18:06,700 --> 00:18:09,100 After 11 days of fighting,

311

00:18:09,100 --> 00:18:11,800 the Battle for Hamburger Hill ended.

312

00:18:13,266 --> 00:18:16,066 56 Americans died.

313

00:18:16,066 --> 00:18:20,466 420 more were wounded.

314

00:18:20,466 --> 00:18:24,166 A week later, the Americans abandoned the hill,

315

00:18:24,166 --> 00:18:27,166 just as they had abandoned so many other hills

316

00:18:27,166 --> 00:18:31,700 they had taken at great cost over the years in Vietnam.

317

00:18:33,833 --> 00:18:36,833 REPORTER: General, could you explain for us again the strategy involved[9]

318

00:18:36,833 --> 00:18:39,933 in the decision to withdraw American troops

319

00:18:39,933 --> 00:18:43,066 after they had taken Hill 937, or Hamburger Hill?

320

00:18:45,266 --> 00:18:49,266 GEN. JOHN WRIGHT: No piece of ground, as such,

321

00:18:49,266 --> 00:18:51,766 is important to us. Our mission. . .

322

00:18:51,766 --> 00:18:53,600 HUNTLEY: In the United States Senate,

323

00:18:53,600 --> 00:18:55,433 Senator Kennedy of Massachusetts delivered

324

00:18:55,433 --> 00:18:57,333 a brief speech criticizing what he called

325

00:18:57,333 --> 00:19:00,366 a "senseless and irresponsible military pride

326

00:19:00,366 --> 00:19:02,933 "in which American men are sent to their deaths

327

00:19:02,933 --> 00:19:05,766 in pointless battles like this one for Hamburger Hill."

328

00:19:05,766 --> 00:19:07,966 Kennedy[10] called upon President Nixon

329

00:19:07,966 --> 00:19:10,200 to issue new orders to commanders in Vietnam

330

00:19:10,200 --> 00:19:11,833 to halt such actions

331

00:19:11,833 --> 00:19:13,733 and he charged that they contradict

332

00:19:13,733 --> 00:19:15,200 the president's stated intentions

333

00:19:15,200 --> 00:19:16,900 of seeking a negotiated peace.[11]

334

00:19:19,733 --> 00:19:23,166 NARRATOR: There had been more deadly weeks during the war,

335

00:19:23,166 --> 00:19:27,633 costlier battles, larger numbers of casualties.

336

00:19:27,633 --> 00:19:33,933 But more and more Americans seemed to have had enough.[12]

337

00:19:33,933 --> 00:19:36,400 The following month, Life magazine

338

00:19:36,400 --> 00:19:38,533 published the names and photographs

339

00:19:38,533 --> 00:19:41,366 of all 242 Americans

340

00:19:41,366 --> 00:19:45,333 who had died in combat in just one week.[13]

341

00:19:45,333 --> 00:19:49,300 For the first time, in a national publication,

342

00:19:49,300 --> 00:19:53,166 casualty statistics came with human faces.

343

00:19:56,066 --> 00:19:58,900 KARL MARLANTES: The only way they could measure success in Vietnam

344

00:19:58,900 --> 00:20:01,100 was, was was kill ratios--

345

00:20:01,100 --> 00:20:03,366 how many of them versus how many of us.

346

00:20:03,366 --> 00:20:05,633 Well, the only thing that's important

347

00:20:05,633 --> 00:20:08,033 to the American people is the "us."

348

00:20:08,033 --> 00:20:11,700 You know, if there's three us dead, that's the number.

349

00:20:11,700 --> 00:20:14,933 Not 30, you know, Vietnamese dead.

350

00:20:14,933 --> 00:20:18,100 And, so, politically, an attrition strategy

351

00:20:18,100 --> 00:20:20,366 just can't last very long.

352

00:20:20,366 --> 00:20:21,933 We don't care what the ratio is,

353

00:20:21,933 --> 00:20:23,266 we just want the absolute number

354

00:20:23,266 --> 00:20:26,000 of how many American kids died.

MINUTES 20-30

355

00:20:26,000 --> 00:20:29,366 NARRATOR: A Gallup poll now found that most Americans

356

00:20:29,366 --> 00:20:33,233 believed Vietnam had been a mistake.[14]

357

00:20:33,233 --> 00:20:36,300 Richard Nixon knew he needed to signal to the public

358

00:20:36,300 --> 00:20:38,533 that an end was in sight.

359

00:20:40,400 --> 00:20:43,900 The National Security Council had warned Nixon

360

00:20:43,900 --> 00:20:46,033 that the Joint Chiefs of Staff,

361

00:20:46,033 --> 00:20:48,800 the Secretaries of State and Defense,

362

00:20:48,800 --> 00:20:53,833 the C.I.A., and the U.S. Embassy in Saigon

363

00:20:53,833 --> 00:20:56,966 all privately agreed that without U.S. combat troops,

364

00:20:56,966 --> 00:20:58,666 the South Vietnamese

365

00:20:58,666 --> 00:21:03,400 "cannot now, or in the foreseeable future,

366

00:21:03,400 --> 00:21:05,600 "stand up to both Viet Cong[15]

367

00:21:05,600 --> 00:21:09,333 and sizeable North Vietnamese forces." [16]

368

00:21:09,333 --> 00:21:11,366 Nonetheless,

369

00:21:11,366 --> 00:21:14,533 Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird said,

370

00:21:14,533 --> 00:21:18,066 the war was now to be "Vietnamized."[17]

371

00:21:18,066 --> 00:21:21,800 Saigon's troops would gradually take over responsibility

372

00:21:21,800 --> 00:21:24,433 for engaging the enemy.[18]

373

00:21:24,433 --> 00:21:27,633 It would be General Creighton Abrams' task

374

00:21:27,633 --> 00:21:30,033 to ready the ARVN for that role,[19]

375

00:21:30,033 --> 00:21:32,833 and to make sure that American casualties

376

00:21:32,833 --> 00:21:35,066 were held down in the interim.

377

00:21:35,066 --> 00:21:37,533 ("The Letter" by The Box Tops starts playing)

378

00:21:37,533 --> 00:21:42,833 Meanwhile, American troops would start to go home.

379

00:21:42,833 --> 00:21:45,766 ♪ Gimme a ticket for an aeroplane ♪

380

00:21:45,766 --> 00:21:48,133 ♪ Ain't got time to take a fast train ♪

381

00:21:48,133 --> 00:21:49,800 DUONG VAN MAI ELLIOTT: When Nixon came in

382

00:21:49,800 --> 00:21:53,666 and he announced the phase withdrawal,

383

00:21:53,666 --> 00:21:56,200 turning over the fighting to the Vietnamese,

384

00:21:56,200 --> 00:21:58,733 which was something the French had tried before.

385

00:21:58,733 --> 00:22:00,666 They call itjaunissement--

386

00:22:00,666 --> 00:22:04,066 yellowizing the war.

387

00:22:04,066 --> 00:22:10,200 We knew that the Vietnamese Army was not up to fighting this war.

388

00:22:10,200 --> 00:22:12,766 If they couldn't do it with the Americans,

389

00:22:12,766 --> 00:22:15,933 how were they going to do it without the Americans?

390

00:22:15,933 --> 00:22:19,100 ♪ Lonely days are gone

391

00:22:19,100 --> 00:22:22,033 NARRATOR: Although Washington planned to vastly increase

392

00:22:22,033 --> 00:22:25,066 military support of the South Vietnamese Army,

393

00:22:25,066 --> 00:22:28,366 General Abrams knew that Vietnamization alone

394

00:22:28,366 --> 00:22:30,766 could never defeat the enemy.

395

00:22:30,766 --> 00:22:33,300 But he had his orders.

396

00:22:33,300 --> 00:22:36,100 McPEAK: The reason I was ordered home early

397

00:22:36,100 --> 00:22:38,033 was because Nixon... President Nixon

398

00:22:38,033 --> 00:22:41,433 announced the policy of Vietnamization.

399

00:22:41,433 --> 00:22:45,633 Now, Vietnamization was a lie,

400

00:22:45,633 --> 00:22:49,600 but it had an element of truth in it.

401

00:22:49,600 --> 00:22:51,966 We were leaving, okay?

402

00:22:51,966 --> 00:22:53,900 And that sealed the South's fate.

403

00:22:53,900 --> 00:22:55,400 I knew it.

404

00:22:55,400 --> 00:22:58,433 And I think anybody who was conscious

405

00:22:58,433 --> 00:23:00,333 and could see what was going on 406

00:23:00,333 --> 00:23:01,633 knew it.[20] 407

00:23:01,633 --> 00:23:04,233 NARRATOR: Nixon then flew to Midway Island

408

00:23:04,233 --> 00:23:07,900 to meet with South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu.

409

00:23:07,900 --> 00:23:11,133 He had not dared invite Thieu to Washington

410

00:23:11,133 --> 00:23:14,133 for fear of sparking mass demonstrations.

411

00:23:14,133 --> 00:23:15,600 ♪ Lonely days are gone

412

00:23:15,600 --> 00:23:17,800 NIXON: President Thieu informed me

413

00:23:17,800 --> 00:23:21,700 that the progress of the training program

414

00:23:21,700 --> 00:23:23,466 and the equipping program

415

00:23:23,466 --> 00:23:25,766 for South Vietnamese forces

416

00:23:25,766 --> 00:23:30,900 had been so successful, uh, that he could now recommend

417

00:23:30,900 --> 00:23:34,300 that the United States begin to replace

418

00:23:34,300 --> 00:23:38,700 U.S. combat forces with Vietnamese forces.

419

00:23:38,700 --> 00:23:41,266 (speaking Vietnamese)

420

00:23:43,866 --> 00:23:46,366 NARRATOR: Thieu had said no such thing

421

00:23:46,366 --> 00:23:49,000 but felt he had to go along.

422

00:23:49,000 --> 00:23:51,800 "There is nothing I can do," he told a friend.

423

00:23:51,800 --> 00:23:54,233 "Just as we could do nothing about it

424

00:23:54,233 --> 00:23:56,933 "when Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson

425

00:23:56,933 --> 00:24:00,000 decided to come in."

426

00:24:00,000 --> 00:24:03,133 "We were clearly on the way out of Vietnam,"

427

00:24:03,133 --> 00:24:06,366 National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger remembered,

428

00:24:06,366 --> 00:24:09,200 "by negotiation if possible,

429

00:24:09,200 --> 00:24:13,100 by unilateral withdrawal if necessary."

430

00:24:13,100 --> 00:24:16,166 He and the President were redefining

431

00:24:16,166 --> 00:24:19,133 what victory would look like.

432

00:24:19,133 --> 00:24:22,166 TOM VALLELY: Nixon and Kissinger...[21]

433

00:24:22,166 --> 00:24:24,300 They...

434

00:24:24,300 --> 00:24:26,666 Their job is to clean up.

435

00:24:26,666 --> 00:24:28,366 They're, they're...

436

00:24:28,366 --> 00:24:30,400 The war's over, okay?

437

00:24:30,400 --> 00:24:33,966 When Nixon and Kissinger, when they come, they're...

438

00:24:33,966 --> 00:24:35,433 they're not gonna win the war.

439

00:24:35,433 --> 00:24:37,866 ("Taps" playing) So they develop

440

00:24:37,866 --> 00:24:39,633 a secret strategy.

441

00:24:39,633 --> 00:24:43,500 They surrender without saying they surrendered.

442

00:24:45,966 --> 00:24:49,266 This is not a bad strategy, this is the only strategy.

443

00:24:49,266 --> 00:24:53,233 ("Circle for a Landing" by Three Dog Night starts playing)

444

00:24:53,233 --> 00:24:55,633 (indistinct announcement over P.A.)

445

00:24:57,466 --> 00:25:01,166 NARRATOR: As American soldiers began leaving South Vietnam,

446

00:25:01,166 --> 00:25:04,366 American weaponry and materiel poured in.

447

00:25:05,933 --> 00:25:08,133 ♪ Circle for a landing

448

00:25:08,133 --> 00:25:10,433 ♪ Get your feet back on the ground ♪

449

00:25:10,433 --> 00:25:13,533 More than a million M16 rifles,

450

00:25:13,533 --> 00:25:19,566 40,000 grenade launchers, thousands of wheeled vehicles--

451

00:25:19,566 --> 00:25:21,300 so many, one congressman complained,

452

00:25:21,300 --> 00:25:24,600 that it seemed as if the United States taxpayer

453

00:25:24,600 --> 00:25:28,900 was being asked to "put every South Vietnamese soldier

454

00:25:28,900 --> 00:25:31,400 behind the wheel."[22]

455

00:25:31,400 --> 00:25:33,666 NEIL SHEEHAN: It didn't make any sense, of course,

456

00:25:33,666 --> 00:25:36,666 because we tried that in 1962 and '63.

457

00:25:36,666 --> 00:25:38,566 The people hadn't changed.

458

00:25:38,566 --> 00:25:40,200 They were just giving 'em more furniture.[23]

459

00:25:42,400 --> 00:25:45,400 NGUYEN THOI BUNG: VIET CONG They tripled the amount of weapons they gave the Saigon Army. The puppet Army was strengthened. But to me, if the American army couldn't win, the puppet army would never win.[24]

460

00:26:03,300 --> 00:26:07,233 NARRATOR: South Vietnamese armed forces were expanded

461

00:26:07,233 --> 00:26:11,600 from 850,000 men to over a million.

462

00:26:11,600 --> 00:26:13,633 But nothing could alter the fact

463

00:26:13,633 --> 00:26:15,200 that rampant corruption

464

00:26:15,200 --> 00:26:18,733 continually eroded their effectiveness.

465

00:26:18,733 --> 00:26:20,933 DON WEBSTER: The way it works is this:

466

00:26:20,933 --> 00:26:23,466 a man makes a deal with his commanding officer,

467

00:26:23,466 --> 00:26:26,200 perhaps to pay the officer his full salary.

468

00:26:26,200 --> 00:26:29,266 In exchange, you never have to show up for duty,

469

00:26:29,266 --> 00:26:31,866 except perhaps once a week at the ceremony.

470

00:26:31,866 --> 00:26:34,000 So while you're theoretically in the Army,

471

00:26:34,000 --> 00:26:36,400 you can hold a full-time civilian job.

472

00:26:37,666 --> 00:26:40,533 LAM QUANG THI: SOUTH VIETNAMESE ARMY Another form of corruption was adding men to the rosters who never existed. Commanders could then pocket the salaries of those "ghost soldiers."

473

00:26:53,300 --> 00:26:56,466 (gunfire)

474

00:26:56,466 --> 00:27:00,133 NARRATOR: Many ARVN units did fight well.

475

00:27:03,233 --> 00:27:05,366 They had borne the brunt of the fighting

476

00:27:05,366 --> 00:27:06,900 during the Tet Offensive,

477

00:27:06,900 --> 00:27:09,833 and, by the middle of 1969,

478

00:27:09,833 --> 00:27:14,533 90,000 of them had been killed in combat.

479

00:27:14,533 --> 00:27:20,033 Their bravery was often overlooked by Americans.

480

00:27:20,033 --> 00:27:23,766 VALLELY: We were disdainful of them.

481

00:27:23,766 --> 00:27:26,833 We overstated their incompetence

482

00:27:26,833 --> 00:27:30,666 because we wanted to overstate our importance.

483

00:27:30,666 --> 00:27:32,600 (booming in distance)

484

00:27:32,600 --> 00:27:35,733 (men shouting, gunfire)

485

00:27:42,566 --> 00:27:47,833 VALLELY: Part of going to war in Vietnam I, I enjoyed.

486

00:27:47,833 --> 00:27:52,700 If you survive it, it's, it's quite thrilling.

487

00:27:52,700 --> 00:27:55,600 It's the history of the world.

488

00:27:57,066 --> 00:27:58,566 It's hard to survive.

489

00:27:58,566 --> 00:28:00,600 I mean, in, where I was, survival is an issue.

490

00:28:00,600 --> 00:28:04,766 I would have loved to have been in the National Guard.

491

00:28:06,966 --> 00:28:08,433 Period.

492

00:28:08,433 --> 00:28:09,900 ("Bad Moon Rising" by Creedence Clearwater Revival playing)

493

00:28:09,900 --> 00:28:12,833 VALLELY: I knew the core issue

494

00:28:12,833 --> 00:28:15,766 of what was acceptable in war and what wasn't.

495

00:28:15,766 --> 00:28:17,166 I knew that.

496

00:28:17,166 --> 00:28:20,033 I didn't need to get that from the Marine Corps.

497

00:28:20,033 --> 00:28:23,566 I got that from Sunday school.

498

00:28:23,566 --> 00:28:26,566 NARRATOR: Thomas John Vallely was born in Boston,

499

00:28:26,566 --> 00:28:28,033 the son of a judge,

500

00:28:28,033 --> 00:28:31,000 and brought up in the suburb of Newton.

501

00:28:31,000 --> 00:28:36,500 Undiagnosed dyslexia kept him from doing well in school.

502

00:28:36,500 --> 00:28:38,633 By 1969,

503

00:28:38,633 --> 00:28:42,333 Vallely was a radio operator[25] in the Marine Corps,

504

00:28:42,333 --> 00:28:45,500 part of a massive search-and-destroy mission

505

00:28:45,500 --> 00:28:49,766 in Quang Nam Province in the northern part of South Vietnam.

506

00:28:49,766 --> 00:28:51,466 (men shouting, gunfire)

507

00:28:51,466 --> 00:28:53,200 On August 13,

508

00:28:53,200 --> 00:28:55,000 his company was ambushed

509

00:28:55,000 --> 00:28:58,600 and came under heavy machine gun fire.

510

00:28:58,600 --> 00:29:00,000 (gunfire)

511

00:29:05,966 --> 00:29:10,200 VALLELY: It was a "grab 'em by the belt" type of situation.

512

00:29:10,200 --> 00:29:13,100 And we lost a lot of people.

513

00:29:14,633 --> 00:29:15,966 So did they.

514

00:29:17,833 --> 00:29:20,000 Lot of people laying around.

515

00:29:20,000 --> 00:29:22,533 (gunfire, explosion)

516

00:29:22,533 --> 00:29:24,966 NARRATOR: Vallely radioed for reinforcements.

517

00:29:24,966 --> 00:29:28,600 Then he picked up a rifle and ammunition

518

00:29:28,600 --> 00:29:31,100 from a wounded Marine,[26]

519

00:29:31,100 --> 00:29:33,233 and, firing as he went, took up a position

520

00:29:33,233 --> 00:29:36,166 just ten feet from an enemy machine gun.

521

00:29:36,166 --> 00:29:41,700 He hurled a smoke grenade to mark their position.

522

00:29:41,700 --> 00:29:45,700 And then, as enemy fire swept back and forth

523

00:29:45,700 --> 00:29:47,966 across the field,

524

00:29:47,966 --> 00:29:49,633 he moved from Marine to Marine,

525

00:29:49,633 --> 00:29:51,400 pointing out targets among the trees

526

00:29:51,400 --> 00:29:54,166 and encouraging his comrades.

527

00:30:00,166 --> 00:30:03,166 For his conspicuous gallantry,

528

00:30:03,166 --> 00:30:07,033 Tom Vallely was awarded the Silver Star.

529

00:30:07,033 --> 00:30:09,366 VALLELY: You want to tell your grandchildren

530

00:30:09,366 --> 00:30:12,600 it has a lot to do with courage,

531

00:30:12,600 --> 00:30:16,200 uh, but it, it's really quite reactive.

532

00:30:16,200 --> 00:30:18,600 It's survival.

533

00:30:18,600 --> 00:30:20,800 Either you're...

534

00:30:20,800 --> 00:30:23,466 It's, it's...

535

00:30:23,466 --> 00:30:25,933 There's no choice here.

536

00:30:25,933 --> 00:30:29,966 You react or you're not gonna have grandchildren.

MINUTES 30-40

537

00:30:32,800 --> 00:30:34,133 COUNTRY JOE McDONALD: Give me an "F"!

538

00:30:34,133 --> 00:30:35,133 CROWD: "F"!

539

00:30:35,133 --> 00:30:36,466 McDONALD: Give me a "U"!

540

00:30:36,466 --> 00:30:37,466 CROWD: "U"!

541

00:30:37,466 --> 00:30:38,666 McDONALD: Give me a "..."!

542

00:30:38,666 --> 00:30:40,566 "..."! Give me a "..."!

543

00:30:40,566 --> 00:30:41,566 "..."!

544

00:30:41,566 --> 00:30:42,900 What's that spell?!

545

00:30:42,900 --> 00:30:44,900 NARRATOR: Two days after the battle

546

00:30:44,900 --> 00:30:47,166 in which Tom Vallely distinguished himself,

547

00:30:47,166 --> 00:30:48,966 and while half a million Americans

548

00:30:48,966 --> 00:30:51,366 were still in Vietnam,

549

00:30:51,366 --> 00:30:53,366 half a million Americans gathered

550

00:30:53,366 --> 00:30:56,266 on a dairy farm in upstate New York

551

00:30:56,266 --> 00:30:59,600 for a music festival: Woodstock.

552

00:30:59,600 --> 00:31:02,100 ♪ Way down yonder in Vietnam

553

00:31:02,100 --> 00:31:04,300 ♪ Put down your books and pick up a gun ♪

554

00:31:04,300 --> 00:31:05,766 ♪ We're gonna have a whole lot of fun ♪

555

00:31:05,766 --> 00:31:10,166 ♪ And it's one, two, three, what are we fighting for? ♪

556

00:31:10,166 --> 00:31:12,600 ♪ Don't ask me, I don't give a damn ♪

557

00:31:12,600 --> 00:31:15,066 ♪ The next stop is Vietnam

558

00:31:15,066 --> 00:31:17,333 ♪ And it's five, six, seven

559

00:31:17,333 --> 00:31:19,566 ♪ Open up the pearly gates

560

00:31:19,566 --> 00:31:22,733 ♪ Well, there ain't no time to wonder why, whoopee ♪

561

00:31:22,733 --> 00:31:24,833 ♪ We're all gonna die

562

00:31:24,833 --> 00:31:27,966 ("Soul Sacrifice" by Santana playing)

563

00:31:50,533 --> 00:31:51,866 ♪ Contrasting video images of Woodstock and Vietnam

564

00:32:17,866 --> 00:32:19,200 (song ends, crowd cheering)

565

00:32:19,200 --> 00:32:23,600 MAN: Ladies and gentlemen, Santana!

566

00:32:23,600 --> 00:32:26,433 ARMY MAJOR: You've been told once, you've been told twice.

567

00:32:26,433 --> 00:32:28,100 That's all-- spread it out!

568

00:32:28,100 --> 00:32:30,100 ("Time of the Season" by the Zombies playing)

569

00:32:30,100 --> 00:32:31,500 ♪ What's your name?

570

00:32:31,500 --> 00:32:33,666 GILLAM: This guy from Arkansas

571

00:32:33,666 --> 00:32:38,100 told me he would not carry the radio for me.

572

00:32:38,100 --> 00:32:43,100 He said, "I will not follow you like Cheetah follows Tarzan.

573

00:32:43,100 --> 00:32:45,333 It's not gonna happen, Sarge."

574

00:32:45,333 --> 00:32:50,166 And I thought, "Oh, this is gonna be a really long year."

575

00:32:50,166 --> 00:32:52,333 I've got people down there sweeping,

576

00:32:52,333 --> 00:32:53,666 so get 'em down there.

577

00:32:53,666 --> 00:32:55,433 ♪ It's the time

578

00:32:55,433 --> 00:32:58,700 GILLAM: He evolved a little bit.

579

00:32:58,700 --> 00:33:01,566 You know, he, he kind of got the idea

580

00:33:01,566 --> 00:33:04,733 that the enemy's bullets are colorblind.

581

00:33:04,733 --> 00:33:08,033 They would shoot anybody, not just me.

582

00:33:10,600 --> 00:33:14,466 NARRATOR: African-Americans had served in every American war

583

00:33:14,466 --> 00:33:16,966 since the revolution.[27]

584

00:33:16,966 --> 00:33:19,433 In the early years of the Vietnam War,

585

00:33:19,433 --> 00:33:21,900 they suffered a disproportionate number

586

00:33:21,900 --> 00:33:23,966 of combat deaths.

587

00:33:23,966 --> 00:33:27,233 When civil rights leaders complained,

588

00:33:27,233 --> 00:33:30,166 the Defense Department made a concerted effort

589

00:33:30,166 --> 00:33:32,333 to right that balance,

590

00:33:32,333 --> 00:33:35,933 and by 1969, it had succeeded.

591

00:33:35,933 --> 00:33:37,933 But behind the lines,

592

00:33:37,933 --> 00:33:41,600 African-American soldiers were still treated differently

593

00:33:41,600 --> 00:33:43,966 from their white counterparts.

594

00:33:43,966 --> 00:33:45,866 ("Respect" by Otis Redding playing)

595

00:33:54,666 --> 00:33:56,933 SOLDIER: And here there's all, all these beast mother...

596

00:33:56,933 --> 00:33:58,166 walking around here with their hair

597

00:33:58,166 --> 00:34:00,800 looking like goddamn girls,

598

00:34:00,800 --> 00:34:02,133 and we can't wear our hair

599

00:34:02,133 --> 00:34:03,866 mother... three inches long.

600

00:34:03,866 --> 00:34:06,233 The mother... regulation is three inches.

601

00:34:06,233 --> 00:34:09,000 And most of the brothers can wear a afro,

602

00:34:09,000 --> 00:34:10,933 the hair gonna be mother... two inches.

603

00:34:10,933 --> 00:34:12,666 And why we got to get our hair cut?

604

00:34:12,666 --> 00:34:14,166 That's what I want to know.

605

00:34:14,166 --> 00:34:16,166 ♪ Yeah, man, ooh, yeah

606

00:34:16,166 --> 00:34:19,166 WAYNE SMITH: Vietnam was a microcosm.

607

00:34:19,166 --> 00:34:21,033 Everything that was happening in America

608

00:34:21,033 --> 00:34:22,900 was happening in Vietnam, really,

609

00:34:22,900 --> 00:34:25,133 in one way, shape, or form.

610

00:34:25,133 --> 00:34:27,066 In the rear,

611

00:34:27,066 --> 00:34:30,666 there were Confederate flags flying.

612

00:34:30,666 --> 00:34:33,833 SOLDIER 2: I mean, of all things to have over here, man,

613

00:34:33,833 --> 00:34:36,166 why a Confederate flag?

614

00:34:36,166 --> 00:34:38,433 As a matter of fact, I think there ought to be

615

00:34:38,433 --> 00:34:42,433 some goddamn law to ... outlaw them goddamn flags, man.

616

00:34:42,433 --> 00:34:46,666 The ... Confederacy is gone, man.

617

00:34:46,666 --> 00:34:49,166 SMITH: When one is in an environment

618

00:34:49,166 --> 00:34:53,933 where everyone has a gun, automatic weapon,

619

00:34:53,933 --> 00:34:56,666 I'll be goddamned if someone's gonna call me a nigger

620

00:34:56,666 --> 00:34:58,733 or give me a bull... order.

621

00:34:58,733 --> 00:35:02,800 I mean, that was the attitude, to risk my life for what?

622

00:35:02,800 --> 00:35:04,333 REDDING: ♪ Sweeter than honey

623

00:35:04,333 --> 00:35:07,333 ROGER HARRIS: There was all kind of craziness happening,

624

00:35:07,333 --> 00:35:10,666 because white people were still calling, you know, us niggers,

625

00:35:10,666 --> 00:35:13,666 and then there were some black people calling us Uncle Toms.

626

00:35:13,666 --> 00:35:15,200 There were the antiwar folks

627

00:35:15,200 --> 00:35:17,533 who were calling us baby killers, say...

628

00:35:17,533 --> 00:35:19,533 You know, you can say what you want, but you can say it

629

00:35:19,533 --> 00:35:21,266 from over there because if you get in range,

630

00:35:21,266 --> 00:35:25,266 you're gonna get serious damage done to you.

631

00:35:25,266 --> 00:35:26,933 Say what you want from a distance,

632

00:35:26,933 --> 00:35:29,100 but if you get close to me, I'm gonna rip your throat out.

633

00:35:29,100 --> 00:35:30,766 You know?

634

00:35:30,766 --> 00:35:34,433 JUAN RAMIREZ: MARINES But when we walked outside that wire,

635

00:35:34,433 --> 00:35:37,466 we went out into the bush, we were tight.

636

00:35:37,466 --> 00:35:39,800 Even with our differences.

637

00:35:39,800 --> 00:35:41,900 Maybe we had threatened each other,

638

00:35:41,900 --> 00:35:45,066 we'd had a fight back in the base,

639

00:35:45,066 --> 00:35:47,833 but when we were out there, you know,

640

00:35:47,833 --> 00:35:51,400 we, we were a, a fighting unit.

641

00:35:52,866 --> 00:35:56,800 And it's almost like an identity crisis.

642

00:35:56,800 --> 00:36:01,000 I was born here, and my parents were born here.

643

00:36:01,000 --> 00:36:03,333 I felt, in a way,

644

00:36:03,333 --> 00:36:06,500 more American than Mexican.

645

00:36:06,500 --> 00:36:08,166 MAN: ...hand and repeat after me...

646

00:36:08,166 --> 00:36:12,566 NARRATOR: The U.S. military did not officially count Hispanics,

647

00:36:12,566 --> 00:36:17,300 but an estimated 170,000 would serve in Vietnam

648

00:36:17,300 --> 00:36:21,433 and more than 3,000 lost their lives.

649

00:36:21,433 --> 00:36:24,166 Like their fathers and grandfathers,

650

00:36:24,166 --> 00:36:28,300 many saw military service as both a patriotic duty

651

00:36:28,300 --> 00:36:31,166 and an opportunity to advance their standing

652

00:36:31,166 --> 00:36:33,800 in the United States.

653

00:36:33,800 --> 00:36:37,000 But as casualties mounted

654

00:36:37,000 --> 00:36:39,133 and with a burgeoning Chicano identity movement

655

00:36:39,133 --> 00:36:41,600 among farm workers and college students,

656

00:36:41,600 --> 00:36:46,366 anti-war sentiment in Hispanic communities grew.

657

00:36:46,366 --> 00:36:50,100 PROTESTOR: We're protesting against the discriminatory draft laws

658

00:36:50,100 --> 00:36:52,266 that give deferments

659

00:36:52,266 --> 00:36:55,533 to all the Anglo middle-class people of this country

660

00:36:55,533 --> 00:36:58,633 and make the heaviest burdens of the war

661

00:36:58,633 --> 00:37:01,866 fall on the poor, fall on the Mexicano.

662

00:37:01,866 --> 00:37:04,233 RAMIREZ: I had learned

663

00:37:04,233 --> 00:37:08,266 about my sister and my mother's antiwar activities

664

00:37:08,266 --> 00:37:10,266 while I was still in Vietnam.

665

00:37:10,266 --> 00:37:12,533 In fact, my sister wrote and said,

666

00:37:12,533 --> 00:37:15,066 "I hope you're okay with this."

667

00:37:15,066 --> 00:37:16,800 And she was honest with me.

668

00:37:16,800 --> 00:37:18,800 She told me what they were doing.

669

00:37:18,800 --> 00:37:22,033 She says, "I'm doing it for you, 'cause I want you to come home."

670

00:37:22,033 --> 00:37:23,933 (indistinct chanting)

671

00:37:29,166 --> 00:37:30,333 (TV clicks on)

672

00:37:30,333 --> 00:37:33,666 TOM SMOTHERS: In line with our policy of taking a stand

673

00:37:33,666 --> 00:37:35,500 on the pressing issues of the day,

674

00:37:35,500 --> 00:37:38,500 we now present another in our continuing series of editorials.

675

00:37:38,500 --> 00:37:39,500 The subject:

676

00:37:39,500 --> 00:37:42,433 are our draft laws unfair?

677

00:37:42,433 --> 00:37:44,600 Here again, speaking for our program,

678

00:37:44,600 --> 00:37:47,266 is Mr. Patrick Paulsen, vice president.

679

00:37:47,266 --> 00:37:49,000 (applause)

680

00:37:49,000 --> 00:37:51,400 PAT PAULSON: Now, we don't claim the draft is perfect,

681

00:37:51,400 --> 00:37:53,566 and we do have a constructive proposal

682

00:37:53,566 --> 00:37:55,700 for a workable alternative.

683

00:37:55,700 --> 00:37:57,833 We propose a draft lottery

684

00:37:57,833 --> 00:38:00,300 in which the names of all eligible males

685

00:38:00,300 --> 00:38:02,033 will be put into a hat,

686

00:38:02,033 --> 00:38:05,700 and the men will be drafted according to their head sizes.

687

00:38:05,700 --> 00:38:09,333 The tiny heads will go into the military service

688

00:38:09,333 --> 00:38:13,800 and the fat heads will go into government.

689

00:38:13,800 --> 00:38:15,800 SOLDIER (on radio): Roger, 3-1 is on his way.

690

00:38:15,800 --> 00:38:18,533 SOLDIER (over radio): 5-8-1.

691

00:38:18,533 --> 00:38:22,666 VINCENT OKAMOTO: A 19-year-old high school dropout says,

692

00:38:22,666 --> 00:38:25,600 "Why are we here?"

693

00:38:25,600 --> 00:38:27,466 And the, the standard response,

694

00:38:27,466 --> 00:38:29,500 at least on an official level, was,

695

00:38:29,500 --> 00:38:32,466 to prevent international communism

696

00:38:32,466 --> 00:38:35,466 from conquering the world.

697

00:38:35,466 --> 00:38:39,266 The men say, "Hey, that, that's bull..."

698

00:38:41,500 --> 00:38:43,133 So the other reason put forth,

699

00:38:43,133 --> 00:38:45,266 at least in the latter days of the war,

700

00:38:45,266 --> 00:38:47,766 was to maintain America's international credibility

701

00:38:47,766 --> 00:38:50,433 with our allies, and our enemies.

702

00:38:50,433 --> 00:38:54,600 Uh, no 19, 20-year-old kid wants to die to maintain

703

00:38:54,600 --> 00:38:57,900 the credibility of Lyndon Johnson or Richard Nixon.

704

00:38:57,900 --> 00:39:01,466 And so, within a relatively short time,

705

00:39:01,466 --> 00:39:03,700 the guys were saying,

706

00:39:03,700 --> 00:39:06,566 "Look, we shouldn't be here, but we are.

707

00:39:06,566 --> 00:39:08,566 "So my only function in life

708

00:39:08,566 --> 00:39:11,833 "is to try and keep you alive, buddy,

709

00:39:11,833 --> 00:39:15,000 "and to keep my precious ass from being killed.

710

00:39:15,000 --> 00:39:18,666 And then to go home and forget about this."

711

00:39:21,133 --> 00:39:23,900 SOLDIER: The grunts, uh,

712

00:39:23,900 --> 00:39:27,133 don't always do what the captain says, you know.

713

00:39:27,133 --> 00:39:30,700 We got, uh-- the captain will stay back,

714

00:39:30,700 --> 00:39:32,700 he'll tell the platoon or something

715

00:39:32,700 --> 00:39:35,500 to go out so many hundred meters, you know.

716

00:39:35,500 --> 00:39:37,333 We don't do it.

717

00:39:37,333 --> 00:39:39,233 We only go as far as we get out of sight,

718

00:39:39,233 --> 00:39:40,766 sit down, and come back in. JOHN

719

00:39:40,766 --> 00:39:42,633 PILGER: What happens to an unpopular officer

720

00:39:42,633 --> 00:39:44,766 out in the field?

721

00:39:44,766 --> 00:39:47,800 Mostly unpopular officers, from what I've heard,

722

00:39:47,800 --> 00:39:50,533 if they, if they mess with a grunt too much,

723

00:39:50,533 --> 00:39:53,533 they get shot at.

724

00:39:53,533 --> 00:39:57,033 NARRATOR: It had always been a part of war.

725

00:39:57,033 --> 00:40:00,166 In Vietnam, it was called "fragging,"

726

00:40:00,166 --> 00:40:04,500 after the fragmentation grenades most often used.

727

00:40:04,500 --> 00:40:08,333 Beginning in the summer of 1969,

728

00:40:08,333 --> 00:40:12,300 as thousands of American troops began going home,

729

00:40:12,300 --> 00:40:15,966 the number of reports of the murder or attempted murder

730

00:40:15,966 --> 00:40:18,100 by enlisted men of their superiors

731

00:40:18,100 --> 00:40:21,233 increased alarmingly.

732

00:40:21,233 --> 00:40:26,466 The Army would investigate nearly 800 cases.

733

00:40:26,466 --> 00:40:28,533 Most took place far from the fighting,

734

00:40:28,533 --> 00:40:31,333 usually the violent outcome of arguments over race

735

00:40:31,333 --> 00:40:33,600 or women or drugs

736

00:40:33,600 --> 00:40:36,700 rather than the war itself.

737

00:40:36,700 --> 00:40:39,366 But there were exceptions.

MINUTES 40-50

738

00:40:39,366 --> 00:40:41,366 OKAMOTO: It's a totally different army

739

00:40:41,366 --> 00:40:45,300 than what we sent to Vietnam in 1965.

740

00:40:45,300 --> 00:40:49,433 And the new lieutenant comes in, all gung-ho for body count.

741

00:40:49,433 --> 00:40:53,000 He wants contact, he goes crazy, and says,

742

00:40:53,000 --> 00:40:55,400 "I want a volunteer for this."

743

00:40:55,400 --> 00:40:58,100 (rapid gunfire)

744

00:40:58,100 --> 00:41:04,033 That new gung-ho officer was a clear and present danger

745

00:41:04,033 --> 00:41:07,833 to the life and limb of the grunts.

746

00:41:07,833 --> 00:41:10,500 They'd have subtle hints, like a little note saying,

747

00:41:10,500 --> 00:41:13,233 "We're gonna kill your ass if you keep this up."

748

00:41:13,233 --> 00:41:16,300 Or instead of a fragmentation grenade,

749

00:41:16,300 --> 00:41:20,133 they may throw a smoke grenade in an officer's hooch or bunker.

750

00:41:20,133 --> 00:41:24,200 And if they didn't correct their behavior and outlook,

751

00:41:24,200 --> 00:41:27,700 yeah, they would frag them.

752

00:41:27,700 --> 00:41:31,466 RAMIREZ: I saw it happen in a very, uh, strange way.

753

00:41:31,466 --> 00:41:39,700 We were in a base and a Marine started running towards me.

754

00:41:39,700 --> 00:41:41,866 I didn't realize that what he...

755

00:41:41,866 --> 00:41:44,100 what he was doing back in the dark over there

756

00:41:44,100 --> 00:41:46,366 was actually throw a hand grenade

757

00:41:46,366 --> 00:41:49,933 underneath the space that is underneath a hooch.

758

00:41:49,933 --> 00:41:51,333 (explosion)

759

00:41:51,333 --> 00:41:53,733 And when it exploded, I went, "Holy ..."

760

00:41:53,733 --> 00:41:57,166 And I knew right away what he had done.

761

00:41:57,166 --> 00:42:00,533 And he was an African-American Marine.

762

00:42:00,533 --> 00:42:02,600 African-Americans were treated

763

00:42:02,600 --> 00:42:05,066 with disrespect by their superiors.

764

00:42:05,066 --> 00:42:09,033 This was not uncommon.

765

00:42:09,033 --> 00:42:14,033 So in a ways, as bad as this sounds,

766

00:42:14,033 --> 00:42:16,533 maybe that guy had it coming to him.

767

00:42:16,533 --> 00:42:18,000 I don't know.

768

00:42:21,233 --> 00:42:24,166 HUGH DOWNS(?): In Paris, the 29th session of the so-called peace talks

769

00:42:24,166 --> 00:42:25,166 took place.

770

00:42:25,166 --> 00:42:27,066 There was no progress.

771

00:42:27,066 --> 00:42:30,500 In Vietnam, it was announced that 139 Americans

772

00:42:30,500 --> 00:42:32,100 lost their lives last week,

773

00:42:32,100 --> 00:42:34,800 bringing total deaths in our longest war...

774

00:42:34,800 --> 00:42:37,800 NARRATOR: The four-way peace talks in Paris

775

00:42:37,800 --> 00:42:40,500 continued to go nowhere.

776

00:42:40,500 --> 00:42:44,166 To break the logjam, Nixon directed Henry Kissinger

777

00:42:44,166 --> 00:42:46,933 to begin secret talks,

778

00:42:46,933 --> 00:42:49,666 the first in a series of clandestine meetings

779

00:42:49,666 --> 00:42:52,533 with the North Vietnamese alone.

780

00:42:52,533 --> 00:42:54,866 They first met in an apartment building

781

00:42:54,866 --> 00:42:57,000 on the Rue de Rivoli.

782

00:42:57,000 --> 00:43:00,033 The Viet Cong and the South Vietnamese government

783

00:43:00,033 --> 00:43:02,900 were not included.

784

00:43:02,900 --> 00:43:05,933 Hanoi remained immovable.

785

00:43:05,933 --> 00:43:09,800 They would not even admit they had troops in South Vietnam,

786

00:43:09,800 --> 00:43:13,833 let alone discuss withdrawing them.

787

00:43:13,833 --> 00:43:15,700 Now Kissinger warned

788

00:43:15,700 --> 00:43:19,000 that if there were no change in their position by November 1,

789

00:43:19,000 --> 00:43:21,033 the one-year anniversary

790

00:43:21,033 --> 00:43:23,466 of President Johnson's bombing halt,

791

00:43:23,466 --> 00:43:25,266 President Nixon

792

00:43:25,266 --> 00:43:28,166 would "consider steps of grave consequence."

793

00:43:40,700 --> 00:43:44,300 NARRATOR: September 2, 1969,

794

00:43:44,300 --> 00:43:46,666 was the 24th anniversary

795

00:43:46,666 --> 00:43:50,566 of Ho Chi Minh's declaration of Vietnamese independence

796

00:43:50,566 --> 00:43:52,933 in Hanoi's Ba Dinh Square.

797

00:43:54,933 --> 00:43:59,833 At 9:45 that morning, Ho died.[28]

798

00:43:59,833 --> 00:44:04,633 He was said to be 79, but like so much about him,

799

00:44:04,633 --> 00:44:10,033 the precise date of his birth was shrouded in mystery.[29]

800

00:44:10,033 --> 00:44:12,733 He had been "Uncle Ho" for decades,

801

00:44:12,733 --> 00:44:16,133 the living embodiment of the struggle against the Japanese,

802

00:44:16,133 --> 00:44:19,133 the French, the Saigon government,

803

00:44:19,133 --> 00:44:22,100 and then the Americans.

804

00:44:22,100 --> 00:44:24,200 ♪

805

00:44:24,200 --> 00:44:27,066 In a speech to the National Assembly,

806

00:44:27,066 --> 00:44:31,600 Le Duan, the First Secretary of the Communist Party,

807

00:44:31,600 --> 00:44:33,000 who had been the architect

808

00:44:33,000 --> 00:44:35,666 of North Vietnamese military policy

809

00:44:35,666 --> 00:44:37,033 for a decade,

810

00:44:37,033 --> 00:44:41,133 promised to fulfill what he said was Ho's vision:

811

00:44:41,133 --> 00:44:47,000 the reunification of the country on communist terms.

812

00:44:48,566 --> 00:44:51,333 Nothing had changed.

813

00:44:51,333 --> 00:44:53,200 ROBERT FRISHMAN: Hanoi has given the false impression

814

00:44:53,200 --> 00:44:56,566 that all is wine and roses and it isn't so.

815

00:44:56,566 --> 00:44:59,033 NARRATOR: The same day Ho Chi Minh died,

816

00:44:59,033 --> 00:45:01,766 an unusual press conference was held

817

00:45:01,766 --> 00:45:04,766 at the Bethesda Naval Medical Center.

818

00:45:04,766 --> 00:45:07,533 Two ailing prisoners of war,

819

00:45:07,533 --> 00:45:11,100 Robert Frishman and Douglas Hegdahl,

820

00:45:11,100 --> 00:45:13,466 who had recently been released by the North Vietnamese,

821

00:45:13,466 --> 00:45:15,700 spoke in public for the first time

822

00:45:15,700 --> 00:45:17,600 about the severe treatment

823

00:45:17,600 --> 00:45:21,066 they and their fellow prisoners had received.

824

00:45:21,066 --> 00:45:23,633 I don't think solitary confinement,

825

00:45:23,633 --> 00:45:27,533 forced statements, living in a cage for three years,

826

00:45:27,533 --> 00:45:31,466 being put in straps, not being allowed to sleep or eat,

827

00:45:31,466 --> 00:45:35,033 removal of fingernails, being hung from a ceiling,

828

00:45:35,033 --> 00:45:37,400 having an infected arm which was almost lost,

829

00:45:37,400 --> 00:45:39,733 not receiving medical care,

830

00:45:39,733 --> 00:45:42,000 being dragged along the ground with a broken leg,

831

00:45:42,000 --> 00:45:45,033 or not allowing exchange of mail to prisoners of war

832

00:45:45,033 --> 00:45:46,466 are humane.[30]

833

00:45:46,466 --> 00:45:50,766 NARRATOR: Douglas Hegdahl was quiet, self-effacing,

834

00:45:50,766 --> 00:45:53,433 and so apparently clueless,

835

00:45:53,433 --> 00:45:55,600 his North Vietnamese guards

836

00:45:55,600 --> 00:45:58,433 had called him the "stupid one."

837

00:45:58,433 --> 00:46:00,000 But once released,

838

00:46:00,000 --> 00:46:03,366 he was a gold mine of information.

839

00:46:03,366 --> 00:46:07,366 He had memorized the names of more than 200 prisoners

840

00:46:07,366 --> 00:46:11,100 to the tune of "Old McDonald Had a Farm."

841

00:46:11,100 --> 00:46:14,033 Thanks to him, scores of American families

842

00:46:14,033 --> 00:46:16,233 would find out for the first time

843

00:46:16,233 --> 00:46:21,500 that their sons and husbands and fathers were still alive.

844

00:46:21,500 --> 00:46:25,100 Within a few days of the press conference,

845

00:46:25,100 --> 00:46:28,966 Hanoi's treatment of the prisoners began to improve.

846

00:46:28,966 --> 00:46:32,933 "A lot less brutality," one captive remembered,

847

00:46:32,933 --> 00:46:35,466 "and larger bowls of rice."

848

00:46:38,100 --> 00:46:40,300 (explosion)

849

00:46:40,300 --> 00:46:41,966 (men yelling)

850

00:46:41,966 --> 00:46:43,866 (rapid gunfire)

851

00:46:50,233 --> 00:46:51,666 DEVALLIER: All right, who's wounded?

852

00:46:51,666 --> 00:46:54,400 All right, give me some cover!

853

00:46:54,400 --> 00:46:57,166 RICHARD THRELKELD: Devallier is the lone medic in the platoon.

854

00:46:57,166 --> 00:46:58,433 He's scared,

855

00:46:58,433 --> 00:47:00,933 scared from the moment he gets out of the chopper

856

00:47:00,933 --> 00:47:02,466 to the moment it picks him up.

857

00:47:02,466 --> 00:47:05,466 Scared that someday he's going to get killed

858

00:47:05,466 --> 00:47:08,566 picking up a wounded buddy.

859

00:47:08,566 --> 00:47:10,466 (rapid gunfire, men yelling)

860

00:47:12,200 --> 00:47:14,500 WAYNE SMITH: ARMY MEDIC I was the replacement

861

00:47:14,500 --> 00:47:18,200 for a medic who had been killed.

862

00:47:18,200 --> 00:47:21,866 First time out, we were assigned to do a patrol.

863

00:47:21,866 --> 00:47:25,366 MAN: Remember to stop the bleeding!

864

00:47:25,366 --> 00:47:31,066 SMITH: And we stumbled actually into an ambush.

865

00:47:31,066 --> 00:47:33,800 (explosion)

866

00:47:33,800 --> 00:47:37,266 And it was incredibly terrifying.

867

00:47:37,266 --> 00:47:39,666 Guys were screaming and yelling.

868

00:47:39,666 --> 00:47:42,033 There was shooting everywhere.

869

00:47:42,033 --> 00:47:46,100 That first firefight, I remember praying to God,

870

00:47:46,100 --> 00:47:52,333 if He got me through this that I would make a difference.

871

00:47:52,333 --> 00:47:56,733 That I really would make a difference.

872

00:47:56,733 --> 00:47:59,900 MEDIC: Sometimes their lives depend on you, I mean;

873

00:47:59,900 --> 00:48:03,000 you hold it in your hands, as a medic.

874

00:48:03,000 --> 00:48:05,966 It's just hard to say but right then,

875

00:48:05,966 --> 00:48:08,300 you hold life and death in your hand.

876

00:48:08,300 --> 00:48:12,100 NARRATOR: In Vietnam, medics and navy corpsmen

877

00:48:12,100 --> 00:48:14,666 accompanied infantry units on patrols,

878

00:48:14,666 --> 00:48:16,633 search and destroy missions,

879

00:48:16,633 --> 00:48:20,233 and large-scale combat operations.

880

00:48:20,233 --> 00:48:24,100 Nearly 2,000 would lose their lives.

881

00:48:24,100 --> 00:48:26,000 (helicopter whirring)

882

00:48:27,766 --> 00:48:30,433 Unlike in previous wars,

883

00:48:30,433 --> 00:48:33,833 many medics in Vietnam chose to carry weapons,

884

00:48:33,833 --> 00:48:36,333 and when the shooting started,

885

00:48:36,333 --> 00:48:39,133 were willing to use them to protect themselves

886

00:48:39,133 --> 00:48:42,100 and their wounded comrades.

887

00:48:42,100 --> 00:48:45,600 SMITH: I carried an M16,

888

00:48:45,600 --> 00:48:48,766 but I did not know if I could kill.

889

00:48:48,766 --> 00:48:52,466 Part of being a medic was to save lives.

890

00:48:52,466 --> 00:48:58,800 I wondered, if the scenario presented itself, would I?

891

00:48:58,800 --> 00:49:03,600 I did participate in shooting at the enemy.

892

00:49:03,600 --> 00:49:06,133 We killed a lot of people.

893

00:49:06,133 --> 00:49:09,400 I feel that responsibility.

894

00:49:10,833 --> 00:49:13,700 I feel blood on my hands.

895

00:49:19,066 --> 00:49:23,800 When you kill someone for your country,

896

00:49:23,800 --> 00:49:26,733 all things change.

897

00:49:28,366 --> 00:49:29,833 ("Come Ye" by Nina Simone playing)

898

00:49:29,833 --> 00:49:32,266 ♪ Come ye

899

00:49:34,666 --> 00:49:38,166 ♪ Ye who would have peace...

900

00:49:38,166 --> 00:49:39,666 SAM BROWN: ANTI-WAR ACTIVIST We believed it's possible

901

00:49:39,666 --> 00:49:41,833 to create a substantial majority in this country

902

00:49:41,833 --> 00:49:43,533 for withdrawal from Vietnam,

903

00:49:43,533 --> 00:49:45,400 and that's what we're about in the long run.

904

00:49:45,400 --> 00:49:47,366 In November, we'll be back again,

905

00:49:47,366 --> 00:49:48,966 in December, we'll be back again.

906

00:49:48,966 --> 00:49:50,933 And we intend to build the movement,

907

00:49:50,933 --> 00:49:53,333 which will make it imperative

908

00:49:53,333 --> 00:49:55,733 that the United States withdraw from Vietnam.

909

00:49:55,733 --> 00:49:58,700 REPORTER: The organizers of the moratorium do not aim

910

00:49:58,700 --> 00:50:01,433 at confrontation or scuffles with the police.

911

00:50:01,433 --> 00:50:04,500 Instead, they want to involve the most people possible

912

00:50:04,500 --> 00:50:07,533 in some gesture of protest, however modest,

913

00:50:07,533 --> 00:50:11,166 so as to show the administration that a large bloc of Americans

914

00:50:11,166 --> 00:50:13,766 care not about winning or losing the war,

915

00:50:13,766 --> 00:50:16,066 but only about ending it.

916

00:50:16,066 --> 00:50:19,400 ♪ Ye who have no fear

917

00:50:19,400 --> 00:50:20,666 Thank you.

918

00:50:20,666 --> 00:50:23,000 NIXON: Now, I understand

919

00:50:23,000 --> 00:50:25,366 that there has been and continues to be

920

00:50:25,366 --> 00:50:28,333 opposition to the war in Vietnam on the campuses

921

00:50:28,333 --> 00:50:31,333 and also in the nation.

922

00:50:31,333 --> 00:50:32,466 Uh, we expect it.

923

00:50:32,466 --> 00:50:34,466 However, under no circumstances

924

00:50:34,466 --> 00:50:37,733 will I be affected whatever by it.

MINUTES 50-60

925

00:50:37,733 --> 00:50:41,666 NARRATOR: Hoping to undercut support for the moratorium,

926

00:50:41,666 --> 00:50:43,966 Nixon canceled the draft calls

927

00:50:43,966 --> 00:50:47,833 for the months of November and December 1969.

928

00:50:47,833 --> 00:50:51,233 And he instituted a random lottery system

929

00:50:51,233 --> 00:50:54,100 based on the date of a young man's birth,

930

00:50:54,100 --> 00:50:57,100 intended to treat rich and poor alike

931

00:50:57,100 --> 00:51:00,866 and do away with unfair deferments.

932

00:51:00,866 --> 00:51:04,566 It was good policy and a brilliant political maneuver.[31]

933

00:51:04,566 --> 00:51:05,966 (siren wails)

934

00:51:05,966 --> 00:51:07,433 On the line, brothers and sisters.

935

00:51:07,433 --> 00:51:08,933 On the line now.

936

00:51:08,933 --> 00:51:10,600 ("Subterranean Homesick Blues" by Bob Dylan playing)

937

00:51:10,600 --> 00:51:12,833 NARRATOR: As people across the country organized

938

00:51:12,833 --> 00:51:14,766 for the peaceful moratorium,

939

00:51:14,766 --> 00:51:16,833 members of a radical faction

940

00:51:16,833 --> 00:51:19,666 of the Students for a Democratic Society--

941

00:51:19,666 --> 00:51:20,966 the "Weathermen"--

942

00:51:20,966 --> 00:51:22,166 took more direct action.

943

00:51:22,166 --> 00:51:23,566 ♪ The man in a trench coat

944

00:51:23,566 --> 00:51:26,266 NARRATOR: Less interested in ending the war

945

00:51:26,266 --> 00:51:28,866 than in sparking a violent revolution,

946

00:51:28,866 --> 00:51:33,700 they staged what they called four "Days of Rage" in Chicago.

947

00:51:33,700 --> 00:51:35,900 DYLAN: ♪ You better duck down the alleyway ♪

948

00:51:35,900 --> 00:51:39,066 MAN: We no longer simply resist the pigs.

949

00:51:39,066 --> 00:51:41,133 We no longer trap ourselves

950

00:51:41,133 --> 00:51:42,766 so that the only possible motion

951

00:51:42,766 --> 00:51:44,933 is in response to pig attacks.

952

00:51:44,933 --> 00:51:47,266 We have gone on the offensive.

953

00:51:47,266 --> 00:51:49,266 It is we who call the shots now.

954

00:51:49,266 --> 00:51:51,533 NARRATOR: "Kill all the rich people,"

955

00:51:51,533 --> 00:51:52,866 one of their leaders said.[32]

956

00:51:52,866 --> 00:51:55,933 "Break up their cars and apartments.

957

00:51:55,933 --> 00:51:58,166 "Bring the revolution home.

958

00:51:58,166 --> 00:51:59,800 "Kill your parents.

959

00:51:59,800 --> 00:52:03,133 That's really where it's at."

960

00:52:03,133 --> 00:52:05,133 MAN: Weathermen takes its name from a line

961

00:52:05,133 --> 00:52:06,900 in a Bob Dylan song which says,

962

00:52:06,900 --> 00:52:08,766 "You don't need a weatherman

963

00:52:08,766 --> 00:52:10,300 to know the way the wind blows."

964

00:52:10,300 --> 00:52:11,933 DYLAN: ♪ Wash the plain clothes

965

00:52:11,933 --> 00:52:13,433 ♪ You don't need a weatherman

966

00:52:13,433 --> 00:52:17,166 ♪ To know which way the wind blows ♪

967

00:52:17,166 --> 00:52:19,566 NARRATOR: The Weathermen assumed

968

00:52:19,566 --> 00:52:22,333 thousands would rally to their cause.

969

00:52:22,333 --> 00:52:25,466 Only 600 did.

970

00:52:25,466 --> 00:52:29,066 They blew up a statue honoring slain policemen,

971

00:52:29,066 --> 00:52:32,400 ran through the streets wielding chains and pipes,

972

00:52:32,400 --> 00:52:34,633 smashing windows and windshields

973

00:52:34,633 --> 00:52:38,266 and charging police barriers.

974

00:52:38,266 --> 00:52:40,033 Six were shot.

975

00:52:40,033 --> 00:52:42,900 250 were jailed.

976

00:52:42,900 --> 00:52:46,233 75 policemen were injured;

977

00:52:46,233 --> 00:52:49,400 a city attorney was paralyzed for life.

978

00:52:49,400 --> 00:52:51,466 (siren wails)

979

00:52:51,466 --> 00:52:54,966 The Black Panthers denounced the Weathermen

980

00:52:54,966 --> 00:52:58,066 as "anarchistic, opportunistic...

981

00:52:58,066 --> 00:53:01,733 Custeristic."

982

00:53:01,733 --> 00:53:04,900 BILL ZIMMERMAN: ANTI-WAR ACTIVIST Probably 1969 was the year

983

00:53:04,900 --> 00:53:07,166 in which most of us were more alienated

984

00:53:07,166 --> 00:53:11,100 and felt more like revolutionaries.

985

00:53:11,100 --> 00:53:15,900 And it led to a lot of crazy responses.

986

00:53:15,900 --> 00:53:19,866 I wanted the country to undergo a radical transformation,

987

00:53:19,866 --> 00:53:22,866 a redistribution of wealth and power.

988

00:53:22,866 --> 00:53:25,233 But to try to bring that about

989

00:53:25,233 --> 00:53:28,066 through armed struggle in the United States

990

00:53:28,066 --> 00:53:30,133 was insane.

991

00:53:30,133 --> 00:53:32,600 These were all infantile fantasies 992

00:53:32,600 --> 00:53:35,500 that people came to out of the frustration

993

00:53:35,500 --> 00:53:38,233 of not having a workable strategy

994

00:53:38,233 --> 00:53:41,600 for ending the war.

995

00:53:41,600 --> 00:53:43,200 REPORTER: What do you think people ought to do, Governor,

996

00:53:43,200 --> 00:53:45,133 who are genuinely opposed to the war

997

00:53:45,133 --> 00:53:47,400 but not in favor of the Viet Cong?

998

00:53:47,400 --> 00:53:51,866 GOV. RONALD REAGAN: Well, I think that we have had... experiences before

999

00:53:51,866 --> 00:53:54,466 of people who have been opposed to wars,

1000

00:53:54,466 --> 00:53:57,433 and I think they deal through their own representatives,

1001

00:53:57,433 --> 00:53:59,933 and it's dealt with in government channels.

1002

00:53:59,933 --> 00:54:02,533 But once the killing starts,

1003

00:54:02,533 --> 00:54:04,500 the very difficult thing then is,

1004

00:54:04,500 --> 00:54:08,433 how do you register these protests

1005

00:54:08,433 --> 00:54:10,500 without lending comfort and aid to the enemy,

1006

00:54:10,500 --> 00:54:12,500 without strengthening his resistance

1007

00:54:12,500 --> 00:54:13,700 and his will to fight

1008

00:54:13,700 --> 00:54:16,333 and thus killing more of our men?

1009

00:54:16,333 --> 00:54:20,533 And most Americans in the past have always respected it.

1010

00:54:20,533 --> 00:54:22,200 CIVILIAN MALE 1: You see, the people in this country

1011

00:54:22,200 --> 00:54:24,266 aren't fighting a Vietnam War.

1012

00:54:24,266 --> 00:54:25,833 The government's fighting it.

1013

00:54:25,833 --> 00:54:27,033 CIVILIAN MALE 2: Well, the government is, uh,

1014

00:54:27,033 --> 00:54:29,266 the government is the people, supposedly, No.

1015

00:54:29,266 --> 00:54:31,533 but in this instance, it is not. Not anymore, it's not.

1016

00:54:31,533 --> 00:54:33,066 CIVILIAN MALE 1: No, I agree with you, it is not.

1017

00:54:33,066 --> 00:54:34,500 Not in this situation, it's not.

1018

00:54:34,500 --> 00:54:36,033 CIVILIAN FEMALE 3: Shouldn't I let my government know

1019

00:54:36,033 --> 00:54:37,266 that I think they're crazy?

1020

00:54:37,266 --> 00:54:38,833 I think they are insane, really.

1021

00:54:38,833 --> 00:54:40,900 This is an insane thing we're doing.

1022

00:54:40,900 --> 00:54:42,466 As a matter of fact,

1023

00:54:42,466 --> 00:54:44,633 Nixon said he will not listen to us

1024

00:54:44,633 --> 00:54:46,333 and that he will not be dictated to

1025

00:54:46,333 --> 00:54:48,233 from the people in the streets.

1026

00:54:48,233 --> 00:54:52,166 The people in the streets are me.

1027

00:54:52,166 --> 00:54:55,133 (chanting "peace now")

1028

00:54:55,133 --> 00:54:59,533 NARRATOR: The moratorium on October 15,[33]

1029

00:54:59,533 --> 00:55:01,200 held all across the country,

1030

00:55:01,200 --> 00:55:04,133 was the largest outpouring of public dissent

1031

00:55:04,133 --> 00:55:05,666 in American history.

1032

00:55:05,666 --> 00:55:09,633 ("Blackbird" by the Beatles playing)

1033

00:55:09,633 --> 00:55:14,433 ♪ Blackbird singing in the dead of night ♪

1034

00:55:14,433 --> 00:55:19,766 ♪ Take these broken wings and learn to fly ♪

1035

00:55:19,766 --> 00:55:23,700 ♪ All your life

1036

00:55:23,700 --> 00:55:28,400 ♪ You were only waiting for this moment to arise ♪

1037

00:55:28,400 --> 00:55:31,266 NARRATOR: It was peaceful, middle-class,

1038

00:55:31,266 --> 00:55:34,366 carefully focused on ending the war.

1039

00:55:34,366 --> 00:55:36,866 "It's nice," one marcher said,

1040

00:55:36,866 --> 00:55:38,700 "to go to a demonstration

1041

00:55:38,700 --> 00:55:43,666 without having to swear allegiance to Chairman Mao."

1042

00:55:43,666 --> 00:55:45,200 ♪ All your life

1043

00:55:45,200 --> 00:55:47,833 FRANK McGEE: Surely this is a day unique in our history.

1044

00:55:47,833 --> 00:55:50,900 Never have so many of our people publicly

1045

00:55:50,900 --> 00:55:53,333 and collectively manifested opposition

1046

00:55:53,333 --> 00:55:56,500 to this country's involvement in a war.

1047

00:55:56,500 --> 00:55:59,533 It is unlikely we will remain unchanged.

1048

00:55:59,533 --> 00:56:02,566 Hundreds and hundreds of thousands

1049

00:56:02,566 --> 00:56:04,766 in cities from New York, with its eight million people,

1050

00:56:04,766 --> 00:56:08,166 to Dubois, Wyoming, with its 800 people,

1051

00:56:08,166 --> 00:56:10,500 have sought to impress upon the president

1052

00:56:10,500 --> 00:56:12,666 their opposition to the war.

1053

00:56:12,666 --> 00:56:15,066 (bell rings)

1054

00:56:15,066 --> 00:56:21,966 CAROL CROCKER: The first large protest march I went to was in Baltimore.

1055

00:56:21,966 --> 00:56:25,633 I'd never been with that many people at one time.

1056

00:56:25,633 --> 00:56:31,800 Just the energy of the crowd itself was tremendous.

1057

00:56:31,800 --> 00:56:34,200 I wondered if everybody was in it

1058

00:56:34,200 --> 00:56:36,300 for the right reasons.

1059

00:56:36,300 --> 00:56:40,966 I wasn't there to drink or smoke pot.

1060

00:56:40,966 --> 00:56:43,300 Not in those situations.

1061

00:56:43,300 --> 00:56:46,933 These, to me, were serious business.

1062

00:56:46,933 --> 00:56:50,500 This was the business of living life.

1063

00:56:50,500 --> 00:56:51,933 This was not a party.

1064

00:56:51,933 --> 00:56:54,700 I didn't just want to be with the crowd.

1065

00:56:54,700 --> 00:56:56,800 I didn't just want to make noise.

1066

00:56:56,800 --> 00:56:58,933 I wanted to make a difference.

1067

00:56:58,933 --> 00:57:03,566 And I in no way wanted to dishonor my brother.

1068

00:57:03,566 --> 00:57:05,200 ♪ For this moment to arrive

1069

00:57:05,200 --> 00:57:07,300 CHARLES QUINN: For most of the government today,

1070

00:57:07,300 --> 00:57:08,833 it was business as usual.

1071

00:57:08,833 --> 00:57:10,700 But at noon on the Capitol steps,

1072

00:57:10,700 --> 00:57:13,200 a thousand young congressional staff employees

1073

00:57:13,200 --> 00:57:15,933 stood in silence for 45 minutes.

1074

00:57:15,933 --> 00:57:20,600 ♪ Blackbird singing in the dead of night ♪

1075

00:57:20,600 --> 00:57:24,100 NARRATOR: The children of several of the President's closest aides

1076

00:57:24,100 --> 00:57:25,600 and cabinet members

1077

00:57:25,600 --> 00:57:28,366 took part in the national moratorium.

1078

00:57:28,366 --> 00:57:31,766 Vice President Agnew's 14-year-old daughter

1079

00:57:31,766 --> 00:57:33,500 wanted to march,

1080

00:57:33,500 --> 00:57:35,133 but he wouldn't let her.

1081

00:57:35,133 --> 00:57:37,233 Coretta Scott King,

1082

00:57:37,233 --> 00:57:40,200 the widow of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.,

1083

00:57:40,200 --> 00:57:43,000 led thousands of silent demonstrators

1084

00:57:43,000 --> 00:57:46,866 streaming past the White House, where Nixon sat alone,

1085

00:57:46,866 --> 00:57:50,300 writing notes to himself on a yellow pad.

1086

00:57:50,300 --> 00:57:52,300 "Don't get rattled. Don't waver.

1087

00:57:52,300 --> 00:57:54,866 Don't react."

1088

00:57:57,466 --> 00:57:59,366 On November 3,

1089

00:57:59,366 --> 00:58:02,900 the President sought to seize back the initiative.

1090

00:58:02,900 --> 00:58:04,800 RICHARD NIXON: Good evening, my fellow Americans.

1091

00:58:04,800 --> 00:58:08,766 NARRATOR: He went on national television and called for patience

1092

00:58:08,766 --> 00:58:12,100 and asked Americans to rally behind him.

1093

00:58:12,100 --> 00:58:14,033 NIXON: To you,

1094

00:58:14,033 --> 00:58:18,433 the great silent majority of my fellow Americans,

1095

00:58:18,433 --> 00:58:20,433 I ask for your support.

1096

00:58:20,433 --> 00:58:23,500 I pledged in my campaign for the Presidency

1097

00:58:23,500 --> 00:58:25,133 to end the war

1098

00:58:25,133 --> 00:58:28,200 in a way that we could win the peace.

1099

00:58:28,200 --> 00:58:31,966 The more support I can have from the American people,

1100

00:58:31,966 --> 00:58:34,100 the sooner that pledge can be redeemed;

1101

00:58:34,100 --> 00:58:37,633 for the more divided we are at home,

1102

00:58:37,633 --> 00:58:41,366 the less likely the enemy is to negotiate at Paris.

1103

00:58:41,366 --> 00:58:42,700 ("Okie From Muskogee" by Merle Haggard playing)

1104

00:58:42,700 --> 00:58:45,166 Let us be united for peace.

1105

00:58:45,166 --> 00:58:49,533 ♪ We don't smoke marijuana in Muskogee ♪

1106

00:58:49,533 --> 00:58:51,766 NARRATOR: The speech was a triumph.

1107

00:58:51,766 --> 00:58:55,666 Nixon's approval rate soared to 68%.

1108

00:58:57,966 --> 00:59:00,433 MAN: All that's in the news

1109

00:59:00,433 --> 00:59:02,733 is the fact that the moratoriums are meeting,

1110

00:59:02,733 --> 00:59:04,800 that our country's sick...

1111

00:59:04,800 --> 00:59:06,666 sick of this and sick of that.

1112

00:59:06,666 --> 00:59:09,400 It's young people are all the ones that are standing up.

1113

00:59:09,400 --> 00:59:12,866 And there is a silent majority, which is no longer silent.

1114

00:59:12,866 --> 00:59:16,200 We're the people who are wanting to show

1115

00:59:16,200 --> 00:59:19,200 that man deserves freedom no matter where he is.

1116

00:59:19,200 --> 00:59:21,500 ♪ A place where even squares can have a ball ♪

1117

00:59:21,500 --> 00:59:24,166 MAN 2: Many brave men died in this country to make it free...

1118

00:59:24,166 --> 00:59:25,933 I believe that.

1119

00:59:25,933 --> 00:59:28,233 and let you... and let you have everything.

1120

00:59:28,233 --> 00:59:31,566 SPIRO AGNEW: Senator Fulbright said some months ago

1121

00:59:31,566 --> 00:59:34,166 that if the Vietnam War went on much longer,

1122

00:59:34,166 --> 00:59:38,100 the best of our young people would be in Canada.

1123

00:59:38,100 --> 00:59:41,000 Indeed, as for these deserters,

1124

00:59:41,000 --> 00:59:45,066 malcontents, radicals, incendiaries,

1125

00:59:45,066 --> 00:59:47,500 the civil and the uncivil disobedience

1126

00:59:47,500 --> 00:59:49,466 among our young,

1127

00:59:49,466 --> 00:59:51,433 SDS, PLP,

1128

00:59:51,433 --> 00:59:52,666 Weatherman one, Weatherman two,

1129

00:59:52,666 --> 00:59:54,966 the Revolutionary Action Movement,

1130

00:59:54,966 --> 00:59:57,200 Panthers, lions, hippies,

1131

00:59:57,200 --> 01:00:00,100 yippies, tigers alike.

1132

01:00:00,100 --> 01:00:02,666 I'd rather swap the whole damn zoo

1133

01:00:02,666 --> 01:00:05,233 for a single platoon of the kind of young Americans

1134

01:00:05,233 --> 01:00:06,633 I saw in Vietnam.

1135

01:00:06,633 --> 01:00:09,600 (applause)

MINUTES 60-70

1136

01:00:09,600 --> 01:00:12,900 NARRATOR: "We've got the liberal bastards on the run now,"

1137

01:00:12,900 --> 01:00:15,533 Nixon told his aides,

1138

01:00:15,533 --> 01:00:19,766 "and we're going to keep them on the run."

1139

01:00:19,766 --> 01:00:21,533 ("My Son" by Jan Howard playing)

1140

01:00:29,933 --> 01:00:34,266 ♪ My son, my son

1141

01:00:34,266 --> 01:00:36,333 JAN HOWARD: My doorbell rang,

1142

01:00:36,333 --> 01:00:38,600 and it was this guy standing there,

1143

01:00:38,600 --> 01:00:41,800 and he said, "Ms. Howard, we're marching in Memphis

1144

01:00:41,800 --> 01:00:44,733 in protest of the Vietnam War."

1145

01:00:44,733 --> 01:00:46,800 I said, "Really?"

1146

01:00:46,800 --> 01:00:50,333 He said, "And we figured in view of what happened..."

1147

01:00:50,333 --> 01:00:53,600 I said, "Yeah, my son's death."

1148

01:00:53,600 --> 01:00:56,466 He said, "Well, we thought you'd like to join us."

1149

01:00:56,466 --> 01:00:58,833 I said, "One of the reasons he died

1150

01:00:58,833 --> 01:01:00,333 "was so you have the right.

1151

01:01:00,333 --> 01:01:03,266 "In this country, you have a right.

1152

01:01:03,266 --> 01:01:05,466 "Go right ahead and demonstrate.

1153

01:01:05,466 --> 01:01:07,533 Have at it."

1154

01:01:07,533 --> 01:01:10,000 I said, "But no, I won't be joining you."

1155

01:01:10,000 --> 01:01:11,733 I said, "But I'll tell you what.

1156

01:01:11,733 --> 01:01:13,566 "If you ever ring my doorbell again,

1157

01:01:13,566 --> 01:01:16,566 I will blow your damn head off with a .357 Magnum."

1158

01:01:26,900 --> 01:01:29,266 TIM O'BRIEN: ARMY: Well, I was stationed in Vietnam

1159

01:01:29,266 --> 01:01:32,766 at a province called Quang Ngai.

1160

01:01:32,766 --> 01:01:34,400 Even back during the time of the French,

1161

01:01:34,400 --> 01:01:38,500 it was a very heavily Viet Minh area,

1162

01:01:38,500 --> 01:01:40,966 and, when I arrived, heavily Viet Cong.

1163

01:01:42,633 --> 01:01:46,300 NARRATOR: No province suffered more during the American war

1164

01:01:46,300 --> 01:01:48,766 than the coastal province of Quang Ngai.

1165

01:01:48,766 --> 01:01:50,833 (artillery fire)

1166

01:01:50,833 --> 01:01:55,666 More than 70% of its villages had been shelled by Navy ships,

1167

01:01:55,666 --> 01:01:59,600 bombed, bulldozed, or burned to the ground,

1168

01:01:59,600 --> 01:02:02,133 and more than 40% of its people

1169

01:02:02,133 --> 01:02:04,800 had been forced into refugee camps

1170

01:02:04,800 --> 01:02:08,366 before Tim O'Brien from Worthington, Minnesota,

1171

01:02:08,366 --> 01:02:10,766 got there in 1969.

1172

01:02:12,833 --> 01:02:14,600 O'BRIEN: It was a province that was viewed

1173

01:02:14,600 --> 01:02:17,066 much as I guess many Americans might view,

1174

01:02:17,066 --> 01:02:19,400 you know, sort of redneck America.

1175

01:02:19,400 --> 01:02:22,866 Sort of country bumpkins.

1176

01:02:22,866 --> 01:02:24,266 And they may have been country bumpkins,

1177

01:02:24,266 --> 01:02:26,833 but they were fiercely independent.

1178

01:02:26,833 --> 01:02:30,300 NARRATOR: Private O'Brien served in Alpha Company,

1179

01:02:30,300 --> 01:02:35,000 3rd Platoon, 5th Battalion, 23rd Americal Division,

1180

01:02:35,000 --> 01:02:38,233 headquartered at a landing zone called Gator,

1181

01:02:38,233 --> 01:02:41,533 "30 or 40 acres of almost-America,"

1182

01:02:41,533 --> 01:02:43,266 O'Brien remembered,

1183

01:02:43,266 --> 01:02:46,500 with hot showers and cold beer.

1184

01:02:48,233 --> 01:02:50,033 O'BRIEN: There was no sense of mission.

1185

01:02:50,033 --> 01:02:51,666 There was no sense of daily purpose.

1186

01:02:51,666 --> 01:02:53,833 We didn't know why we were in a village

1187

01:02:53,833 --> 01:02:56,066 or what we were supposed to accomplish.

1188

01:02:56,066 --> 01:02:58,333 So we'd kick around jugs of rice

1189

01:02:58,333 --> 01:03:01,366 and search houses and frisk people,

1190

01:03:01,366 --> 01:03:03,800 and not knowing what we were looking for

1191

01:03:03,800 --> 01:03:07,300 and rarely finding anything.

1192

01:03:07,300 --> 01:03:08,633 And somebody might die,

1193

01:03:08,633 --> 01:03:10,533 one of our guys, and somebody might not.

1194

01:03:10,533 --> 01:03:13,000 Then we'd come back to the same village a week later

1195

01:03:13,000 --> 01:03:15,333 or two weeks later, do it all over again.

1196

01:03:15,333 --> 01:03:18,233 It was like chasing ghosts.

1197

01:03:18,233 --> 01:03:20,533 (helicopter blades whirring)

1198

01:03:22,200 --> 01:03:24,100 NARRATOR: An American APC

1199

01:03:24,100 --> 01:03:27,733 accidentally crushed one man from O'Brien's company.

1200

01:03:27,733 --> 01:03:32,033 An enemy grenade skittered off O'Brien's helmet and exploded,

1201

01:03:32,033 --> 01:03:35,433 wounding a G.I. standing a few feet away.

1202

01:03:38,366 --> 01:03:42,300 But mines and booby traps were the greatest menace.

1203

01:03:48,800 --> 01:03:51,433 O'BRIEN: Somewhere around 80% of our casualties

1204

01:03:51,433 --> 01:03:53,833 came from land mines of all sorts.

1205

01:03:55,533 --> 01:03:58,566 In Vietnam, for me, just to get up in the morning

1206

01:03:58,566 --> 01:04:01,933 and look out at the land and think,

1207

01:04:01,933 --> 01:04:04,833 "In a few minutes I'll be walking out there,

1208

01:04:04,833 --> 01:04:07,800 "and will my corpse be there or there?

1209

01:04:07,800 --> 01:04:11,100 Will I lose a leg out there?"

1210

01:04:11,100 --> 01:04:15,433 I'd always thought of courage as charging enemy bunkers

1211

01:04:15,433 --> 01:04:17,800 or standing up under fire.

1212

01:04:17,800 --> 01:04:21,233 But just to walk through Quang Ngai,

1213

01:04:21,233 --> 01:04:23,600 day after day, from village to village,

1214

01:04:23,600 --> 01:04:28,066 and through the paddies and up into the mountains,

1215

01:04:28,066 --> 01:04:31,700 just to make your legs move was an act of courage

1216

01:04:31,700 --> 01:04:34,466 that if, say, you were living in Sioux City,

1217

01:04:34,466 --> 01:04:36,200 it wouldn't be courageous

1218

01:04:36,200 --> 01:04:38,800 to walk to the grocery store or down Main Street,

1219

01:04:38,800 --> 01:04:41,433 you know, just to have your legs go back and forth.

1220

01:04:41,433 --> 01:04:43,166 But in Vietnam, for me,

1221

01:04:43,166 --> 01:04:45,366 just to walk felt incredibly brave.

1222

01:04:45,366 --> 01:04:47,933 I would sometimes look at my legs as I walked,

1223

01:04:47,933 --> 01:04:49,900 thinking, "How am I doing this?"

1224

01:04:52,700 --> 01:04:54,533 BAO NINH: NORTH VIETNAMESE ARMY. The Americans thought we were followers of Marx. No, you were wrong. We fought for this country so that there would be no more bombing, no more war. There would be no more death, no more destruction.[34]

1225

01:05:22,266 --> 01:05:24,600 NARRATOR: Bao Ninh was 17

1226

01:05:24,600 --> 01:05:27,566 when he was drafted into the North Vietnamese Army

1227

01:05:27,566 --> 01:05:28,766 to fight the Americans,

1228

01:05:28,766 --> 01:05:32,166 just as his father had fought the French.

1229

01:05:32,166 --> 01:05:35,500 His war would take place in the Central Highlands

1230

01:05:35,500 --> 01:05:37,733 of South Vietnam.

1231

01:05:37,733 --> 01:05:39,933 It was American firepower

1232

01:05:39,933 --> 01:05:44,566 that Bao Ninh and his fellow soldiers feared the most.

1233

01:05:44,566 --> 01:05:45,566 (explosion)

1234

01:05:45,566 --> 01:05:47,266 BAO NINH: While the bombs were falling, only a stone wouldn't be terrified. If the Americans noticed movement in the forest, they would eliminate the forest. Who knows how much money was spent? American taxpayers' money. If a cluster of napalm bombs were dropped, the jungle would turn into a sea of fire. Can you imagine a sea of fire? Of course, a soldier's life is miserable. Even American soldiers were miserable. A young man like Tim O'Brien, he was really miserable. But they weren't starving, they couldn't starve. We had to forage for food. Our army gave us only a bit of rice and salt. We were always searching for American food. They called them C-rations. A regular American soldier carried enough food for a picnic, everything you'd want. It wasn't like the wars I read about in western literature, such as World War I, where deserters were shot. Vietnamese couldn't do that because they would've had to kill everyone. In Vietnam a deserter would run home to visit his mother for a few days, and then return. And they let him rejoin. Most weren't afraid of dying. Soldiers know they're alive today but could die tomorrow. But if a soldier was homesick, if he missed his mother, he'd walk a thousand kilometers back to the North.[35]

1235

01:07:12,766 --> 01:07:14,133 (explosion)

1236

01:08:03,966 --> 01:08:06,366 (birds chirping, squawking)

1237

01:08:10,000 --> 01:08:12,166 NARRATOR: Back in the spring,

1238

01:08:12,166 --> 01:08:15,700 Tim O'Brien's outfit had been sent into an area of operations

1239

01:08:15,700 --> 01:08:18,600 the Americans called "Pinkville,"

1240

01:08:18,600 --> 01:08:20,533 clusters of villages

1241

01:08:20,533 --> 01:08:23,899 that included a hamlet they called My Lai.

1242

01:08:25,833 --> 01:08:28,066 O'BRIEN: We hated going there.

1243

01:08:28,066 --> 01:08:30,933 When we'd get the word, "You're headed for Pinkville,"

1244

01:08:30,933 --> 01:08:32,966 one guy would say to another, "Somebody's gonna die,"

1245

01:08:32,966 --> 01:08:34,399 or, "Somebody's gonna lose a leg."

1246

01:08:34,399 --> 01:08:36,500 We were terrified of the place.

1247

01:08:36,500 --> 01:08:40,033 It was littered with land mines.

1248

01:08:40,033 --> 01:08:41,966 The villagers were...

1249

01:08:41,966 --> 01:08:43,866 The expressions on their faces,

1250

01:08:43,866 --> 01:08:48,266 including the children of, say, six or five years old,

1251

01:08:48,266 --> 01:08:53,366 had a mixture of hostility and terror.

1252

01:08:55,700 --> 01:08:57,266 I can't say many of the villagers

1253

01:08:57,266 --> 01:08:59,399 came with open arms to us,

1254

01:08:59,399 --> 01:09:01,600 but this place was special.

1255

01:09:01,600 --> 01:09:03,700 And I remember talking to fellow soldiers,

1256

01:09:03,700 --> 01:09:05,966 thinking, "What is it with this place?"

1257

01:09:07,333 --> 01:09:09,466 And then about three-quarters of the way

1258

01:09:09,466 --> 01:09:11,200 through my tour in Vietnam,

1259

01:09:11,200 --> 01:09:14,399 the story of the My Lai Massacre broke in the States.

1260

01:09:15,700 --> 01:09:18,800 NARRATOR: On November 12, 1969,

1261

01:09:18,800 --> 01:09:21,433 the Dispatch News Service in Washington

1262

01:09:21,433 --> 01:09:25,500 moved a story by investigative journalist Seymour Hersh.

1263

01:09:26,866 --> 01:09:29,200 It was soon followed by the publication

1264

01:09:29,200 --> 01:09:34,166 of graphic photos taken by Army photographer Ronald Haeberle.

1265

01:09:35,633 --> 01:09:39,566 The story and the pictures stunned the country.

1266

01:09:39,566 --> 01:09:41,233 HUNTLEY: Charges have been made

1267

01:09:41,233 --> 01:09:44,066 that troops of the Americal Division

1268

01:09:44,066 --> 01:09:47,600 killed as many as 567 South Vietnamese civilians

1269

01:09:47,600 --> 01:09:50,766 during a sweep in March 1968.

MINUTES 70-80

1270

01:09:52,033 --> 01:09:54,100 NARRATOR: 20 months earlier,

1271

01:09:54,100 --> 01:09:57,666 on the morning of March 16, 1968,

1272

01:09:57,666 --> 01:10:00,400 105 men from a rifle company

1273

01:10:00,400 --> 01:10:02,666 belonging to the Americal Division,

1274

01:10:02,666 --> 01:10:04,866 and led by Captain Ernest Medina

1275

01:10:04,866 --> 01:10:07,100 and Lieutenant William Calley,

1276

01:10:07,100 --> 01:10:11,200 had been ordered to helicopter into the village of My Lai 4.

1277

01:10:12,533 --> 01:10:15,866 Since arriving in Vietnam, they had lost 28 men

1278

01:10:15,866 --> 01:10:20,833 to mines and booby traps and unseen snipers.

1279

01:10:20,833 --> 01:10:25,800 Two days earlier, a popular squad leader had been killed.

1280

01:10:25,800 --> 01:10:29,566 They had been told a unit of main-force Viet Cong

1281

01:10:29,566 --> 01:10:31,333 was waiting for them,

1282

01:10:31,333 --> 01:10:34,100 and they were eager for revenge.

1283

01:10:35,400 --> 01:10:38,000 But they received no hostile fire,

1284

01:10:38,000 --> 01:10:42,800 encountered no enemy soldiers.

1285

01:10:44,266 --> 01:10:47,666 Instead, over the next four hours,

1286

01:10:47,666 --> 01:10:50,600 Medina, Calley, and their men murdered

1287

01:10:50,600 --> 01:10:58,266 407 defenseless old men, women, children, and infants.

1288

01:11:08,333 --> 01:11:11,100 Many of the women and girls were raped

1289

01:11:11,100 --> 01:11:13,400 before they were shot.

1290

01:11:16,466 --> 01:11:18,866 There would have been still more slaughter

1291

01:11:18,866 --> 01:11:23,133 had a helicopter pilot named Hugh Thompson, Jr., not landed

1292

01:11:23,133 --> 01:11:26,633 between the men and some of their intended targets

1293

01:11:26,633 --> 01:11:30,366 and ordered his crew to open fire on their fellow Americans

1294

01:11:30,366 --> 01:11:33,633 if they did not stop shooting civilians.[36]

1295

01:11:36,866 --> 01:11:40,533 At the same time, just a mile or so away,

1296

01:11:40,533 --> 01:11:45,233 another company murdered 97 more villagers.

1297

01:11:47,233 --> 01:11:50,366 O'BRIEN: And suddenly it was like a window shade going up,

1298

01:11:50,366 --> 01:11:51,900 and then there's light,

1299

01:11:51,900 --> 01:11:54,000 and we understood what had engendered

1300

01:11:54,000 --> 01:11:57,433 this horror in these kids' faces

1301

01:11:57,433 --> 01:12:00,266 and fear and the... and the hatred.

1302

01:12:00,266 --> 01:12:03,966 Hundred and some American soldiers in four hours or so

1303

01:12:03,966 --> 01:12:06,733 butchering innocent people,

1304

01:12:06,733 --> 01:12:08,900 in all kinds of ways-- machine-gunning them

1305

01:12:08,900 --> 01:12:11,300 and throwing them in wells and scalping them

1306

01:12:11,300 --> 01:12:13,300 and killing them in ditches

1307

01:12:13,300 --> 01:12:15,900 and taking a lunch break and then doing it some more.

1308

01:12:17,033 --> 01:12:19,266 Systematic homicide.

1309

01:12:19,266 --> 01:12:20,900 MIKE WALLACE: What kind of people?

1310

01:12:20,900 --> 01:12:22,000 Men, women, children?

1311

01:12:22,000 --> 01:12:23,533 PAUL MEADLO: Men, women, children.

1312

01:12:23,533 --> 01:12:25,333 WALLACE: Babies? MEADLO: Babies.

1313

01:12:25,333 --> 01:12:27,333 Uh, Lieutenant Calley came over and said,

1314

01:12:27,333 --> 01:12:29,333 "You know what to do with them, don't you?"

1315

01:12:29,333 --> 01:12:30,933 And, uh, I said, "Yes."

1316

01:12:30,933 --> 01:12:35,033 So l took it for granted that he just wanted us to watch them.

1317

01:12:35,033 --> 01:12:36,900 And he left and came back

1318

01:12:36,900 --> 01:12:39,566 about ten or... ten or 15 minutes later,

1319

01:12:39,566 --> 01:12:43,833 and said, "How come you ain't, uh, killed them yet?"

1320

01:12:43,833 --> 01:12:45,500 MIKE WALLACE: You killed how many at that time?

1321

01:12:45,500 --> 01:12:48,133 PAUL MEADLO: Well, I fired my automatic, so, uh...

1322

01:12:48,133 --> 01:12:50,866 you can't, uh... you just spray the area on them,

1323

01:12:50,866 --> 01:12:53,333 so you really can't know how many you killed

1324

01:12:53,333 --> 01:12:56,166 because it comes out so doggone fast.

1325

01:12:56,166 --> 01:13:00,466 So I, I might've killed about, uh, ten or 15 of them.

1326

01:13:01,600 --> 01:13:03,200 WALLACE: Men, women, and children?

1327

01:13:03,200 --> 01:13:04,866 MEADLO: Men, women, and children.

1328

01:13:04,866 --> 01:13:06,933 BOTH: And babies? And babies.

1329

01:13:08,400 --> 01:13:10,400 MEADLO: Why did I do it?

1330

01:13:10,400 --> 01:13:13,300 Because I felt like I was ordered to do it.

1331

01:13:13,300 --> 01:13:15,866 And it seemed like, uh...

1332

01:13:18,566 --> 01:13:22,633 Well, at the time, I felt like I was doing the right thing.

1333

01:13:22,633 --> 01:13:24,633 I really did.

1334

01:13:24,633 --> 01:13:27,866 Because, uh, like I said, I lost buddies,

1335

01:13:27,866 --> 01:13:29,866 I lost... I lost a good...

1336

01:13:29,866 --> 01:13:34,333 damn good buddy-- Bobby Wilson--

1337

01:13:34,333 --> 01:13:38,100 and it was on my conscience, and it was on...

1338

01:13:38,100 --> 01:13:40,166 So after I done it, I felt good.

1339

01:13:40,166 --> 01:13:44,433 But later on that day, it was getting to me.

1340

01:13:44,433 --> 01:13:47,600 MIKE WALLACE: It's so hard, I think, for a good many Americans

1341

01:13:47,600 --> 01:13:50,733 to understand that young, capable,

1342

01:13:50,733 --> 01:13:54,066 brave American boys

1343

01:13:54,066 --> 01:13:57,100 could line up

1344

01:13:57,100 --> 01:14:01,866 old men, women, children, and babies

1345

01:14:01,866 --> 01:14:04,600 and shoot them down in cold blood.

1346

01:14:09,333 --> 01:14:11,666 How do you explain that?

1347

01:14:11,666 --> 01:14:13,600 PAUL MEADLO: I wouldn't know.

1348

01:14:19,533 --> 01:14:21,433 (low, distant chatter)

1349

01:14:23,700 --> 01:14:27,966 NARRATOR: The killing of civilians has happened in every war. 1350

01:14:27,966 --> 01:14:32,366 In Vietnam, it was not policy or routine,

1351

01:14:32,366 --> 01:14:35,000 but it was not an aberration, either.

1352

01:14:36,566 --> 01:14:41,500 Still, the scale and deliberateness and intimacy

1353

01:14:41,500 --> 01:14:43,733 of what happened at My Lai

1354

01:14:43,733 --> 01:14:45,133 was different.

1355

01:14:45,133 --> 01:14:46,866 SHEEHAN: It was different

1356

01:14:46,866 --> 01:14:49,700 because they were killing Vietnamese point-blank

1357

01:14:49,700 --> 01:14:51,166 with rifles and grenades.

1358

01:14:51,166 --> 01:14:53,600 They were murdering them directly.

1359

01:14:53,600 --> 01:14:55,900 They weren't doing it with bombs and artillery.

1360

01:14:55,900 --> 01:14:57,433 If they'd been doing it with bombs and artillery,

1361

01:14:57,433 --> 01:14:58,600 nobody would have said a word,

1362

01:14:58,600 --> 01:14:59,600 because it was going on all the time.

1363

01:15:01,133 --> 01:15:02,533 NARRATOR: Not every soldier

1364

01:15:02,533 --> 01:15:04,366 participated in the killings that day.

1365

01:15:04,366 --> 01:15:08,000 Some led villagers away to safety.

1366

01:15:08,000 --> 01:15:10,866 But a failure of military leadership

1367

01:15:10,866 --> 01:15:14,066 at nearly every level had created the conditions

1368

01:15:14,066 --> 01:15:17,566 that made the massacre possible.[37]

1369

01:15:17,566 --> 01:15:21,900 The My Lai story might have shocked the American public,

1370

01:15:21,900 --> 01:15:24,200 but it was not news to the Army.

1371

01:15:24,200 --> 01:15:27,466 It had occurred almost two years before,

1372

01:15:27,466 --> 01:15:30,633 just after the Tet Offensive.

1373

01:15:30,633 --> 01:15:33,133 Hugh Thompson, the helicopter pilot

1374

01:15:33,133 --> 01:15:35,300 who had tried to stop the massacre,

1375

01:15:35,300 --> 01:15:38,233 reported what he had seen,

1376

01:15:38,233 --> 01:15:40,233 but no one in the chain of command

1377

01:15:40,233 --> 01:15:41,500 was willing to act.

1378

01:15:41,500 --> 01:15:45,233 The slaughter was covered up.

1379

01:15:45,233 --> 01:15:49,100 Later, an ex-corporal named Ronald Ridenhour,

1380

01:15:49,100 --> 01:15:50,866 who had heard about what had happened

1381

01:15:50,866 --> 01:15:52,900 from several men who had been there,

1382

01:15:52,900 --> 01:15:56,400 wrote letters to the President of the United States,

1383

01:15:56,400 --> 01:15:58,300 the Secretary of Defense,

1384

01:15:58,300 --> 01:16:02,366 and more than two dozen other high-ranking officials.

1385

01:16:02,366 --> 01:16:05,633 STAN ATKINSON: Personally, what decision-making process

1386

01:16:05,633 --> 01:16:08,566 did you go through before you decided to take your action?

1387

01:16:08,566 --> 01:16:12,333 RONALD RIDENHOUR: I guess I just wrestled with my own conscience

1388

01:16:12,333 --> 01:16:14,700 to try to decide what action to take.

1389

01:16:14,700 --> 01:16:16,833 I felt that I had to take some action.

1390

01:16:16,833 --> 01:16:18,300 I had to do something.

1391

01:16:18,300 --> 01:16:19,666 I couldn't just...

1392

01:16:19,666 --> 01:16:22,266 just rest with this knowledge for the rest of my life

1393

01:16:22,266 --> 01:16:25,200 that I couldn't... I couldn't live with myself if I did.

1394

01:16:25,200 --> 01:16:28,266 NARRATOR: President Nixon's first reaction

1395

01:16:28,266 --> 01:16:32,500 was to investigate those who reported the slaughter.

1396

01:16:32,500 --> 01:16:35,300 "It's those dirty rotten Jews from New York

1397

01:16:35,300 --> 01:16:36,666 who are behind it,"

1398

01:16:36,666 --> 01:16:38,200 he told an aide.

1399

01:16:38,200 --> 01:16:42,600 Eventually, Lieutenant General William R. Peers,

1400

01:16:42,600 --> 01:16:46,533 a veteran of 30 months as a troop commander in Vietnam,

1401

01:16:46,533 --> 01:16:48,333 was assigned to head a panel

1402

01:16:48,333 --> 01:16:51,233 to look into what had really happened.

1403

01:16:51,233 --> 01:16:54,400 Peers found that 30 persons,

1404

01:16:54,400 --> 01:16:56,833 including the division commander,

1405

01:16:56,833 --> 01:16:59,166 General Samuel W. Koster,

1406

01:16:59,166 --> 01:17:01,633 had either committed atrocities

1407

01:17:01,633 --> 01:17:05,600 or had conspired to cover them up.

1408

01:17:09,600 --> 01:17:13,466 Peers had wanted to call My Lai a "massacre."

1409

01:17:13,466 --> 01:17:16,833 His superiors made him use the phrase,

1410

01:17:16,833 --> 01:17:20,966 "a tragedy of major proportions."

1411

01:17:20,966 --> 01:17:26,566 In the end, the Army indicted 25 officers and men,

1412

01:17:26,566 --> 01:17:31,733 including the platoon leader, Lieutenant William Calley.

1413

01:17:34,300 --> 01:17:36,400 VALLELY: MARINES Calley's a killer.

1414

01:17:36,400 --> 01:17:38,433 Calley's a murderer

1415

01:17:38,433 --> 01:17:40,633 and a... a sick person.

1416

01:17:42,733 --> 01:17:45,866 I'm not gonna be in any, you know, uh,

1417

01:17:45,866 --> 01:17:48,433 propaganda movie for the United States Marine Corps,

1418

01:17:48,433 --> 01:17:50,366 but we didn't have that guy.

1419

01:17:52,633 --> 01:17:55,166 We had individuals who, who...

1420

01:17:55,166 --> 01:17:57,233 who committed war crimes, of course.

1421

01:17:57,233 --> 01:18:01,366 And, um, you know, I wanted to kill them.

1422

01:18:01,366 --> 01:18:03,866 I sometimes wish I did kill 'em.

1423

01:18:06,700 --> 01:18:10,466 But... I was afraid to kill 'em.

1424

01:18:12,866 --> 01:18:14,900 ♪ Two, one, two, three, four

1425

01:18:14,900 --> 01:18:17,700 ("Give Peace a Chance" by The Plastic Ono Band plays)

1426

01:18:17,700 --> 01:18:20,333 (loud crowd chatter)

1427

01:18:20,333 --> 01:18:21,966 ♪ Everybody's talking about...

1428

01:18:21,966 --> 01:18:25,200 ZIMMERMAN: I never considered the Vietnamese our enemy.

1429

01:18:25,200 --> 01:18:26,966 They had never done anything

1430

01:18:26,966 --> 01:18:29,633 to threaten the security of the United States.

1431

01:18:29,633 --> 01:18:32,466 They were off 10,000 miles away,

1432

01:18:32,466 --> 01:18:34,300 minding their own business,

1433

01:18:34,300 --> 01:18:36,766 and we went there to their country,

1434

01:18:36,766 --> 01:18:38,333 told them what kind of government

1435

01:18:38,333 --> 01:18:40,700 we wanted them to have.

1436

01:18:40,700 --> 01:18:44,933 JAMES WILLBANKS: Well, when I see the war protesters,

1437

01:18:44,933 --> 01:18:46,800 I react on a couple of levels.

1438

01:18:46,800 --> 01:18:49,433 Intellectually, I certainly understand their right

1439

01:18:49,433 --> 01:18:51,233 to the freedom of speech.

1440

01:18:51,233 --> 01:18:52,733 But I will tell you

1441

01:18:52,733 --> 01:18:55,766 that when I see them waving NLF flags,

1442

01:18:55,766 --> 01:18:59,100 the enemy that I and my friends had to fight,

1443

01:18:59,100 --> 01:19:02,466 and some of my friends had to die fighting,

1444

01:19:02,466 --> 01:19:04,200 that doesn't sit very well with me.

1445

01:19:04,200 --> 01:19:07,433 ♪ All we are saying...

1446

01:19:07,433 --> 01:19:10,466 NARRATOR: On November 15, 1969,

1447

01:19:10,466 --> 01:19:12,800 half a million citizens turned out

1448

01:19:12,800 --> 01:19:15,433 against the war in Washington, again.

1449

01:19:15,433 --> 01:19:17,833 ♪ Everybody's talking about revolution... ♪

1450

01:19:17,833 --> 01:19:21,166 NARRATOR: This time, buses provided an impenetrable wall

1451

01:19:21,166 --> 01:19:23,466 around the White House.

1452

01:19:23,466 --> 01:19:25,933 President Nixon claimed he was too busy

1453

01:19:25,933 --> 01:19:28,200 watching football on television

1454

01:19:28,200 --> 01:19:29,566 to pay attention,

1455

01:19:29,566 --> 01:19:34,066 but he did suggest that Army helicopters might be used

1456

01:19:34,066 --> 01:19:36,066 to blow out the marchers' candles.

1457

01:19:36,066 --> 01:19:38,166 ♪ All we are saying...

1458

01:19:38,166 --> 01:19:39,700 (car horns honking)

1459

01:19:39,700 --> 01:19:41,766 NARRATOR: Hundreds of thousands of others demonstrated

1460

01:19:41,766 --> 01:19:45,366 in San Francisco and New York.

1461

01:19:45,366 --> 01:19:47,100 (indistinct shouting)

1462

01:19:47,100 --> 01:19:50,000 (cheering and whistling, indistinct shouting)

1463

01:19:52,533 --> 01:19:55,000 The most striking antiwar protest

1464

01:19:55,000 --> 01:19:56,333 of this Thanksgiving Day

1465

01:19:56,333 --> 01:19:58,900 occurred not in this country, but in Vietnam,

1466

01:19:58,900 --> 01:20:01,433 though its form was uniquely American.

1467

01:20:01,433 --> 01:20:03,633 About 100 American soldiers

1468

01:20:03,633 --> 01:20:06,133 stationed at a hospital in Pleiku

1469

01:20:06,133 --> 01:20:08,800 refused to eat their traditional turkey dinner.

1470

01:20:08,800 --> 01:20:12,766 They described their fast as a passive protest against the war.

MINUTES 80-90

1471

01:20:14,566 --> 01:20:17,000 ("Born Under a Bad Sign" by Booker T. and the M.G.'s plays)

1472

01:20:21,533 --> 01:20:23,300 JOAN FUREY: ARMY NURSE The Army did what the Army does.

1473

01:20:23,300 --> 01:20:24,866 Every year, you know, for Thanksgiving,

1474

01:20:24,866 --> 01:20:26,133 they make a big deal.

1475

01:20:26,133 --> 01:20:27,400 They're gonna bring in turkey,

1476

01:20:27,400 --> 01:20:28,866 they're gonna bring in mashed potatoes,

1477

01:20:28,866 --> 01:20:31,300 and apple pie and whatever.

1478

01:20:31,300 --> 01:20:33,300 And by this point, I think,

1479

01:20:33,300 --> 01:20:36,366 a lot of us were very, very cynical about the war

1480

01:20:36,366 --> 01:20:38,300 and what was going on.

1481

01:20:38,300 --> 01:20:41,800 But we weren't gonna make a big deal about it.

1482

01:20:41,800 --> 01:20:44,466 We knew there were gonna be TV people there.

1483

01:20:44,466 --> 01:20:47,700 And a couple of the organizers were looking for people to talk.

1484

01:20:47,700 --> 01:20:49,433 They came to me, I said, "No."

1485

01:20:49,433 --> 01:20:51,866 I said, "Look, I'm gonna fast and do my thing."

1486

01:20:51,866 --> 01:20:53,833 I said, "But I, I really don't want

1487

01:20:53,833 --> 01:20:56,266 to be involved with any media thing."

1488

01:20:56,266 --> 01:21:00,766 NARRATOR: That Thanksgiving Day, Lieutenant Furey was on duty

1489

01:21:00,766 --> 01:21:05,000 when one of her patients took a sudden turn for the worse.

1490

01:21:05,000 --> 01:21:08,133 FUREY: Some patients, they just get into your heart.

1491

01:21:08,133 --> 01:21:09,833 And this kid, I think he was 18.

1492

01:21:09,833 --> 01:21:11,366 His name was Timmy.

1493

01:21:11,366 --> 01:21:15,900 It was unlikely he was gonna survive.

1494

01:21:15,900 --> 01:21:19,466 And I just got so angry.

1495

01:21:19,466 --> 01:21:23,000 I just lost it.

1496

01:21:23,000 --> 01:21:25,200 I remember walking out of the O.R.,

1497

01:21:25,200 --> 01:21:27,100 I ripped off the gown, and I ripped off the mask,

1498

01:21:27,100 --> 01:21:30,366 I walked outside, I said, "Where are those reporters?" JOAN FUREY ON TV: I'm just fasting against any type of war, or hostility that brings needless injury to innocent people all over the world, not just Vietnam but everywhere, including the United States of America.

1499

01:21:43,533 --> 01:21:45,700 I mean, you know, you don't demonstrate against the war

1500

01:21:45,700 --> 01:21:46,933 in a war zone.

1501

01:21:46,933 --> 01:21:49,933 By that time, of course, you, you had the attitude,

1502

01:21:49,933 --> 01:21:51,866 "What are they gonna do?

1503

01:21:51,866 --> 01:21:53,766 Send me to Vietnam?"

1504

01:21:56,233 --> 01:21:59,866 (loud, overlapping chatter and shouting)

1505

01:21:59,866 --> 01:22:02,766 (indistinct chanting)

1506

01:22:02,766 --> 01:22:05,800 JOHN MUSGRAVE: MARINES Let's just say that being a Marine combat veteran

1507

01:22:05,800 --> 01:22:09,866 on a college campus in 1969 and 1970--

1508

01:22:09,866 --> 01:22:11,733 it wasn't a real good thing to be

1509

01:22:11,733 --> 01:22:13,800 if you wanted to get dates and be popular.

1510

01:22:16,600 --> 01:22:20,166 When I came home, it seemed like

1511

01:22:20,166 --> 01:22:23,500 I didn't have anything to give to anybody else.

1512

01:22:26,933 --> 01:22:31,066 NARRATOR: Marine Corporal John Musgrave had very nearly died

1513

01:22:31,066 --> 01:22:35,800 in combat below the DMZ in the autumn of 1967.

1514

01:22:35,800 --> 01:22:38,700 Wounded in the jaw and shoulder,

1515

01:22:38,700 --> 01:22:42,500 his ribs shattered, lung pierced, nerves cut,

1516

01:22:42,500 --> 01:22:46,933 he had spent 17 months in Navy hospitals.

1517

01:22:46,933 --> 01:22:50,100 He was now studying at Baker University

1518

01:22:50,100 --> 01:22:52,966 in Baldwin City, Kansas.

1519

01:22:52,966 --> 01:22:55,300 (indistinct chanting and shouting)

1520

01:22:55,300 --> 01:22:59,700 But wherever he went, the war was never far away.

1521

01:23:02,000 --> 01:23:06,433 MUSGRAVE: And the peace movement, for a while, got real nasty,

1522

01:23:06,433 --> 01:23:08,433 calling veterans baby killers.

1523

01:23:10,500 --> 01:23:12,433 It did more than piss us off.

1524

01:23:12,433 --> 01:23:14,366 It broke our hearts.

1525

01:23:14,366 --> 01:23:16,733 What were they thinking?

1526

01:23:16,733 --> 01:23:22,133 You don't turn your backs on your warriors.

1527

01:23:22,133 --> 01:23:24,666 I didn't trust anybody anymore.

1528

01:23:26,133 --> 01:23:28,533 Just my family.

1529

01:23:28,533 --> 01:23:31,100 NARRATOR: Musgrave was so hurt

1530

01:23:31,100 --> 01:23:33,200 by the way some people treated him

1531

01:23:33,200 --> 01:23:36,633 that he volunteered to return to Vietnam.

1532

01:23:36,633 --> 01:23:40,366 Because of his injuries, the Marines turned him down,

1533

01:23:40,366 --> 01:23:44,333 and asked him to help recruit men instead.

1534

01:23:44,333 --> 01:23:46,366 He did for a time,

1535

01:23:46,366 --> 01:23:49,466 but when students asked him questions about the war

1536

01:23:49,466 --> 01:23:51,333 he couldn't answer,

1537

01:23:51,333 --> 01:23:52,533 he also began to read

1538

01:23:52,533 --> 01:23:56,933 about how and why it was being fought.

1539

01:23:56,933 --> 01:24:00,700 MUSGRAVE: I had friends in country on a second tour,

1540

01:24:00,700 --> 01:24:03,966 and, you know, I, I was still... considered myself a Marine.

1541

01:24:03,966 --> 01:24:06,866 and... and the more I read,

1542

01:24:06,866 --> 01:24:12,200 the less I found to be able to defend our presence there.

1543

01:24:12,200 --> 01:24:16,333 So then, I, I just stopped talking to everybody.

1544

01:24:16,333 --> 01:24:18,466 (dog barking)

1545

01:24:18,466 --> 01:24:22,533 NARRATOR: Musgrave gradually felt as if he were being torn in two.

1546

01:24:22,533 --> 01:24:26,533 And he was still haunted by the memory of those Marines

1547

01:24:26,533 --> 01:24:31,233 who had died while he had lived.

1548

01:24:31,233 --> 01:24:34,466 MUSGRAVE: I was dating my .45 in those years, you know.

1549

01:24:34,466 --> 01:24:37,266 Coming home at night after drinking,

1550

01:24:37,266 --> 01:24:39,400 and pressing it up against my temple,

1551

01:24:39,400 --> 01:24:42,333 or putting it under my chin,

1552

01:24:42,333 --> 01:24:44,733 wondering if this was gonna be the night

1553

01:24:44,733 --> 01:24:46,733 I was gonna have the guts to do it.

1554

01:24:48,466 --> 01:24:50,633 I'd had a round chambered, and I'd taken the safety off.

1555

01:24:50,633 --> 01:24:52,866 Same kind of pistol I carried in Vietnam.

1556

01:24:55,466 --> 01:24:58,900 And I thought, "I'm really gonna do it tonight."

1557

01:24:58,900 --> 01:25:02,900 You know, like, "Whew, I'm really gonna do it," you know.

1558

01:25:02,900 --> 01:25:04,933 And my dogs... I'd let my dogs out.

1559

01:25:04,933 --> 01:25:06,566 I had two dogs.

1560

01:25:06,566 --> 01:25:08,200 And they jumped on the front door

1561

01:25:08,200 --> 01:25:09,600 and scratched on the front door.

1562

01:25:09,600 --> 01:25:11,466 They wanted in.

1563

01:25:11,466 --> 01:25:12,666 And I put the safety back on the pistol

1564

01:25:12,666 --> 01:25:14,433 and set it down and went and let 'em in.

1565

01:25:16,266 --> 01:25:19,033 And they were so open in their love for me

1566

01:25:19,033 --> 01:25:20,800 that I literally said out loud,

1567

01:25:20,800 --> 01:25:26,066 "Whoa, if I really want to do this, I can do this tomorrow."

1568

01:25:26,066 --> 01:25:27,533 And I went back in the room,

1569

01:25:27,533 --> 01:25:29,500 and I put the pistol in the drawer, and...

1570

01:25:29,500 --> 01:25:32,533 and I... I think that was the closest I came.

1571

01:25:32,533 --> 01:25:34,266 I think maybe I would have killed...

1572

01:25:34,266 --> 01:25:36,633 k-k-killed myself that night.

1573

01:25:36,633 --> 01:25:38,100 But something as simple

1574

01:25:38,100 --> 01:25:40,633 as my dogs wanting back in...

1575

01:25:40,633 --> 01:25:43,900 stopped that thought, you know.

1576

01:25:46,633 --> 01:25:49,733 I'm really glad that it didn't happen.

1577

01:25:49,733 --> 01:25:52,900 But at the time, it just made so much sense.

1578

01:25:57,766 --> 01:25:59,800 NARRATOR: Richard Nixon's troop withdrawals

1579

01:25:59,800 --> 01:26:03,166 finally turned Musgrave against the war.[38]

1580

01:26:03,166 --> 01:26:06,000 "If it ain't worth winning," he said,

1581

01:26:06,000 --> 01:26:08,433 "it ain't worth dying for."

1582

01:26:08,433 --> 01:26:11,133 His loyalty to the Marines

1583

01:26:11,133 --> 01:26:14,100 would not yet let him openly say that,

1584

01:26:14,100 --> 01:26:16,666 but he told a campus antiwar meeting

1585

01:26:16,666 --> 01:26:19,600 that they should stop acting as if they didn't give a damn

1586

01:26:19,600 --> 01:26:22,500 about the men who had been asked to fight,

1587

01:26:22,500 --> 01:26:24,833 and received a standing ovation.

1588

01:26:29,133 --> 01:26:31,566 JACK TODD: The turning point for me, I think,

1589

01:26:31,566 --> 01:26:34,666 was one evening I spent with my friend Sonny Walter,

1590

01:26:34,666 --> 01:26:37,300 who had been, uh... just been discharged from the Army,

1591

01:26:37,300 --> 01:26:39,966 and had come home and spent an evening

1592

01:26:39,966 --> 01:26:42,633 before I went in pleading with me not to go.

1593

01:26:42,633 --> 01:26:45,300 He even offered to drive me to Canada.

1594

01:26:45,300 --> 01:26:47,966 He was showing me some horrible pictures of Vietnam

1595

01:26:47,966 --> 01:26:49,700 from his own service there.

1596

01:26:51,600 --> 01:26:53,633 I think everything that happened after it

1597

01:26:53,633 --> 01:26:55,266 had its seeds in that evening.

1598

01:26:55,266 --> 01:26:57,366 ("The Thrill is Gone" by B.B. King playing)

1599

01:26:57,366 --> 01:27:00,766 NARRATOR: While attending the University of Nebraska,

1600

01:27:00,766 --> 01:27:04,733 Jack Todd had undergone Marine officer training,

1601

01:27:04,733 --> 01:27:08,233 but bad knees had forced him to drop out

1602

01:27:08,233 --> 01:27:10,400 and he believed that exempted him

1603

01:27:10,400 --> 01:27:13,066 from having to take part in a war

1604

01:27:13,066 --> 01:27:15,766 he had come to see as immoral.

1605

01:27:15,766 --> 01:27:19,933 He began work as a reporter onThe Miami Herald.

1606

01:27:19,933 --> 01:27:24,666 But in the autumn of 1969 he received a draft notice[39]

1607

01:27:24,666 --> 01:27:27,100 from the Army anyway.

1608

01:27:27,100 --> 01:27:28,566 KING: ♪ The thrill is gone

1609

01:27:28,566 --> 01:27:30,033 TODD: So I went into my physical

1610

01:27:30,033 --> 01:27:32,166 and I showed them my discharge from the Marine Corps

1611

01:27:32,166 --> 01:27:33,966 and I actually remember a sergeant,

1612

01:27:33,966 --> 01:27:35,400 or whoever I was talking to, saying,

1613

01:27:35,400 --> 01:27:37,666 "But, uh, you were discharged from an officer program.

1614

01:27:37,666 --> 01:27:39,233 We're drafting you as a private."

1615

01:27:39,233 --> 01:27:41,333 (electric buzzing)

1616

01:27:41,333 --> 01:27:43,866 NARRATOR: In late November 1969,

1617

01:27:43,866 --> 01:27:48,300 Todd reported for basic training at Fort Lewis, Washington.

1618

01:27:48,300 --> 01:27:50,366 KING: ♪ You know you done me wrong

1619

01:27:50,366 --> 01:27:52,433 TODD: Morale just could not have been worse.

1620

01:27:52,433 --> 01:27:54,333 And-and it seemed to include

1621

01:27:54,333 --> 01:27:57,266 even the sergeants and the officers.

1622

01:27:57,266 --> 01:28:01,333 Nobody wanted to go. Nobody wanted to go.

1623

01:28:01,333 --> 01:28:04,766 America just seemed to have shifted from the Woodstock high

1624

01:28:04,766 --> 01:28:05,966 of the summer to this...

1625

01:28:05,966 --> 01:28:09,233 this sort of bitter Nixonian low.

1626

01:28:09,233 --> 01:28:12,700 NARRATOR: Jack Todd and another member of his unit

1627

01:28:12,700 --> 01:28:15,766 began to talk at night about what it meant

1628

01:28:15,766 --> 01:28:17,433 to be true to one's conscience.

1629

01:28:17,433 --> 01:28:19,333 ("Farewell, Angelina" by Bob Dylan playing)

1630

01:28:21,566 --> 01:28:24,100 Some 170,000 men

1631

01:28:24,100 --> 01:28:26,533 were granted conscientious objector status

1632

01:28:26,533 --> 01:28:29,200 during the Vietnam era.

1633

01:28:29,200 --> 01:28:31,000 But because Jack Todd

1634

01:28:31,000 --> 01:28:33,300 questioned the existence of God,

1635

01:28:33,300 --> 01:28:37,066 that avenue was closed to him.

1636

01:28:37,066 --> 01:28:38,433 There were really two choices.

1637

01:28:38,433 --> 01:28:40,300 It was go to jail or go to Canada.

1638

01:28:40,300 --> 01:28:42,866 And, for me, going to jail was just...

1639

01:28:42,866 --> 01:28:44,866 That one, I couldn't face.

1640

01:28:44,866 --> 01:28:46,866 So I went to Canada.

1641

01:28:46,866 --> 01:28:50,666 DYLAN: ♪ Farewell, Angelina

1642

01:28:50,666 --> 01:28:54,633 ♪ The bells of the crown

1643

01:28:54,633 --> 01:28:56,933 TODD: I remember that last beautiful drive,

1644

01:28:56,933 --> 01:28:59,566 from Seattle to Vancouver,

1645

01:28:59,566 --> 01:29:04,266 all the towering Douglas firs along the road.

1646

01:29:04,266 --> 01:29:06,566 And I remember, after we crossed the border--

1647

01:29:06,566 --> 01:29:09,166 it was a breeze, they just sort of waved us through--

1648

01:29:09,166 --> 01:29:11,400 and just looking in the rearview mirror, thinking,

1649

01:29:11,400 --> 01:29:12,766 "Man, there goes my country.

1650

01:29:12,766 --> 01:29:15,900 I'll never see it again."

1651

01:29:15,900 --> 01:29:19,100 DYLAN: ♪ But farewell, Angelina

1652

01:29:19,100 --> 01:29:22,433 ♪ The night is on fire

1653

01:29:22,433 --> 01:29:24,333 ♪ And I must go

1654

01:29:26,766 --> 01:29:29,566 I get called a coward all the time.

1655

01:29:29,566 --> 01:29:32,766 It took me a long time

1656

01:29:32,766 --> 01:29:35,333 not to feel that what I had done

1657

01:29:35,333 --> 01:29:38,033 was-was cowardly, because I still had

1658

01:29:38,033 --> 01:29:41,433 that military ingrained feeling inside.

1659

01:29:43,033 --> 01:29:46,233 That was the bravest thing I ever did.

1660

01:29:46,233 --> 01:29:48,233 It was the bravest thing I ever did.

1661

01:29:51,000 --> 01:29:54,700 NARRATOR: Jack Todd eventually found work as a reporter,

1662

01:29:54,700 --> 01:29:57,800 which allowed him to gain "landed immigrant status,"

1663

01:29:57,800 --> 01:30:01,233 a step toward Canadian citizenship.

1664

01:30:01,233 --> 01:30:05,866 Only a quarter of the estimated 30,000 Americans

1665

01:30:05,866 --> 01:30:08,800 who crossed into Canada managed to do so.

MINUTES 90-100

1666

01:30:08,800 --> 01:30:11,133 DYLAN: ♪ The sky is erupting

1667

01:30:11,133 --> 01:30:14,933 ♪ And I must go where it is quiet. ♪

1668

01:30:14,933 --> 01:30:18,233 NARRATOR: At the same time, some 30,000 Canadians

1669

01:30:18,233 --> 01:30:21,700 would volunteer to fight in Vietnam.

1670

01:30:35,266 --> 01:30:36,833 (birds chirping in distance)

1671

01:30:40,566 --> 01:30:43,966 KUSHNER: PRISONER OF WAR I thought about...

1672

01:30:43,966 --> 01:30:46,033 my parents and my siblings

1673

01:30:46,033 --> 01:30:49,766 and my wife and my little girl.

1674

01:30:49,766 --> 01:30:53,300 And one of the things that bothered me, is that I...

1675

01:30:53,300 --> 01:30:58,033 I couldn't really remember what they looked like after a while.

1676

01:30:58,033 --> 01:31:00,500 I remembered what their pictures looked like.

1677

01:31:00,500 --> 01:31:05,066 And when I imaged them in my mind's eye

1678

01:31:05,066 --> 01:31:08,533 I would image a picture, a photograph.

1679

01:31:11,233 --> 01:31:12,633 REPORTER: Valerie Kushner arrived on the...

1680

01:31:12,633 --> 01:31:14,833 NARRATOR: Hal Kushner's wife, Valerie,

1681

01:31:14,833 --> 01:31:17,033 had heard virtually nothing of her husband

1682

01:31:17,033 --> 01:31:20,833 since his capture by the Viet Cong in 1967,

1683

01:31:20,833 --> 01:31:23,566 and she had traveled to the Far East

1684

01:31:23,566 --> 01:31:26,033 to try to improve conditions for him.

1685

01:31:26,033 --> 01:31:29,433 VALERIE KUSHER: I think my period of greatest frustration

1686

01:31:29,433 --> 01:31:32,433 was just before and just after the birth of our son.

1687

01:31:32,433 --> 01:31:35,100 He was born in April of 1968

1688

01:31:35,100 --> 01:31:39,066 and my husband was captured in November of 1967.

1689

01:31:39,066 --> 01:31:43,033 So my husband does not yet know of his birth.

1690

01:31:43,033 --> 01:31:45,300 DON FARMER: With their father gone, the Kushner children

1691

01:31:45,300 --> 01:31:48,500 rely heavily on their mother and their grandparents.

1692

01:31:48,500 --> 01:31:50,066 Young Mike has never seen his father,

1693

01:31:50,066 --> 01:31:52,500 but six-year-old Toni-Jean remembers.

1694

01:31:52,500 --> 01:31:54,066 And the remembrances of Major Kushner

1695

01:31:54,066 --> 01:31:55,833 are everywhere in their house.

1696

01:31:55,833 --> 01:31:58,033 Toni, however, knows only that he's away,

1697

01:31:58,033 --> 01:31:59,766 that he's been captured, that grandfather fills in

1698

01:31:59,766 --> 01:32:01,200 until Dad comes home.

1699

01:32:01,200 --> 01:32:05,166 The Kushners worry, but they do not grieve.

1700

01:32:05,166 --> 01:32:07,133 Don Farmer, ABC News, reporting.

1701

01:32:10,000 --> 01:32:11,900 (siren wailing in distance)

1702

01:32:14,033 --> 01:32:16,233 NARRATOR: In February 1970,

1703

01:32:16,233 --> 01:32:19,500 in a house in an industrial suburb of Paris,

1704

01:32:19,500 --> 01:32:22,100 Henry Kissinger began a new series

1705

01:32:22,100 --> 01:32:25,666 of secret negotiations -- talks so secret

1706

01:32:25,666 --> 01:32:30,000 even the Secretary of State was not told about them.

1707

01:32:30,000 --> 01:32:32,133 His negotiating partner

1708

01:32:32,133 --> 01:32:35,966 would be Le Duan's close political ally, Le Duc Tho,

1709

01:32:35,966 --> 01:32:39,600 a veteran of 40 years of revolutionary warfare

1710

01:32:39,600 --> 01:32:43,466 and party intrigue-- shrewd, implacable,

1711

01:32:43,466 --> 01:32:47,266 and openly scornful of Vietnamization.

1712

01:32:47,266 --> 01:32:50,066 If the United States could not win

1713

01:32:50,066 --> 01:32:53,366 with half a million of its own troops, he asked Kissinger,

1714

01:32:53,366 --> 01:32:56,066 "How can you succeed when you let your puppet troops

1715

01:32:56,066 --> 01:32:58,466 do the fighting?"

1716

01:32:58,466 --> 01:33:01,733 The American admitted he had no answer.

1717

01:33:07,500 --> 01:33:09,800 Despite the impasse in Paris,

1718

01:33:09,800 --> 01:33:13,500 Nixon's first year had been a triumph.

1719

01:33:13,500 --> 01:33:19,566 He had withdrawn 115,000 troops from Vietnam.

1720

01:33:20,900 --> 01:33:24,233 American casualty figures were down.

1721

01:33:24,233 --> 01:33:26,900 Reduced draft calls

1722

01:33:26,900 --> 01:33:29,200 and the president's new lottery system

1723

01:33:29,200 --> 01:33:32,266 had blunted some opposition to the war.

1724

01:33:35,133 --> 01:33:37,700 And the violent actions of some revolutionaries

1725

01:33:37,700 --> 01:33:41,333 were tarnishing the antiwar cause itself.

1726

01:33:41,333 --> 01:33:45,300 Between September 1969 and May 1970,

1727

01:33:45,300 --> 01:33:48,000 there would be hundreds of bombings--

1728

01:33:48,000 --> 01:33:49,933 banks and courthouses,

1729

01:33:49,933 --> 01:33:53,200 induction centers and ROTC buildings.

1730

01:33:53,200 --> 01:33:55,100 ("Psychedelic Shack" by The Temptations starts playing)

1731

01:33:55,100 --> 01:33:57,000 One police officer was killed.

1732

01:33:58,266 --> 01:33:59,766 Three would-be bombers

1733

01:33:59,766 --> 01:34:03,633 accidentally blew themselves up in Greenwich Village.

1734

01:34:03,633 --> 01:34:05,900 TEMPTATIONS: ♪ Well, well

1735

01:34:05,900 --> 01:34:09,933 NANCY BIBERMAN: ANTIWAR ACTIVIST The antiwar movement split apart.

1736

01:34:09,933 --> 01:34:12,800 And there were people who felt that the only way

1737

01:34:12,800 --> 01:34:16,633 we were ever gonna end the war was by becoming more violent.

1738

01:34:16,633 --> 01:34:19,566 You know, that we had to match violence with violence.

1739

01:34:19,566 --> 01:34:24,400 How that was gonna happen wasn't spoken about openly.

1740

01:34:24,400 --> 01:34:27,200 But there was just this undercurrent.

1741

01:34:27,200 --> 01:34:29,566 REPORTER: This is a plumbing pipe

1742

01:34:29,566 --> 01:34:33,133 completely full of gunpowder.

1743

01:34:33,133 --> 01:34:35,366 TEMPTATIONS: ♪ Music so high you can't get over it ♪

1744

01:34:35,366 --> 01:34:37,866 NIXON: My fellow Americans,

1745

01:34:37,866 --> 01:34:40,466 we live in an age of anarchy,

1746

01:34:40,466 --> 01:34:43,000 both abroad and at home.

1747

01:34:44,500 --> 01:34:49,566 We see mindless attacks on all the great institutions,

1748

01:34:49,566 --> 01:34:52,033 which have been created by free civilizations

1749

01:34:52,033 --> 01:34:54,633 in the last 500 years.

1750

01:34:56,000 --> 01:34:58,233 Even here in the United States,

1751

01:34:58,233 --> 01:35:01,900 great universities are being systematically destroyed.

1752

01:35:04,966 --> 01:35:07,800 If, when the chips are down,

1753

01:35:07,800 --> 01:35:10,400 the world's most powerful nation,

1754

01:35:10,400 --> 01:35:12,200 the United States of America,

1755

01:35:12,200 --> 01:35:17,166 acts like a pitiful, helpless giant,

1756

01:35:17,166 --> 01:35:20,966 the forces of totalitarianism and anarchy

1757

01:35:20,966 --> 01:35:23,733 will threaten free nations and free institutions

1758

01:35:23,733 --> 01:35:25,400 throughout the world.

1759

01:35:25,400 --> 01:35:29,533 NARRATOR: On April 30, 1970,

1760

01:35:29,533 --> 01:35:31,400 President Nixon shocked the world

1761

01:35:31,400 --> 01:35:34,566 by announcing that he had sent 30,000 American troops

1762

01:35:34,566 --> 01:35:38,333 storming into Cambodia.

1763

01:35:38,333 --> 01:35:41,433 The previous month, Prince Norodom Sihanouk

1764

01:35:41,433 --> 01:35:43,733 had been overthrown in a coup.

1765

01:35:43,733 --> 01:35:46,166 For years, he had allowed the North Vietnamese

1766

01:35:46,166 --> 01:35:48,833 to keep sanctuaries in his country,

1767

01:35:48,833 --> 01:35:50,866 but he had not protested

1768

01:35:50,866 --> 01:35:54,400 when American planes bombed them.

1769

01:35:54,400 --> 01:35:57,100 The new president, Lon Nol,

1770

01:35:57,100 --> 01:36:01,133 was an anticommunist, backed by the United States.

1771

01:36:01,133 --> 01:36:03,533 Nixon now felt he could do

1772

01:36:03,533 --> 01:36:07,266 what American generals had been wanting to do for years--

1773

01:36:07,266 --> 01:36:11,033 pursue the enemy beyond the borders of South Vietnam.

1774

01:36:12,566 --> 01:36:15,500 The 30,000 American troops

1775

01:36:15,500 --> 01:36:20,766 were joined by 50,000 ARVN soldiers.

1776

01:36:20,766 --> 01:36:22,800 The objective was to attack

1777

01:36:22,800 --> 01:36:25,566 North Vietnamese base camps and supply lines

1778

01:36:25,566 --> 01:36:28,933 and to buy time for the South Vietnamese Army

1779

01:36:28,933 --> 01:36:31,333 as it got ready to fight on its own.

1780

01:36:33,333 --> 01:36:35,700 Nixon told the public

1781

01:36:35,700 --> 01:36:39,366 he had ordered an "incursion," not an "invasion,"

1782

01:36:39,366 --> 01:36:43,966 intended only to protect American boys in South Vietnam

1783

01:36:43,966 --> 01:36:48,133 and in response to North Vietnamese "aggression."

1784

01:36:51,033 --> 01:36:54,933 GILLAM: I wasn't worried about political conflict.

1785

01:36:54,933 --> 01:36:57,666 I was worried about, "Am I gonna be alive

1786

01:36:57,666 --> 01:36:59,133 in the next ten minutes?"

1787

01:37:00,733 --> 01:37:04,233 We were on the western edge of the invasion.

1788

01:37:04,233 --> 01:37:07,600 We went as far as anybody went in Cambodia.

1789

01:37:07,600 --> 01:37:08,866 (gunfire)

1790

01:37:08,866 --> 01:37:10,366 And it was a hot LZ.

1791

01:37:10,366 --> 01:37:15,166 I got holes shot in my backpack.

1792

01:37:15,166 --> 01:37:16,666 I was laying on my face

1793

01:37:16,666 --> 01:37:18,933 and they were shooting holes in my backpack,

1794

01:37:18,933 --> 01:37:21,900 which means they missed my head by maybe four inches.

1795

01:37:23,800 --> 01:37:27,266 I really didn't think I would see the end of that week.

1796

01:37:27,266 --> 01:37:29,566 (gunfire)

1797

01:37:29,566 --> 01:37:31,466 (indistinct chatter on radio)

1798

01:37:33,600 --> 01:37:37,233 NARRATOR: The sight of American troops crossing the border

1799

01:37:37,233 --> 01:37:41,200 into Cambodia reignited the antiwar movement.

1800

01:37:41,200 --> 01:37:42,500 Come on, let's go!

1801

01:37:42,500 --> 01:37:44,700 NARRATOR: If the troops were coming home,

1802

01:37:44,700 --> 01:37:46,833 if the war was winding down,

1803

01:37:46,833 --> 01:37:50,866 why had Nixon decided to widen it?

1804

01:37:50,866 --> 01:37:53,700 How could invading another country 1805

01:37:53,700 --> 01:37:57,666 help bring peace to Southeast Asia? 1806

01:37:57,666 --> 01:37:59,466 HUNTLEY: The reaction on the campuses

1807

01:37:59,466 --> 01:38:01,133 was swift and predictable.

1808

01:38:01,133 --> 01:38:02,833 The students and many of their teachers

1809

01:38:02,833 --> 01:38:04,433 were against the President.

1810

01:38:04,433 --> 01:38:07,700 Princeton students called for a nationwide student strike.

1811

01:38:07,700 --> 01:38:11,500 Antiwar rallies were planned at Harvard, MIT, Indiana,

1812

01:38:11,500 --> 01:38:13,633 Purdue Universities and other colleges.

1813

01:38:18,900 --> 01:38:22,233 NARRATOR: On Monday morning, May 4, 1970,

1814

01:38:22,233 --> 01:38:24,866 some 2,000 students gathered on the commons

1815

01:38:24,866 --> 01:38:28,800 at Kent State University in Kent, Ohio.

1816

01:38:28,800 --> 01:38:32,633 Some were simply moving from class to class.

1817

01:38:32,633 --> 01:38:36,133 Others planned to attend a rally called to protest

1818

01:38:36,133 --> 01:38:38,833 Nixon's widening of the war

1819

01:38:38,833 --> 01:38:44,633 and the presence of the Ohio National Guard on campus.

1820

01:38:44,633 --> 01:38:47,766 Governor James Rhodes had called in the guardsmen

1821

01:38:47,766 --> 01:38:49,233 two days earlier

1822

01:38:49,233 --> 01:38:54,733 after a mob set the old wooden ROTC building on fire

1823

01:38:54,733 --> 01:38:56,733 and then prevented the fire department

1824

01:38:56,733 --> 01:38:59,100 from putting out the flames.

1825

01:39:02,166 --> 01:39:06,300 Rhodes had compared protestors to Nazi brownshirts

1826

01:39:06,300 --> 01:39:09,833 and promised to use "every weapon to eradicate

1827

01:39:09,833 --> 01:39:14,166 the worst sort of people we harbor in America."

1828

01:39:14,166 --> 01:39:16,066 (bell clanging)

1829

01:39:18,700 --> 01:39:24,033 The guardsmen's weapons were loaded with live ammunition,

1830

01:39:24,033 --> 01:39:25,866 though no one in the crowd knew it.

1831

01:39:25,866 --> 01:39:29,200 MAN: Why do you have to have a gun?! I don't understand!

1832

01:39:29,200 --> 01:39:32,200 MAN (on megaphone): Leave this area immediately!

1833

01:39:32,200 --> 01:39:36,066 NARRATOR: The students were ordered to disperse.

1834

01:39:36,066 --> 01:39:37,800 They stood their ground.

1835

01:39:37,800 --> 01:39:39,700 (shouting)

1836

01:39:43,733 --> 01:39:47,000 Tear gas scattered some of them.

1837

01:39:47,000 --> 01:39:48,900 (shouting)

1838

01:40:06,200 --> 01:40:10,166 The guardsmen seemed to fall back.

1839

01:40:10,166 --> 01:40:14,366 But then members of Troop G wheeled around and opened fire

1840

01:40:14,366 --> 01:40:18,400 on students gathered in and around a parking lot.[40]

1841

01:40:20,400 --> 01:40:23,200 (distorted gunshots echoing)

1842

01:40:49,900 --> 01:40:52,166 PROTESTOR: Somebody call for an ambulance!

1843

01:40:52,166 --> 01:40:53,833 (others shouting)

1844

01:40:53,833 --> 01:40:56,833 There's people dying down here! Get an ambulance up here!

1845

01:40:56,833 --> 01:40:58,733 (indistinct shouting)

1846

01:41:03,466 --> 01:41:06,933 NARRATOR: 67 rounds in 13 seconds

1847

01:41:06,933 --> 01:41:11,333 killed two young women and two young men... [41] ALLISON KRAUSE, SANDRA SCHEUER, JEFFREY MILLER, WILLIAM SCHROEDER

1848

01:41:14,266 --> 01:41:17,533 Including an ROTC scholarship student

1849

01:41:17,533 --> 01:41:20,000 who had simply been an onlooker.

MINUTES 100-110

1850

01:41:25,700 --> 01:41:30,500 SAM HYNES: NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY That dead child on the ground

1851

01:41:30,500 --> 01:41:33,900 was one of ours.

1852

01:41:33,900 --> 01:41:37,300 If we could kill our own students,

1853

01:41:37,300 --> 01:41:42,400 uh, what had happened to our country?

1854

01:41:44,500 --> 01:41:47,500 NARRATOR: Nine more students were wounded,

1855

01:41:47,500 --> 01:41:51,466 one of whom was permanently paralyzed.

1856

01:42:02,833 --> 01:42:07,300 Several hundred angry, grieving students sat down

1857

01:42:07,300 --> 01:42:09,433 and demanded to know why the guardsmen

1858

01:42:09,433 --> 01:42:11,333 had fired on their friends.

1859

01:42:14,833 --> 01:42:17,766 MAN: Sir, you've got a couple hundred students...

1860

01:42:17,766 --> 01:42:19,266 NARRATOR: An officer ordered them

1861

01:42:19,266 --> 01:42:21,133 to "disperse or we will shoot again."

1862

01:42:21,133 --> 01:42:24,133 How long will you give us? You've got five minutes.

1863

01:42:24,133 --> 01:42:27,133 GLENN FRANK: Please listen to me right now!

1864

01:42:27,133 --> 01:42:29,800 NARRATOR: Only the anguished pleas

1865

01:42:29,800 --> 01:42:34,466 of Geology Professor Glenn Frank averted further tragedy.

1866

01:42:34,466 --> 01:42:36,166 STUDENT: Talk, Dr. Frank. Talk.

1867

01:42:53,600 --> 01:42:56,733 (indistinct voices) PROF. GLENN FRANK: I am begging you right now. If you don't disperse right now, they're going to move in and it can only be a slaughter. Would you please listen to me? Jesus Christ! I don't want to be a part of this!

1868

01:43:01,533 --> 01:43:04,466 MIKE HEANEY: ARMY That just symbolized for me

1869

01:43:04,466 --> 01:43:08,433 what this war was doing to our culture.

1870

01:43:08,433 --> 01:43:10,300 These were kids on both sides,

1871

01:43:10,300 --> 01:43:13,166 young National Guard boys

1872

01:43:13,166 --> 01:43:16,533 who had very little training and probably scared,

1873

01:43:16,533 --> 01:43:18,766 and not well led

1874

01:43:18,766 --> 01:43:20,633 and-and young men and women on the other side

1875

01:43:20,633 --> 01:43:22,233 protesting the war out there

1876

01:43:22,233 --> 01:43:24,566 for, you know, idealistic reasons.

1877

01:43:24,566 --> 01:43:27,233 And look at what happens

1878

01:43:27,233 --> 01:43:33,433 when we let things get as bad as they got.

1879

01:43:33,433 --> 01:43:35,166 ("Woodstock" by Joni Mitchell playing)

1880

01:43:35,166 --> 01:43:37,833 NARRATOR: According to one national poll,

1881

01:43:37,833 --> 01:43:40,633 58% of the American people

1882

01:43:40,633 --> 01:43:43,466 thought the killings justified.

1883

01:43:46,433 --> 01:43:49,766 The parents of the dead ROTC student

1884

01:43:49,766 --> 01:43:52,500 received a flood of hate mail,

1885

01:43:52,500 --> 01:43:55,900 suggesting that they should be grateful their boy was dead

1886

01:43:55,900 --> 01:44:00,533 since he'd been "just another communist."

1887

01:44:01,700 --> 01:44:05,766 (man speaking indistinctly over megaphone)

1888

01:44:05,766 --> 01:44:09,366 During the days that followed, all across the country,

1889

01:44:09,366 --> 01:44:12,033 more than four million college students

1890

01:44:12,033 --> 01:44:14,033 demonstrated against the war

1891

01:44:14,033 --> 01:44:16,966 and what had happened at Kent State.

1892

01:44:19,500 --> 01:44:23,566 MITCHELL: ♪ I came upon a child of God

1893

01:44:23,566 --> 01:44:28,233 ♪ He was walking along the road ♪

1894

01:44:28,233 --> 01:44:30,200 ♪ And I asked him

1895

01:44:30,200 --> 01:44:32,533 ♪ Where are you going?

1896

01:44:32,533 --> 01:44:36,500 ♪ And this he told me

1897

01:44:36,500 --> 01:44:41,200 NARRATOR: 448 campuses closed down,

1898

01:44:41,200 --> 01:44:46,866 and the National Guard was called out in 16 states.

1899

01:44:46,866 --> 01:44:48,200 MITCHELL: ♪ Band

1900

01:44:48,200 --> 01:44:50,333 ♪ I'm gonna camp out

1901

01:44:50,333 --> 01:44:53,933 NARRATOR: At Jackson State University in Mississippi,

1902

01:44:53,933 --> 01:44:58,200 state police opened fire on a dormitory.

1903

01:44:58,200 --> 01:45:00,133 Two students died.

1904

01:45:00,133 --> 01:45:03,100 12 more were wounded.

1905

01:45:05,100 --> 01:45:07,266 JAMES GILLIAM: Jackson State, those were my people.

1906

01:45:07,266 --> 01:45:09,200 Those were black kids.

1907

01:45:09,200 --> 01:45:11,533 And they died.

1908

01:45:11,533 --> 01:45:15,033 MITCHELL: ♪ Back to the garden

1909

01:45:15,033 --> 01:45:17,433 NARRATOR: Army Private Tim O'Brien

1910

01:45:17,433 --> 01:45:21,233 was now back home in Minnesota.

1911

01:45:21,233 --> 01:45:24,800 O'BRIEN: There was a huge march

1912

01:45:24,800 --> 01:45:26,700 after the Kent State shootings in St. Paul,

1913

01:45:26,700 --> 01:45:29,133 and I joined the march.

1914

01:45:29,133 --> 01:45:34,400 I just wanted to put my body amidst these 100,000 people,

1915

01:45:34,400 --> 01:45:37,666 that word "no" being uttered by my body, if not by my mouth,

1916

01:45:37,666 --> 01:45:39,200 by just making that march.

1917

01:45:39,200 --> 01:45:42,733 That same march I was doing in Vietnam

1918

01:45:42,733 --> 01:45:45,100 that seemed senseless and purposeless

1919

01:45:45,100 --> 01:45:46,333 and without direction,

1920

01:45:46,333 --> 01:45:49,266 here it felt sensible and purposeful

1921

01:45:49,266 --> 01:45:52,633 and with direction, heading for that state capital

1922

01:45:52,633 --> 01:45:56,033 to say no.

1923

01:45:56,033 --> 01:45:59,333 And, boy, did it feel good.

1924

01:45:59,333 --> 01:46:01,300 (chanting "Peace now")

1925

01:46:04,233 --> 01:46:06,166 NARRATOR: Marine Corporal Bill Ehrhart

1926

01:46:06,166 --> 01:46:08,700 was a student at Swarthmore College

1927

01:46:08,700 --> 01:46:12,900 near his hometown in eastern Pennsylvania.

1928

01:46:12,900 --> 01:46:17,433 EHRHART: MARINES And here's this very famous photograph.[42]

1929

01:46:17,433 --> 01:46:20,266 And I just looked at this thing.

1930

01:46:24,533 --> 01:46:26,033 And I came unglued.

1931

01:46:28,366 --> 01:46:31,833 I don't know how long I sat down on the curb,

1932

01:46:31,833 --> 01:46:35,366 and I don't know if I was there for 15 minutes

1933

01:46:35,366 --> 01:46:36,900 or an hour and a half.

1934

01:46:36,900 --> 01:46:39,233 Just had a breakdown.

1935

01:46:39,233 --> 01:46:42,933 Just crying, sobbing uncontrollably.

1936

01:46:42,933 --> 01:46:44,800 All I could think was, "It's not enough to send us

1937

01:46:44,800 --> 01:46:47,266 "halfway around the world to die.

1938

01:46:47,266 --> 01:46:50,133 "Now they're killing us in the streets of our own country.

1939

01:46:50,133 --> 01:46:51,500 I have to do something."

1940

01:46:53,466 --> 01:46:54,700 And I finally...

1941

01:46:54,700 --> 01:46:56,600 whenever I finally cried myself out,

1942

01:46:56,600 --> 01:46:59,066 I got up and I joined the antiwar movement.

1943

01:47:02,400 --> 01:47:06,866 MUSGRAVE: MARINES I remember when the kids were killed at Kent State,

1944

01:47:06,866 --> 01:47:09,666 and I thought,

1945

01:47:09,666 --> 01:47:12,933 "My God, we're killing our own children now.

1946

01:47:12,933 --> 01:47:14,766 We've really gone mad."

1947

01:47:14,766 --> 01:47:16,166 And I wasn't...

1948

01:47:16,166 --> 01:47:19,166 That's when I was hiding from things.

1949

01:47:19,166 --> 01:47:21,233 I wasn't in anybody's movement then.

1950

01:47:21,233 --> 01:47:22,900 I was just drinking.

1951

01:47:25,000 --> 01:47:30,500 But that was one of the things that told me

1952

01:47:30,500 --> 01:47:32,800 America needed a wake-up call.[43]

1953

01:47:39,833 --> 01:47:42,900 ("Ohio" by Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young playing)

1954

01:48:06,000 --> 01:48:08,933 ♪ Tin soldiers and Nixon's coming ♪

1955

01:48:08,933 --> 01:48:11,900 ♪ We're finally on our own

1956

01:48:11,900 --> 01:48:15,333 ♪ This summer I hear the drumming ♪

1957

01:48:15,333 --> 01:48:19,100 ♪ Four dead in Ohio

1958

01:48:19,100 --> 01:48:21,900 ♪ Got to get down to it

1959

01:48:21,900 --> 01:48:25,300 ♪ Soldiers are cutting us down

1960

01:48:25,300 --> 01:48:29,000 ♪ Should have been done long ago ♪

1961

01:48:31,566 --> 01:48:33,233 ♪ What if you knew her

1962

01:48:33,233 --> 01:48:36,966 ♪ And found her dead on the ground? ♪

1963

01:48:36,966 --> 01:48:41,100 ♪ How can you run when you know? ♪

1964

01:48:41,100 --> 01:48:43,000 ♪

1965

01:49:02,066 --> 01:49:04,566 ♪ La la-la-la, la la la la ♪

1966

01:49:04,566 --> 01:49:08,433 ♪ La la-la-la, la la la ♪

1967

01:49:08,433 --> 01:49:11,533 ♪ La la-la-la, la la la la ♪

1968

01:49:11,533 --> 01:49:14,933 ♪ La la-la-la, la la la ♪

1969

01:49:14,933 --> 01:49:17,433 ♪ Got to get down to it

1970

01:49:17,433 --> 01:49:21,066 ♪ Soldiers are cutting us down

1971

01:49:21,066 --> 01:49:24,833 ♪ Should have been done long ago ♪

1972

01:49:27,233 --> 01:49:29,400 ♪ What if you knew her

1973

01:49:29,400 --> 01:49:33,500 ♪ And found her dead on the ground? ♪

1974

01:49:33,500 --> 01:49:37,233 ♪ How can you run when you know? ♪

1975

01:49:37,233 --> 01:49:39,133 ♪

1976

01:49:57,300 --> 01:50:00,266 ♪ Tin soldiers and Nixon's coming ♪

1977

01:50:00,266 --> 01:50:03,466 ♪ We're finally on our own

1978

01:50:03,466 --> 01:50:06,500 ♪ This summer I hear the drumming ♪

1979

01:50:06,500 --> 01:50:08,966 ♪ Four dead in Ohio

1980

01:50:08,966 --> 01:50:12,133 ♪ Four dead in Ohio ♪ Four

1981

01:50:12,133 --> 01:50:14,400 ♪ Four dead in Ohio

1982

01:50:14,400 --> 01:50:17,333 ♪ Four ♪ Four dead in Ohio

1983

01:50:17,333 --> 01:50:20,000 ♪ How could they? ♪ Four dead in Ohio

1984

01:50:20,000 --> 01:50:23,200 ♪ How many more? ♪ Four dead in Ohio

1985

01:50:23,200 --> 01:50:25,333 Captioned by Media Access Group at WGBH, access.wgbh.org

1986

01:50:30,666 --> 01:50:31,866 ANNOUNCER: LEARN MORE ABOUT THE FILM

1987

01:50:31,866 --> 01:50:34,733 AND FIND ADDITIONAL RESOURCES AT PBS.ORG/VIETNAMWAR

1988

01:50:34,733 --> 01:50:38,666 AND JOIN THE CONVERSATION USING HASHTAG VIETNAMWARPBS.

1989

01:50:38,666 --> 01:50:40,133 "THE VIETNAM WAR" IS AVAILABLE

1990

01:50:40,133 --> 01:50:41,800 ON BLU-RAY AND DVD.

1991

01:50:41,800 --> 01:50:43,466 THE COMPANION BOOK, SOUNDTRACK,

1992

01:50:43,466 --> 01:50:44,866 AND ORIGINAL SCORE FROM THE FILM

1993

01:50:44,866 --> 01:50:46,000 ARE ALSO AVAILABLE.

1994

01:50:46,000 --> 01:50:48,100 TO ORDER, VISIT SHOPPBS.ORG

1995

01:50:48,100 --> 01:50:50,566 OR CALL 1-800-PLAY-PBS.

1996

01:50:50,566 --> 01:50:52,000 EPISODES OF THIS SERIES ALSO

1997

01:50:52,000 --> 01:50:53,100 AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD

1998

01:50:53,100 --> 01:50:54,200 FROM iTUNES.

MINUTES 110-END

1999

01:50:57,466 --> 01:50:59,600 ANNOUNCER: BANK OF AMERICA PROUDLY SUPPORTS

2000

01:50:59,600 --> 01:51:04,566 KEN BURNS' AND LYNN NOVICK'S FILM "THE VIETNAM WAR"

2001

01:51:04,566 --> 01:51:06,966 BECAUSE FOSTERING DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES

2002

01:51:06,966 --> 01:51:09,566 AND CIVIL DISCOURSE AROUND IMPORTANT ISSUES

2003

01:51:09,566 --> 01:51:11,866 FURTHERS PROGRESS, EQUALITY,

2004

01:51:11,866 --> 01:51:13,866 AND A MORE CONNECTED SOCIETY.

2005

01:51:18,333 --> 01:51:22,366 GO TO BANKOFAMERICA.COM/ BETTERCONNECTED TO LEARN MORE.

2006

01:51:25,833 --> 01:51:27,266 ANNOUNCER: MAJOR SUPPORT FOR "THE VIETNAM WAR"

2007

01:51:27,266 --> 01:51:30,766 WAS PROVIDED BY MEMBERS OF THE BETTER ANGELS SOCIETY,

2008

01:51:30,766 --> 01:51:34,733 INCLUDING JONATHAN AND JEANNIE LAVINE,

2009

01:51:34,733 --> 01:51:37,633 DIANE AND HAL BRIERLEY,

2010

01:51:37,633 --> 01:51:40,033 AMY AND DAVID ABRAMS,

2011

01:51:40,033 --> 01:51:42,533 JOHN AND CATHERINE DEBS,

2012

01:51:42,533 --> 01:51:45,433 THE FULLERTON FAMILY CHARITABLE FUND,

2013

01:51:45,433 --> 01:51:47,500 THE MONTRONE FAMILY,

2014

01:51:47,500 --> 01:51:49,833 LYNDA AND STEWART RESNICK,

2015

01:51:49,833 --> 01:51:52,600 THE PERRY AND DONNA GOLKIN FAMILY FOUNDATION,

2016

01:51:52,600 --> 01:51:53,600 THE LYNCH FOUNDATION,

2017

01:51:53,600 --> 01:51:56,466 THE ROGER AND ROSEMARY ENRICO FOUNDATION,

2018

01:51:56,466 --> 01:51:59,900 AND BY THESE ADDITIONAL FUNDERS.

2019

01:51:59,900 --> 01:52:01,866 MAJOR FUNDING WAS ALSO PROVIDED

2020

01:52:01,866 --> 01:52:03,600 BY DAVID H. KOCH...

2021

01:52:05,900 --> 01:52:08,100 THE BLAVATNIK FAMILY FOUNDATION...

2022

01:52:10,433 --> 01:52:12,866 THE PARK FOUNDATION,

2023

01:52:12,866 --> 01:52:15,033 THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES,

2024

01:52:15,033 --> 01:52:17,233 THE PEW CHARITABLE TRUSTS,

2025

01:52:17,233 --> 01:52:19,900 THE JOHN S. AND JAMES L. KNIGHT FOUNDATION,

2026

01:52:19,900 --> 01:52:22,666 THE ANDREW W. MELLON FOUNDATION,

2027

01:52:22,666 --> 01:52:25,266 THE ARTHUR VINING DAVIS FOUNDATIONS,

2028

01:52:25,266 --> 01:52:27,466 THE FORD FOUNDATION JUSTFILMS,

2029

01:52:27,466 --> 01:52:28,666 BY THE CORPORATION

2030

01:52:28,666 --> 01:52:29,900 FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING,

2031

01:52:29,900 --> 01:52:31,866 AND BY VIEWERS LIKE YOU.

2032

01:52:31,866 --> 01:52:33,000 THANK YOU.

References

  1. See Negotiations
  2. Without polarization, maybe.
  3. Up to this point, all demands had come from the Communists, such as their requirement for the U.S. to remove the South Vietnamese government from office.
  4. The South permitted such inspections
  5. The video here ostensibly shows "tiger cages"
  6. See POW's in SVN
  7. Where is the comparable testimony from U.S. prisoners in NVN? Kushner's experiences were not given this treatment.
  8. ARVN?
  9. Does the reporter need training?
  10. Ted Kennedy has a lot to answer for.
  11. See Negotiations
  12. As measured by. . .?
  13. Why now?
  14. Exactly what did the poll indicate?
  15. By this time the VC were pretty negligible.
  16. By 1972, they were proved wrong.
  17. He preferred it to the term "de-Americanized."
  18. And given the weaponry to do so. Up to now, ARVN had been facing AK's with carbines.
  19. Which he did well, see Sorley's A Better War.
  20. See Merrill McPeak
  21. See Tom Vallely
  22. More importantly giving each ARVN soldier and automatic rifle down to village defenders. An earlier comment suggested American weapons were going over to the Viet Cong. At this point, it would be appropriate to note that the Saigon government had sufficient faith in its citizens that it could arm them without fear of the weapons being turned on the government.
  23. Another indicator of Journalistic insight into Military matters.
  24. Disproven in the 1972 Easter Offensive.
  25. a dyslexic radio operator?
  26. He didn't have his own?
  27. See Race Relations
  28. see below 799)
  29. I believe the party even changed the date of his death to separate it from the Independence Day holiday.
  30. see Treatment of Prisoners
  31. It worked.
  32. Bill Ayers, major Obama supporter
  33. 1969
  34. Just as in the anti-war movement in the U.S. the leaders were the Marxists, not the foot-soldiers.
  35. I find it hard to believe that a deserter would be treated so leniently. A Chieu Hoi certainly did not get the same treatment after the war.
  36. This is what Americans do.
  37. e.g. if Tom Hayden and/or Bill Clinton hadn't avoided service, would a Calley have been in command?
  38. Huh?
  39. = draft dodger
  40. See Kent State
  41. 1 round in 17 at point blank range was lethal. With 9 more wounded, less than 1 in five rounds hit its target.
  42. Kent State picture
  43. Musgrave photo as a bearded protestor.

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