Annotated Transcript Of Episode 7

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ANNOTATED TRANSCRIPT BURNS EPISODE 7 The Veneer of Civilization (June 1968-May 1969)

Color Coding: Red = False statement; Yellow = Warning; Green = Not yet used; Blue = Interesting, warranting Attention;

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MINUTES 1-10

1

00:00:01,566 --> 00:00:03,000 ANNOUNCER: MAJOR SUPPORT FOR "THE VIETNAM WAR"

2

00:00:03,000 --> 00:00:06,500 WAS PROVIDED BY MEMBERS OF THE BETTER ANGELS SOCIETY,

3

00:00:06,500 --> 00:00:10,466 INCLUDING JONATHAN AND JEANNIE LAVINE,

4

00:00:10,466 --> 00:00:13,366 DIANE AND HAL BRIERLEY,

5

00:00:13,366 --> 00:00:15,766 AMY AND DAVID ABRAMS,

6

00:00:15,766 --> 00:00:18,266 JOHN AND CATHERINE DEBS,

7

00:00:18,266 --> 00:00:21,166 THE FULLERTON FAMILY CHARITABLE FUND,

8

00:00:21,166 --> 00:00:23,233 THE MONTRONE FAMILY,

9

00:00:23,233 --> 00:00:25,566 LYNDA AND STEWART RESNICK,

10

00:00:25,566 --> 00:00:28,333 THE PERRY AND DONNA GOLKIN FAMILY FOUNDATION,

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00:00:28,333 --> 00:00:29,333 THE LYNCH FOUNDATION,

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00:00:29,333 --> 00:00:32,200 THE ROGER AND ROSEMARY ENRICO FOUNDATION,

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00:00:32,200 --> 00:00:35,633 AND BY THESE ADDITIONAL FUNDERS.

14

00:00:35,633 --> 00:00:37,533 MAJOR FUNDING WAS ALSO PROVIDED

15

00:00:37,533 --> 00:00:39,266 BY DAVID H. KOCH...

16

00:00:41,566 --> 00:00:43,766 THE BLAVATNIK FAMILY FOUNDATION...

17

00:00:46,100 --> 00:00:48,533 THE PARK FOUNDATION,

18

00:00:48,533 --> 00:00:50,700 THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES,

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00:00:50,700 --> 00:00:52,900 THE PEW CHARITABLE TRUSTS,

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00:00:52,900 --> 00:00:55,566 THE JOHN S. AND JAMES L. KNIGHT FOUNDATION,

21

00:00:55,566 --> 00:00:58,333 THE ANDREW W. MELLON FOUNDATION,

22

00:00:58,333 --> 00:01:01,000 THE ARTHUR VINING DAVIS FOUNDATIONS,

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00:01:01,000 --> 00:01:03,200 THE FORD FOUNDATION JUSTFILMS,

24

00:01:03,200 --> 00:01:04,400 BY THE CORPORATION

25

00:01:04,400 --> 00:01:05,633 FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING,

26

00:01:05,633 --> 00:01:07,600 AND BY VIEWERS LIKE YOU.

27

00:01:07,600 --> 00:01:08,733 THANK YOU.

28

00:01:13,266 --> 00:01:15,400 ANNOUNCER: BANK OF AMERICA PROUDLY SUPPORTS

29

00:01:15,400 --> 00:01:20,300 KEN BURNS' AND LYNN NOVICK'S FILM "THE VIETNAM WAR"

30

00:01:20,300 --> 00:01:22,700 BECAUSE FOSTERING DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES

31

00:01:22,700 --> 00:01:25,300 AND CIVIL DISCOURSE AROUND IMPORTANT ISSUES

32

00:01:25,300 --> 00:01:27,600 FURTHERS PROGRESS, EQUALITY,

33

00:01:27,600 --> 00:01:29,600 AND A MORE CONNECTED SOCIETY.[1]

34

00:01:34,066 --> 00:01:38,100 GO TO BANKOFAMERICA.COM/ BETTERCONNECTED TO LEARN MORE.

35

00:01:42,733 --> 00:01:47,800 (people cheering, turkeys gobbling)

36

00:01:47,800 --> 00:01:51,200 ("Blues Run the Game" by Simon and Garfunkel playing)

37

00:02:00,566 --> 00:02:06,100 ♪ Catch a boat to England, baby, maybe to Spain ♪

38

00:02:06,100 --> 00:02:08,333 ♪ Wherever I have gone

39

00:02:08,333 --> 00:02:11,833 ♪ Wherever I've been and gone

40

00:02:11,833 --> 00:02:16,000 ♪ Wherever I have gone the blues run the game. ♪

41

00:02:18,266 --> 00:02:21,433 TIM O'BRIEN: I grew up in a small farming community

42

00:02:21,433 --> 00:02:25,000 in southern Minnesota called Worthington.

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00:02:25,000 --> 00:02:27,900 Small-town America-- at least my small town--

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00:02:27,900 --> 00:02:30,400 had great virtues.

45

00:02:30,400 --> 00:02:32,000 It was a safe place to grow up.

46

00:02:32,000 --> 00:02:34,933 There was Little League baseball in the summer,

47

00:02:34,933 --> 00:02:37,600 and there was hockey in the winter.

48

00:02:37,600 --> 00:02:41,100 SIMON AND GARFUNKEL: ♪ When I ain't drinkin', baby, you are on my mind. ♪

49

00:02:41,100 --> 00:02:44,833 O'BRIEN: Everybody knows everyone else's business and their faults

50

00:02:44,833 --> 00:02:47,133 and what's happening in their marriages

51

00:02:47,133 --> 00:02:50,100 and where the kids have gone wrong.

52

00:02:52,300 --> 00:02:55,566 It was full of the Kiwanis boys and the Elks Club

53

00:02:55,566 --> 00:02:59,766 and the country club set and the kind of chatty housewives

54

00:02:59,766 --> 00:03:02,666 and the holier-than-thou ministers.

55

00:03:02,666 --> 00:03:04,733 SIMON AND GARFUNKEL: ♪ Wherever I've been and gone... ♪

56

00:03:04,733 --> 00:03:07,866 O'BRIEN: I remember the day my draft notice arrived.

57

00:03:07,866 --> 00:03:13,433 It was a summer afternoon, maybe June of '68.

58

00:03:13,433 --> 00:03:16,100 And I remember taking that envelope into the house

59

00:03:16,100 --> 00:03:17,700 and putting it on the kitchen table

60

00:03:17,700 --> 00:03:20,666 where my mom and dad were having lunch.

61

00:03:20,666 --> 00:03:22,100 And they didn't even read it.

62

00:03:22,100 --> 00:03:24,666 They just looked at it and knew what it was.

63

00:03:24,666 --> 00:03:26,966 And the silence of that lunch--

64

00:03:26,966 --> 00:03:30,400 I didn't speak, my mom didn't speak, my dad didn't speak--

65

00:03:30,400 --> 00:03:31,933 was just that piece of paper

66

00:03:31,933 --> 00:03:34,100 lying at the center of the table.

67

00:03:34,100 --> 00:03:38,733 It was enough to make me cry to this day, not for myself,

68

00:03:38,733 --> 00:03:40,466 but for my mom and dad,

69

00:03:40,466 --> 00:03:44,000 who both of them had been in the Navy during World War II,

70

00:03:44,000 --> 00:03:47,966 had believed in service to one's country and all those values.

71

00:03:47,966 --> 00:03:52,033 HOWARD TUCKNER: ...considers all civilians potential enemies...

72

00:03:52,033 --> 00:03:57,300 O'BRIEN: On the one hand I did think the war was less than righteous.

73

00:03:59,433 --> 00:04:01,600 On the other hand I love my country.

74

00:04:01,600 --> 00:04:08,400 And I valued my life in a small town and my friends and family.

75

00:04:08,400 --> 00:04:12,633 And so the summer of '68, I wrestled with what to do,

76

00:04:12,633 --> 00:04:15,333 was for me, at least, more torturous

77

00:04:15,333 --> 00:04:19,866 and devastating and emotionally painful

78

00:04:19,866 --> 00:04:21,633 than anything that happened in Vietnam.

79

00:04:23,633 --> 00:04:28,500 In the end I just capitulated.

80

00:04:28,500 --> 00:04:34,533 And one day I got on a bus with other recent graduates,

81

00:04:34,533 --> 00:04:37,866 and we went over to Sioux Falls about 60 miles away,

82

00:04:37,866 --> 00:04:40,666 and raised our hands and got in the Army.

83

00:04:40,666 --> 00:04:44,000 But it wasn't a decision, it was a forfeiture of a decision.

84

00:04:44,000 --> 00:04:46,333 It was letting my body go,

85

00:04:46,333 --> 00:04:49,433 turning a switch in my conscience,

86

00:04:49,433 --> 00:04:51,333 just turning it off,

87

00:04:51,333 --> 00:04:54,966 so it wouldn't be barking at me saying,

88

00:04:54,966 --> 00:05:01,200 "You're doing a bad and evil and stupid and unpatriotic thing."[2]

THE VIETNAM WAR

89

00:05:08,933 --> 00:05:12,900 NEWSCASTER: Last week's casualty figures in the Vietnam War released today

90

00:05:12,900 --> 00:05:15,666 showed 299 Americans killed, the lowest figure in two months.

91

00:05:15,666 --> 00:05:17,766 ("Revolution 1" by the Beatles playing) PICTURES OF RIOTING AROUND THE WORLD

92

00:05:24,233 --> 00:05:27,566 (music continues, crowd shouting) BERLIN

93

00:05:27,566 --> 00:05:32,000 ♪ You say you want a revolution ♪ LONDON

94

00:05:32,000 --> 00:05:37,833 ♪ Well, you know

95

00:05:37,833 --> 00:05:40,600 ♪ We all want to change the world ♪ PARIS

96

00:05:44,500 --> 00:05:49,000 ♪ You tell me that it's evolution ♪ STOCKHOLM

97

00:05:49,000 --> 00:05:53,300 ♪ Well, you know

98

00:05:53,300 --> 00:05:57,800 ♪ We all want to change the world ♪ THE HAGUE

99

00:06:00,733 --> 00:06:06,333 ♪ But when you talk about destruction ♪ PRAGUE

100

00:06:06,333 --> 00:06:13,000 ♪ Don't you know that you can count me out, in ♪ WASHINGTON, D,C.

101

00:06:13,000 --> 00:06:17,566 ♪ Don't you know it's gonna be all right ♪

102

00:06:17,566 --> 00:06:21,266 NARRATOR: By June of 1968, the spirit of revolution--

103

00:06:21,266 --> 00:06:28,366 over the Vietnam War, over injustice, over human rights--

104

00:06:28,366 --> 00:06:31,066 seemed to have spread everywhere.

105

00:06:34,766 --> 00:06:37,833 The pressure to bring an end to the war was building.

106

00:06:37,833 --> 00:06:40,466 President Lyndon Johnson had already decided

107

00:06:40,466 --> 00:06:42,266 not to run again,

108

00:06:42,266 --> 00:06:46,166 assassinations and unrest had staggered the nation,

109

00:06:46,166 --> 00:06:50,333 and the country was preparing to choose a new President.

110

00:06:52,133 --> 00:06:55,733 Meanwhile, American and North Vietnamese diplomats in Paris

111

00:06:55,733 --> 00:06:57,133 were getting nowhere.

112

00:06:57,133 --> 00:07:00,700 The communists insisted there could be

113

00:07:00,700 --> 00:07:03,100 no substantive negotiations[3]

114

00:07:03,100 --> 00:07:08,133 until the United States stopped all bombing of North Vietnam.

115

00:07:08,133 --> 00:07:09,700 LENNON: ♪ With minds that hate...

116

00:07:09,700 --> 00:07:12,233 NARRATOR: The new Secretary of Defense, Clark Clifford,

117

00:07:12,233 --> 00:07:14,566 who had turned from hawk to dove

118

00:07:14,566 --> 00:07:16,933 after just a few months in office,

119

00:07:16,933 --> 00:07:20,333 begged the President to call a total halt.

120

00:07:20,333 --> 00:07:23,266 "We can only hope for success at the bargaining table,"

121

00:07:23,266 --> 00:07:24,866 he told Johnson.

122

00:07:24,866 --> 00:07:27,566 "We are in a war we cannot win."

123

00:07:27,566 --> 00:07:31,300 The president refused to stop the bombing.

124

00:07:38,066 --> 00:07:39,533 Over the following months,

125

00:07:39,533 --> 00:07:42,133 there would be reports of progress on the battlefield

126

00:07:42,133 --> 00:07:44,333 and in the countryside.

127

00:07:44,333 --> 00:07:49,100 But that progress came so slowly and at so high a cost

128

00:07:49,100 --> 00:07:52,933 in human lives that the war against the war

129

00:07:52,933 --> 00:07:54,933 intensified back home,

130

00:07:54,933 --> 00:07:59,700 pitting classes and generations against one another,

131

00:07:59,700 --> 00:08:03,700 spreading distrust of political leaders who seemed unable

132

00:08:03,700 --> 00:08:06,966 or unwilling to bring the fighting to an end.

133

00:08:10,700 --> 00:08:13,300 Young men from all over the country would continue

134

00:08:13,300 --> 00:08:15,600 to face questions and choices

135

00:08:15,600 --> 00:08:19,100 their fathers and grandfathers had rarely had to face

136

00:08:19,100 --> 00:08:21,833 when asked to fight in other wars:

137

00:08:21,833 --> 00:08:26,700 What obligation did a citizen owe his country?

138

00:08:26,700 --> 00:08:30,000 What should one do when asked to fight a war

139

00:08:30,000 --> 00:08:32,533 in which one did not believe?

140

00:08:34,000 --> 00:08:38,200 How was a soldier to distinguish between a shadowy enemy

141

00:08:38,200 --> 00:08:42,533 and the Vietnamese civilians he was supposed to be defending?[4]

142

00:08:42,533 --> 00:08:44,233 LENNON: ♪ Shoo-bee-do-wop

143

00:08:44,233 --> 00:08:46,866 ♪ Oh, oh, oh, oh.

144

00:08:46,866 --> 00:08:50,266 NARRATOR: The coming summer of 1968

145

00:08:50,266 --> 00:08:52,800 would be one of the most consequential

146

00:08:52,800 --> 00:08:56,266 in American history.

EPISODE SEVEN THE VENEER OF CIVILIZATION (JUNE 1968-MAY 1969)

147

00:08:56,266 --> 00:09:02,600 LENNON: ♪ All right, all right, all right, all right, all right ♪

148

00:09:02,600 --> 00:09:05,866 ♪ All right, all right

149

00:09:05,866 --> 00:09:07,200 ♪ Shoo-bee-do-wop

150

00:09:07,200 --> 00:09:11,000 (song fades out)

151

00:09:12,166 --> 00:09:14,633 NEWSCASTER: Earlier this year, top U.S. leaders vowed

152

00:09:14,633 --> 00:09:17,400 that the U.S. Marine outpost at Khe Sanh,

153

00:09:17,400 --> 00:09:21,966 then under a 77-day enemy siege, would be defended at all cost.

154

00:09:21,966 --> 00:09:23,700 (jet engine roars)

155

00:09:23,700 --> 00:09:25,266 (explosion)

156

00:09:27,133 --> 00:09:31,066 MAX CLELAND: ARMY Johnson had said in the fall of '67,

157

00:09:31,066 --> 00:09:33,200 and as we went into '68,

158

00:09:33,200 --> 00:09:36,200 "I don't want no damn Dien Bien Phu."

159

00:09:36,200 --> 00:09:41,166 So the whole American military, from the Joint Chiefs on down,

160

00:09:41,166 --> 00:09:45,100 whether they believed in saving Khe Sanh or not,

161

00:09:45,100 --> 00:09:48,300 were hell-bent for leather to make damn sure

162

00:09:48,300 --> 00:09:50,833 the siege was broken.

163

00:09:54,133 --> 00:09:57,333 Now the telltale moment of that is that a week

164

00:09:57,333 --> 00:09:58,633 after the siege was broken,

165

00:09:58,633 --> 00:10:02,233 they plowed the base under and abandoned it.

166

00:10:02,233 --> 00:10:06,433 That was Vietnam in a microcosm.[5]

167

00:10:06,433 --> 00:10:08,733 (helicopter blades whirring)

MINUTES 10-20

168

00:10:08,733 --> 00:10:11,266 NARRATOR: There was a new commander in Vietnam now,

169

00:10:11,266 --> 00:10:16,233 General Creighton W. Abrams, a hero of World War II,

170

00:10:16,233 --> 00:10:18,833 a soldier's soldier, one reporter said,

171

00:10:18,833 --> 00:10:22,766 who "could inspire aggressiveness in a begonia."

172

00:10:22,766 --> 00:10:25,133 LEWIS SORLEY: Some newsman once described him

173

00:10:25,133 --> 00:10:28,766 as looking like an unmade bed smoking a cigar.

174

00:10:28,766 --> 00:10:30,933 He's gruff.

175

00:10:30,933 --> 00:10:32,166 He drank a lot.

176

00:10:32,166 --> 00:10:34,700 He's grumpy in the morning.

177

00:10:34,700 --> 00:10:37,766 Sometimes staff officers would schedule appointments with him

178

00:10:37,766 --> 00:10:39,033 in the morning

179

00:10:39,033 --> 00:10:40,466 for, with generals who were causing him trouble.

180

00:10:42,200 --> 00:10:45,433 NARRATOR: Abrams was a welcome new face for the American war.

181

00:10:45,433 --> 00:10:50,266 Reporters found him more frank and open than his predecessor.

182

00:10:50,266 --> 00:10:53,400 "The overall public affairs policy of this command,"

183

00:10:53,400 --> 00:10:55,266 he told his subordinates,

184

00:10:55,266 --> 00:10:58,600 "will be to let results speak for themselves."

185

00:10:58,600 --> 00:11:02,533 "Occasionally," one officer said, "we are allowed

186

00:11:02,533 --> 00:11:07,566 to state frankly that we didn't do a damn thing this month."

187

00:11:07,566 --> 00:11:11,133 Many soldiers would believe for the rest of their lives

188

00:11:11,133 --> 00:11:13,833 that if Abrams had taken command sooner,

189

00:11:13,833 --> 00:11:16,200 the outcome could have been different.

190

00:11:23,133 --> 00:11:25,200 VINCENT OKAMOTO: ARMY You're told very succinctly,

191

00:11:25,200 --> 00:11:29,300 "We need to rack up as much body count as we can.

192

00:11:29,300 --> 00:11:32,200 How many gooks did you kill today?"

193

00:11:32,200 --> 00:11:34,633 And it was the kill ratio that determined

194

00:11:34,633 --> 00:11:36,833 whether or not you called it a victory or a loss.

195

00:11:36,833 --> 00:11:40,500 So if you killed 20 North Vietnamese

196

00:11:40,500 --> 00:11:42,700 and lost only two people,

197

00:11:42,700 --> 00:11:47,100 they declared a great victory for that particular firefight.

198

00:11:47,100 --> 00:11:52,333 NARRATOR: Lieutenant Vincent Okamoto was born during World War II

199

00:11:52,333 --> 00:11:54,966 in a Japanese-American internment camp

200

00:11:54,966 --> 00:12:00,500 at Poston, Arizona, the seventh son of Japanese immigrants.

201

00:12:00,500 --> 00:12:03,633 All six of his brothers had served in uniform--

202

00:12:03,633 --> 00:12:08,000 two fought with the celebrated 442nd Regimental Combat Team

203

00:12:08,000 --> 00:12:09,900 in Italy and France,

204

00:12:09,900 --> 00:12:13,100 the most highly decorated unit of that war--

205

00:12:13,100 --> 00:12:18,233 and so, when Okamoto's country went to war in Vietnam,

206

00:12:18,233 --> 00:12:20,333 he believed he should go, too.

207

00:12:22,166 --> 00:12:26,466 He was now a platoon leader with Bravo Company, 2nd Battalion,

208

00:12:26,466 --> 00:12:32,300 27th Regiment, 25th Infantry Division, based at Cu Chi,

209

00:12:32,300 --> 00:12:37,200 some 20 miles northwest of Saigon, an area honeycombed

210

00:12:37,200 --> 00:12:40,200 with miles of Viet Cong tunnels.

211

00:12:42,966 --> 00:12:45,566 OKAMOTO: My parents are Japanese immigrants.

212

00:12:45,566 --> 00:12:48,566 I had rice literally every day of my life

213

00:12:48,566 --> 00:12:51,766 until I went into the military.

214

00:12:53,533 --> 00:12:58,233 So we were conducting a cordon and search of a village.

215

00:13:00,233 --> 00:13:01,800 Didn't find any weapons,

216

00:13:01,800 --> 00:13:05,366 didn't find any communist literature or whatever.

217

00:13:05,366 --> 00:13:08,033 So we took a prolonged lunch break.

218

00:13:08,033 --> 00:13:11,466 Everybody wants to get out of the sun.

219

00:13:11,466 --> 00:13:14,766 Well, my RTO, my medic and I

220

00:13:14,766 --> 00:13:16,933 went into this particular house, and there was...

221

00:13:16,933 --> 00:13:20,200 there were three women, and a babe in arms,

222

00:13:20,200 --> 00:13:22,966 and a kid about four years old.

223

00:13:22,966 --> 00:13:27,033 And she was cooking... rice.

224

00:13:27,033 --> 00:13:29,400 Well, here, here's Okamoto, Mrs. Okamoto's son,

225

00:13:29,400 --> 00:13:33,200 that hadn't had rice now-- hot, steamed rice-- for months.

226

00:13:33,200 --> 00:13:36,033 I'm looking at it, it looks pretty good to me.

227

00:13:36,033 --> 00:13:38,066 So I-I get my interpreter.

228

00:13:38,066 --> 00:13:42,400 I said, "Hey, tell this woman, the grandma,

229

00:13:42,400 --> 00:13:45,833 "that I'll give her a pack of cigarettes,

230

00:13:45,833 --> 00:13:50,000 "my C-ration turkey loaf, and a can of peaches

231

00:13:50,000 --> 00:13:52,533 for some of that steamed rice and that fish and vegetables."

232

00:13:54,233 --> 00:13:55,433 It was great.

233

00:13:55,433 --> 00:13:57,333 And I asked for seconds.

234

00:13:57,333 --> 00:14:00,466 My RTO says, "Damn, ain't these people poor enough

235

00:14:00,466 --> 00:14:03,166 without you eating their food?"

236

00:14:03,166 --> 00:14:05,433 I said, "You know, hell, they got enough rice here

237

00:14:05,433 --> 00:14:08,133 to feed a dozen men."

238

00:14:08,133 --> 00:14:10,366 And then, it just dawned,

239

00:14:10,366 --> 00:14:12,500 they did have enough rice to feed a dozen men.

240

00:14:12,500 --> 00:14:16,433 So I had my interpreter ask the woman,

241

00:14:16,433 --> 00:14:18,600 "Who's all this rice for?"

242

00:14:18,600 --> 00:14:20,200 (speaking Vietnamese)

243

00:14:20,200 --> 00:14:21,800 "I don't know, I don't know."

244

00:14:21,800 --> 00:14:25,566 So we started looking around again.

245

00:14:25,566 --> 00:14:27,233 We found a tunnel mouth.

246

00:14:29,100 --> 00:14:31,100 I was given a grenade.

247

00:14:34,200 --> 00:14:36,933 After the smoke cleared, we pulled, I think,

248

00:14:36,933 --> 00:14:42,100 seven or eight bodies to the town square.

249

00:14:42,100 --> 00:14:47,500 And we wanted to see who would cry over these people.

250

00:14:47,500 --> 00:14:50,633 And then we'd have more people to question.

251

00:14:50,633 --> 00:14:55,000 The women that lived in that house,

252

00:14:55,000 --> 00:14:56,633 and I had eaten their rice,

253

00:14:56,633 --> 00:14:59,400 they're all squatting down, wailing.

254

00:14:59,400 --> 00:15:01,166 And you couldn't identify these, these...

255

00:15:01,166 --> 00:15:03,800 they're just charred bodies.

256

00:15:03,800 --> 00:15:05,366 Um...

257

00:15:05,366 --> 00:15:07,466 And I think that was the first time I knew

258

00:15:07,466 --> 00:15:10,200 that I personally had killed people.

259

00:15:10,200 --> 00:15:14,366 I got an "Attaboy" from the supervisor.

260

00:15:14,366 --> 00:15:15,866 But, uh...

261

00:15:15,866 --> 00:15:18,200 it wasn't something that you can say had glory in it,

262

00:15:18,200 --> 00:15:20,533 or you felt a real sense of accomplishment.

263

00:15:23,466 --> 00:15:26,733 NARRATOR: Over that summer, Okamoto was wounded two times

264

00:15:26,733 --> 00:15:29,900 and made 22 helicopter assaults,

265

00:15:29,900 --> 00:15:33,533 four of them as commander of Bravo Company.

266

00:15:33,533 --> 00:15:38,966 On the morning of August 23, he made his 23rd assault.

267

00:15:38,966 --> 00:15:43,200 Nineteen helicopters ferried the first and second platoons

268

00:15:43,200 --> 00:15:47,800 to a new landing zone near Cambodia.

269

00:15:47,800 --> 00:15:50,866 Their task was to dig in, stay put,

270

00:15:50,866 --> 00:15:54,833 and somehow block a battalion of North Vietnamese troops,

271

00:15:54,833 --> 00:15:58,133 who were trying to escape across the border.

272

00:15:58,133 --> 00:16:01,233 Okamoto's unit was reinforced by a platoon

273

00:16:01,233 --> 00:16:05,933 of mechanized infantry, three APCs, and a tank,

274

00:16:05,933 --> 00:16:10,133 but they were still badly outnumbered.

275

00:16:10,133 --> 00:16:14,200 He and the fewer than 150 men under his command

276

00:16:14,200 --> 00:16:17,266 spent the rest of that day and all of the next

277

00:16:17,266 --> 00:16:20,533 preparing as best they could for an attack,

278

00:16:20,533 --> 00:16:22,366 setting Claymore mines

279

00:16:22,366 --> 00:16:25,933 and hanging three coils of razor wire.

280

00:16:29,033 --> 00:16:31,800 OKAMOTO: August the 24th, about 10:00 that night,

281

00:16:31,800 --> 00:16:35,433 we got hit with a very heavy mortar barrage.

282

00:16:35,433 --> 00:16:36,800 (shouting, explosions)

283

00:16:36,800 --> 00:16:40,400 Within the first, I would say, ten seconds,

284

00:16:40,400 --> 00:16:43,966 all three of those armored personnel carriers and tanks

285

00:16:43,966 --> 00:16:46,366 were knocked out with rocket-propelled grenades.

286

00:16:50,133 --> 00:16:53,633 NARRATOR: Trip flares briefly lit up the landscape.

287

00:16:53,633 --> 00:16:56,300 Scores of enemy troops were running at them

288

00:16:56,300 --> 00:16:58,400 through the elephant grass.

289

00:16:58,400 --> 00:16:59,666 (gunfire)

290

00:16:59,666 --> 00:17:04,800 VC mortar shells blasted two gaps in the razor wire.

291

00:17:04,800 --> 00:17:08,566 If Okamoto and his outnumbered men couldn't plug them,

292

00:17:08,566 --> 00:17:11,133 they were sure to be overrun.

293

00:17:11,133 --> 00:17:14,966 He and the four men closest to him held their M-16s

294

00:17:14,966 --> 00:17:18,933 above their heads and fired blindly.

295

00:17:18,933 --> 00:17:21,700 The enemy kept coming.

296

00:17:21,700 --> 00:17:23,500 OKAMOTO: I had my four people.

297

00:17:23,500 --> 00:17:27,066 And through the light of the flares, I said,

298

00:17:27,066 --> 00:17:29,033 "A couple you guys go and man the machine guns

299

00:17:29,033 --> 00:17:30,533 out on those APCs."

300

00:17:30,533 --> 00:17:32,700 Well, the response I got was, like, uh...

301

00:17:32,700 --> 00:17:34,566 "... you, I ain't going up there."

302

00:17:36,300 --> 00:17:40,833 So I ran to the first armored personnel carrier, and I...

303

00:17:40,833 --> 00:17:44,433 pulled the, the gunner out of the turret, dead.

304

00:17:44,433 --> 00:17:48,000 I jumped in there, manned the machine gun,

305

00:17:48,000 --> 00:17:50,833 and fired until it ran out of ammo.

306

00:17:50,833 --> 00:17:54,733 NARRATOR: Okamoto moved to the second disabled APC

307

00:17:54,733 --> 00:17:58,700 and then the third, emptying their guns.

308

00:17:58,700 --> 00:18:02,066 OKAMOTO: And they were still coming at us.

309

00:18:02,066 --> 00:18:05,800 So I crawled out there, till I was about ten meters from 'em.

310

00:18:05,800 --> 00:18:09,500 And I killed 'em with hand grenades.

311

00:18:09,500 --> 00:18:12,300 NARRATOR: Two enemy grenades fell near him

312

00:18:12,300 --> 00:18:14,866 and he managed to throw both back.

313

00:18:14,866 --> 00:18:18,700 But a third landed just beyond his reach.

314

00:18:18,700 --> 00:18:22,333 Shrapnel fragments peppered his legs and back.

315

00:18:24,366 --> 00:18:27,433 OKAMOTO: I just knew for sure I was going to die.

316

00:18:27,433 --> 00:18:29,566 "Okamoto, you're not going to make it out of here.

317

00:18:29,566 --> 00:18:30,900 "Mom's going to take it hard,

318

00:18:30,900 --> 00:18:34,200 but, you know, you're not going to make it out of here."

319

00:18:34,200 --> 00:18:35,633 And that's liberating.

320

00:18:35,633 --> 00:18:38,066 When you know you're going to die, you don't...

321

00:18:38,066 --> 00:18:39,500 the fear leaves.

322

00:18:39,500 --> 00:18:41,366 At least in my case, I was no longer afraid.

323

00:18:41,366 --> 00:18:43,466 I was just mad because here are all these little guys

324

00:18:43,466 --> 00:18:46,600 trying to kill my ass.

325

00:18:46,600 --> 00:18:48,533 And if that's the case,

326

00:18:48,533 --> 00:18:51,433 then I'm going to make it as tough on them as I possibly can

327

00:18:51,433 --> 00:18:52,433 before I go down.

328

00:18:55,066 --> 00:18:58,033 I killed a lot of brave men that night.

329

00:18:58,033 --> 00:19:00,266 And I rationalized that by telling myself,

330

00:19:00,266 --> 00:19:03,266 "Well, maybe what you did-- just maybe--

331

00:19:03,266 --> 00:19:05,733 saved the lives of a couple of your people."

332

00:19:09,600 --> 00:19:13,533 NARRATOR: During the night, the enemy had slipped into Cambodia,

333

00:19:13,533 --> 00:19:16,900 dragging as many of their dead with them as they could.

334

00:19:19,700 --> 00:19:24,266 A third of Okamoto's company had been lost.

335

00:19:24,266 --> 00:19:26,700 ("The Lord Is in This Place" by Fairport Convention playing)

336

00:19:26,700 --> 00:19:28,300 For his efforts that day,

337

00:19:28,300 --> 00:19:32,233 Vincent Okamoto received the Distinguished Service Cross,

338

00:19:32,233 --> 00:19:35,800 the Army's second highest honor.

339

00:19:35,800 --> 00:19:38,300 Before his tour of duty ended,

340

00:19:38,300 --> 00:19:42,233 he would become the most highly decorated Japanese-American

341

00:19:42,233 --> 00:19:44,933 to survive the Vietnam War.

342

00:19:47,766 --> 00:19:49,500 OKAMOTO: You know what?

343

00:19:49,500 --> 00:19:51,000 (sighs)

344

00:19:51,000 --> 00:19:53,400 The real heroes are the men that died.

345

00:19:56,866 --> 00:20:00,566 19-, 20-year-old high school dropouts.

346

00:20:00,566 --> 00:20:03,000 They didn't have escape routes that the elite

347

00:20:03,000 --> 00:20:06,766 and the wealthy and the privileged had.

348

00:20:06,766 --> 00:20:07,766 And that was unfair.

349

00:20:10,833 --> 00:20:13,700 And so they looked upon military service as...

350

00:20:13,700 --> 00:20:15,466 (sighs)

351

00:20:15,466 --> 00:20:17,133 ...like the weather.

352

00:20:17,133 --> 00:20:19,000 You had to go in, and you'd do it.

353

00:20:20,933 --> 00:20:25,600 But to see these kids, who had the least to gain,

354

00:20:25,600 --> 00:20:27,033 there wasn't anything to look forward to;

355

00:20:27,033 --> 00:20:28,500 they weren't going to be rewarded

356

00:20:28,500 --> 00:20:31,566 for their service in Vietnam.

357

00:20:31,566 --> 00:20:37,300 And yet their infinite patience, their loyalty to each other,

358

00:20:37,300 --> 00:20:41,633 their courage under fire was just phenomenal.

359

00:20:42,833 --> 00:20:45,366 And you would ask yourself,

360

00:20:45,366 --> 00:20:49,233 "How does America produce young men like this?"

MINUTES 20-30

361

00:21:00,933 --> 00:21:04,433 HUY DUC: NORTH VIETNAM At that time, in the North, nobody talked about the losses. Probably, we shouldn't call it "lying." It was propaganda. Even now the Vietnamese people don't know exactly how many of their children and compatriots died in the war.[6]

362

00:21:29,200 --> 00:21:33,300 NARRATOR: At first, Radio Hanoi had portrayed the Tet Offensive

363

00:21:33,300 --> 00:21:36,166 as a series of "tremendous victories"

364

00:21:36,166 --> 00:21:39,766 in which "hundreds of thousands of people have risen up

365

00:21:39,766 --> 00:21:43,866 and destroyed enemy positions."

366

00:21:43,866 --> 00:21:47,766 "But after a couple of weeks," one North Vietnamese remembered,

367

00:21:47,766 --> 00:21:50,666 "we didn't hear any more news.

368

00:21:50,666 --> 00:21:53,033 "The Saigon regime was still there

369

00:21:53,033 --> 00:21:56,333 "and the U.S. planes were still bombing.

370

00:21:56,333 --> 00:22:00,100 It was obvious the radio[7] wasn't telling the truth."

371

00:22:03,300 --> 00:22:06,133 Casualty figures were never revealed,

372

00:22:06,133 --> 00:22:09,833 but to North Vietnamese citizens secretly listening to reports

373

00:22:09,833 --> 00:22:12,533 on the BBC and Radio Saigon,

374

00:22:12,533 --> 00:22:15,900 it was clear that they had been heavy.

375

00:22:15,900 --> 00:22:20,466 PHAM LUC: NORTH VIETNAMESE ARMY The press and the radio never mentioned a single defeat. I loved to read the papers, but I never read about a defeat. They only wrote about victories. That was odd. If there are only victories people might ask themselves, where is my son, where did he die? Complicated questions. So it was safest to keep quiet for the time being.[8]

376

00:22:50,866 --> 00:22:54,333 HUY DUC: Each time a letter arrived from my brother, it was like a holiday. But we realized he had sent it six or eight months earlier. In my village, there were people who died, who never returned from the South. But until the end of the war, very few families received death notices from the government.

377

00:23:17,533 --> 00:23:23,066 NARRATOR: In late August 1968, Le Duan and the North Vietnamese leadership

378

00:23:23,066 --> 00:23:26,200 launched still another offensive.

379

00:23:26,200 --> 00:23:29,900 The result was the same as Tet and Mini-Tet.

380

00:23:31,666 --> 00:23:37,333 They lost 17,000 more men.

381

00:23:37,333 --> 00:23:40,166 Thousands of fresh recruits had to be ordered south

382

00:23:40,166 --> 00:23:42,466 to replace them.

383

00:23:42,466 --> 00:23:45,166 "The war began to seem like an open pit,"

384

00:23:45,166 --> 00:23:47,733 one North Vietnamese remembered.

385

00:23:47,733 --> 00:23:51,866 "The more young people were lost there, the more they sent."

386

00:23:53,200 --> 00:23:55,600 The sons of some party officials

387

00:23:55,600 --> 00:23:59,500 and their friends were sent abroad to escape the draft.

388

00:23:59,500 --> 00:24:01,900 University students were exempted.

389

00:24:01,900 --> 00:24:04,566 People with money bribed recruiters

390

00:24:04,566 --> 00:24:06,933 to overlook their offspring

391

00:24:06,933 --> 00:24:10,700 or paid physicians to declare them unfit to serve.

392

00:24:11,700 --> 00:24:14,766 HUY DUC: Some leaders sent their children to the front, but they were the minority. Most leaders' children, like Le Duan's children, were sent to the Soviet Union to study.[9]

393

00:24:28,133 --> 00:24:31,066 NARRATOR: Most draftees were poor people from the countryside,

394

00:24:31,066 --> 00:24:34,033 especially receptive to the slogans

395

00:24:34,033 --> 00:24:37,766 and promises of the revolution.

396

00:24:37,766 --> 00:24:40,066 Thousands of replacements made their way

397

00:24:40,066 --> 00:24:41,966 down the Ho Chi Minh Trail

398

00:24:41,966 --> 00:24:45,400 past burned-out vehicles and military graveyards,

399

00:24:45,400 --> 00:24:49,700 the stones neatly marked with the names of the dead

400

00:24:49,700 --> 00:24:52,033 and the date each had died.

401

00:24:53,966 --> 00:24:57,233 They encountered small groups of wounded men

402

00:24:57,233 --> 00:24:59,666 moving in the other direction.

403

00:24:59,666 --> 00:25:02,533 Those without arms walked.

404

00:25:02,533 --> 00:25:05,433 Legless men rode in camouflaged trucks.

405

00:25:05,433 --> 00:25:07,966 There were blinded soldiers

406

00:25:07,966 --> 00:25:12,266 and others who had been hideously burned by napalm.[10]

407

00:25:12,266 --> 00:25:14,866 "You'll see all kinds of pleasures in the South,"

408

00:25:14,866 --> 00:25:19,500 the weary wounded told the young men moving toward the war.

409

00:25:19,500 --> 00:25:23,033 "Everyone was frightened," a political officer remembered,

410

00:25:23,033 --> 00:25:26,200 "especially when we met those men.

411

00:25:26,200 --> 00:25:29,333 It was like looking at our future selves."

412

00:25:33,066 --> 00:25:35,633 DELEGATE AT THE AUGUST 8, 1968 REPUBLICAN CONVENTION: The youngest delegate of the New Jersey delegation

413

00:25:35,633 --> 00:25:38,266 casts his vote for the next President of the United States,

414

00:25:38,266 --> 00:25:39,400 Richard Nixon.

415

00:25:39,400 --> 00:25:43,100 NIXON: We've got 18.

416

00:25:43,100 --> 00:25:45,233 David, we doubled it, 18.

417

00:25:45,233 --> 00:25:47,766 NARRATOR: Richard Nixon had been a prominent

418

00:25:47,766 --> 00:25:50,800 and controversial figure in American politics

419

00:25:50,800 --> 00:25:53,733 for more than two decades.

420

00:25:53,733 --> 00:25:56,133 He'd been a congressman and senator,

421

00:25:56,133 --> 00:25:59,200 best known for his fierce anticommunism,

422

00:25:59,200 --> 00:26:01,566 then served eight years

423

00:26:01,566 --> 00:26:04,733 as Dwight Eisenhower's vice president.

424

00:26:04,733 --> 00:26:07,700 He narrowly lost the presidential race

425

00:26:07,700 --> 00:26:10,566 to John Kennedy in 1960[11]

426

00:26:10,566 --> 00:26:12,833 and was defeated again two years later

427

00:26:12,833 --> 00:26:16,066 trying to become governor of California.

428

00:26:16,066 --> 00:26:20,333 His career seemed to be over.

429

00:26:20,333 --> 00:26:24,533 But then, in one of the most extraordinary comebacks

430

00:26:24,533 --> 00:26:26,766 in U.S. political history,

431

00:26:26,766 --> 00:26:29,233 he had outsmarted and out-maneuvered

432

00:26:29,233 --> 00:26:31,200 and out-campaigned his rivals

433

00:26:31,200 --> 00:26:36,000 to win the 1968 Republican nomination.

434

00:26:36,000 --> 00:26:37,933 MAN: Richard M. Nixon...

435

00:26:37,933 --> 00:26:39,433 (cheering and applause)

436

00:26:42,433 --> 00:26:45,400 His pick for vice president was the tough-talking

437

00:26:45,400 --> 00:26:49,666 but largely unknown governor of Maryland, Spiro Agnew.

438

00:26:51,733 --> 00:26:53,766 Nixon made the case for himself

439

00:26:53,766 --> 00:26:57,400 as the man who could bring a fractured America together

440

00:26:57,400 --> 00:27:01,500 and bring an honorable end to the war.

441

00:27:01,500 --> 00:27:05,266 NIXON: When the strongest nation in the world can be tied down

442

00:27:05,266 --> 00:27:09,266 for four years in a war in Vietnam with no end in sight;

443

00:27:09,266 --> 00:27:11,166 when the richest nation in the world can't manage

444

00:27:11,166 --> 00:27:13,166 its own economy;

445

00:27:13,166 --> 00:27:15,166 when the nation with the greatest tradition

446

00:27:15,166 --> 00:27:19,033 of the rule of law is plagued by unprecedented lawlessness;

447

00:27:19,033 --> 00:27:22,333 when a nation that has been known for a century

448

00:27:22,333 --> 00:27:23,900 for equality of opportunity

449

00:27:23,900 --> 00:27:27,400 is torn by unprecedented racial violence;

450

00:27:27,400 --> 00:27:29,566 and when the President of the United States

451

00:27:29,566 --> 00:27:33,333 cannot travel abroad or to any major city at home

452

00:27:33,333 --> 00:27:36,066 without fear of a hostile demonstration,

453

00:27:36,066 --> 00:27:38,533 then it's time for new leadership

454

00:27:38,533 --> 00:27:40,266 for the United States of America.

455

00:27:40,266 --> 00:27:42,366 (cheering)

456

00:27:49,100 --> 00:27:51,200 WALTER CRONKITE: Good evening from Chicago,

457

00:27:51,200 --> 00:27:53,500 where the 35th National Democratic Convention

458

00:27:53,500 --> 00:27:57,066 opens tomorrow with the promise of turmoil inside this hall

459

00:27:57,066 --> 00:27:59,033 and a threat of violence without.

460

00:27:59,033 --> 00:28:03,033 JOHN LAURENCE: Both sides moved in their troops on a balmy Sunday morning

461

00:28:03,033 --> 00:28:05,333 for the confrontation of Chicago.

462

00:28:05,333 --> 00:28:07,400 Some 6,000 crack Army troops,

463

00:28:07,400 --> 00:28:10,333 riot trained and ready for action...

464

00:28:10,333 --> 00:28:13,966 The Army soldiers moved out to secret locations around the city

465

00:28:13,966 --> 00:28:16,533 after one of the largest troop movements in domestic history.

466

00:28:19,200 --> 00:28:23,533 NARRATOR: Some 15,000 protestors had gathered in Chicago,

467

00:28:23,533 --> 00:28:26,933 most to register their anguish over the war...

468

00:28:29,166 --> 00:28:32,166 ...some bent on disrupting the convention.

469

00:28:35,433 --> 00:28:39,300 Richard J. Daley, the Democratic mayor of Chicago,

470

00:28:39,300 --> 00:28:43,066 was determined that there be no trouble in his city.

471

00:28:44,866 --> 00:28:49,300 Twelve thousand Chicago policemen were on alert.

472

00:28:49,300 --> 00:28:52,733 In addition to the 6,000 U.S. Army troops,

473

00:28:52,733 --> 00:28:56,533 there were 6,000 more armed National Guardsmen

474

00:28:56,533 --> 00:29:00,500 and a thousand intelligence agents from the FBI,

475

00:29:00,500 --> 00:29:03,700 the CIA, and the military.

476

00:29:05,133 --> 00:29:08,066 Mayor Daley cordoned off the Chicago Amphitheater

477

00:29:08,066 --> 00:29:09,700 where the convention was being held

478

00:29:09,700 --> 00:29:13,233 and denied the protestors permits to march

479

00:29:13,233 --> 00:29:15,866 or to sleep in the city's parks.

480

00:29:17,200 --> 00:29:19,166 INTERVIEWER: Are you planning to go without the permit

481

00:29:19,166 --> 00:29:20,400 if you don't get the permit?

482

00:29:20,400 --> 00:29:21,866 RENNIE DAVIS: Given the fact

483

00:29:21,866 --> 00:29:25,600 that for many months we have notified this city

484

00:29:25,600 --> 00:29:29,433 and this nation that we wish to hold a demonstration,

485

00:29:29,433 --> 00:29:31,300 an assembly in Chicago

486

00:29:31,300 --> 00:29:33,900 to register our convictions about the war,

487

00:29:33,900 --> 00:29:37,400 the tens of thousands of people coming to the city of Chicago

488

00:29:37,400 --> 00:29:39,166 constitute a permit.

489

00:29:41,166 --> 00:29:43,433 Our fight is with the militarism

490

00:29:43,433 --> 00:29:45,233 that is developing in this country

491

00:29:45,233 --> 00:29:48,166 in the response to legitimate political and social grievances

492

00:29:48,166 --> 00:29:50,166 by bringing in troops

493

00:29:50,166 --> 00:29:53,033 rather than dealing with the real issues and real problems.

494

00:29:56,533 --> 00:29:58,800 CRONKITE: In the name of security, freedom of the press,

495

00:29:58,800 --> 00:30:01,133 freedom of movement, perhaps as far

496

00:30:01,133 --> 00:30:03,266 as the demonstrators themselves are concerned,

497

00:30:03,266 --> 00:30:07,466 even freedom of speech have been severely restricted here.

498

00:30:07,466 --> 00:30:12,633 A Democratic convention is about to begin in a police state.

499

00:30:12,633 --> 00:30:15,200 There just doesn't seem to be any other way to say it.

MINUTES 30-40

500

00:30:17,366 --> 00:30:19,900 JOHN BAILEY: Will the delegates please be seated.

501

00:30:19,900 --> 00:30:21,933 NARRATOR: Vice President Hubert Humphrey,

502

00:30:21,933 --> 00:30:25,566 President Johnson's chosen successor, was the frontrunner.

503

00:30:25,566 --> 00:30:29,800 He had always been a hero to his party's liberal wing,

504

00:30:29,800 --> 00:30:32,800 but because he had loyally supported the president

505

00:30:32,800 --> 00:30:36,766 and the war, many delegates, and most of the demonstrators

506

00:30:36,766 --> 00:30:40,933 outside the convention hall, backed his antiwar rival,

507

00:30:40,933 --> 00:30:43,800 Senator Eugene McCarthy.

508

00:30:43,800 --> 00:30:47,000 (muffled shouting on megaphone)

509

00:30:47,000 --> 00:30:49,566 On the second night of the convention,

510

00:30:49,566 --> 00:30:51,733 the police drove hundreds of demonstrators

511

00:30:51,733 --> 00:30:55,633 out of Lincoln Park with clubs and tear gas.

512

00:30:55,633 --> 00:30:57,300 (sirens wailing)

513

00:31:00,933 --> 00:31:03,800 JOHN CHANCELLOR: The delegates wearing bands of black crepe on their arms...

514

00:31:03,800 --> 00:31:07,066 NARRATOR: The next afternoon, the Democrats heatedly debated

515

00:31:07,066 --> 00:31:11,666 a plank in the party platform calling for an end to the war.

516

00:31:11,666 --> 00:31:15,266 When Humphrey supporters voted it down,

517

00:31:15,266 --> 00:31:19,033 the antiwar delegates erupted.

518

00:31:19,033 --> 00:31:21,533 CHANCELLOR: ...who have joined New York in this extraordinary demonstration

519

00:31:21,533 --> 00:31:26,133 of antiwar sentiment on the convention floor.

520

00:31:26,133 --> 00:31:28,133 ("Street Fighting Man" by the Rolling Stones playing)

521

00:31:28,133 --> 00:31:30,433 DOUGLAS KIKER (on TV): The demonstrators resisted when police attempted to arrest

522

00:31:30,433 --> 00:31:32,833 a young man who tried to rip down an American flag.

523

00:31:32,833 --> 00:31:35,033 PROTESTOR: Watch... watch these ...

524

00:31:35,033 --> 00:31:36,866 Don't turn your back on these ...!

525

00:31:39,733 --> 00:31:43,700 MICK JAGGER: ♪ Everywhere I hear the sound of marching... ♪

526

00:31:43,700 --> 00:31:45,066 PHILIP CAPUTO: The cops were all...

527

00:31:45,066 --> 00:31:46,700 they were guys from the neighborhoods--

528

00:31:46,700 --> 00:31:50,400 Italians, Polish guys, Irish guys.

529

00:31:50,400 --> 00:31:52,833 Probably some of them had been in Vietnam.

530

00:31:52,833 --> 00:31:54,366 And if they hadn't been,

531

00:31:54,366 --> 00:31:58,500 they certainly had cousins or brothers who were.

532

00:31:58,500 --> 00:32:03,000 NARRATOR: Philip Caputo, who had fought with the Marines in Vietnam,

533

00:32:03,000 --> 00:32:04,900 was now a reporter,

534

00:32:04,900 --> 00:32:08,900 assigned to cover the conflict in American streets.

535

00:32:08,900 --> 00:32:11,700 POLICEMAN: Get a picture of them throwing the rocks!

536

00:32:13,833 --> 00:32:15,900 CAPUTO: So all of a sudden the streets are filled

537

00:32:15,900 --> 00:32:18,166 with these kids who don't look like college kids

538

00:32:18,166 --> 00:32:20,766 are supposed to look in the cops' view.

539

00:32:20,766 --> 00:32:22,666 (protestors shouting, sirens wailing)

540

00:32:22,666 --> 00:32:24,433 (explosion)

541

00:32:24,433 --> 00:32:26,200 And some of them were committing vandalism

542

00:32:26,200 --> 00:32:30,000 and yelling obscenities.

543

00:32:30,000 --> 00:32:33,566 And I think a lot of policemen saw that

544

00:32:33,566 --> 00:32:39,966 as abusing the privileges that they had and scorning them.

545

00:32:39,966 --> 00:32:41,433 STUDENT: They are provoking us

546

00:32:41,433 --> 00:32:44,433 but we do not want to confront them now-- move back, please.

547

00:32:44,433 --> 00:32:46,733 JAGGER: ♪ Well, then what can a poor boy do ♪

548

00:32:46,733 --> 00:32:50,533 ♪ Except to sing for a rock 'n' roll band ♪

549

00:32:50,533 --> 00:32:53,400 ♪ 'Cause in sleepy London town

550

00:32:53,400 --> 00:32:56,733 ♪ There's just no place for a street fighting man ♪

551

00:32:56,733 --> 00:33:01,366 (police chanting): Move back! Move back!

552

00:33:04,166 --> 00:33:06,633 (screaming)

553

00:33:13,133 --> 00:33:18,800 DAVID BRINKLEY: That's a report, on film, from Grant Park, downtown Chicago.

554

00:33:21,066 --> 00:33:23,533 NARRATOR: That evening, thousands of demonstrators,

555

00:33:23,533 --> 00:33:26,800 barred from getting anywhere near the convention,

556

00:33:26,800 --> 00:33:30,800 were marching toward Democratic Party headquarters

557

00:33:30,800 --> 00:33:34,033 in the Hilton Hotel on Michigan Avenue instead.

558

00:33:34,033 --> 00:33:37,533 ALINE SAARINEN: The marchers seem to have come from everywhere

559

00:33:37,533 --> 00:33:41,000 and now are coming up south on Michigan Avenue

560

00:33:41,000 --> 00:33:42,466 back toward the point where

561

00:33:42,466 --> 00:33:46,300 the police were blocking them before.

562

00:33:48,433 --> 00:33:49,900 NATIONAL GUARDSMAN: Get your hands up!

563

00:33:49,900 --> 00:33:51,533 Hands up!

564

00:33:51,533 --> 00:33:52,866 Come on!

565

00:33:52,866 --> 00:33:55,666 (shouting)

566

00:34:00,766 --> 00:34:02,700 Come on now! Go! Go!

567

00:34:02,700 --> 00:34:06,500 NOMINATOR: I place before you for the Democratic nomination

568

00:34:06,500 --> 00:34:09,300 as President of the United States

569

00:34:09,300 --> 00:34:13,666 the name of Senator Eugene J. McCarthy of Minnesota.

570

00:34:13,666 --> 00:34:17,866 (cheers and applause)

571

00:34:17,866 --> 00:34:22,199 Downtown Chicago at Balbo and Michigan Avenues,

572

00:34:22,199 --> 00:34:26,033 there has been in progress for some time a peace demonstration.

573

00:34:26,033 --> 00:34:28,400 The police have come to put it down.

574

00:34:28,400 --> 00:34:31,000 The National Guard has been called to help.

575

00:34:31,000 --> 00:34:34,400 (crowd chanting "sieg heil" at police)

576

00:34:41,833 --> 00:34:45,933 (chanting continues)

577

00:34:45,933 --> 00:34:50,166 (siren wails)

578

00:34:51,533 --> 00:34:56,800 (screaming)

579

00:34:56,800 --> 00:34:58,400 MAN: Get him!

580

00:34:58,400 --> 00:35:01,000 Get him! Get him!

581

00:35:09,566 --> 00:35:11,600 GABE PRESSMAN: ...people screaming...

582

00:35:11,600 --> 00:35:13,033 JAMES WILLBANKS: I turned on the television.

583

00:35:13,033 --> 00:35:14,900 I don't think I was too particularly thoughtful

584

00:35:14,900 --> 00:35:16,300 as a junior in college,

585

00:35:16,300 --> 00:35:19,666 but I thought the country was coming apart at the seams.

586

00:35:19,666 --> 00:35:21,800 It looked like we were devolving into madness.

587

00:35:23,600 --> 00:35:27,633 And I couldn't tell, was it protestors or the police

588

00:35:27,633 --> 00:35:28,700 or was everybody insane?

589

00:35:28,700 --> 00:35:32,633 (crowd chanting)

590

00:35:32,633 --> 00:35:34,433 (gavel pounding)

591

00:35:34,433 --> 00:35:37,166 NARRATOR: At the convention there was more confusion.

592

00:35:37,166 --> 00:35:40,266 Some antiwar delegates once pledged

593

00:35:40,266 --> 00:35:43,500 to the murdered Robert Kennedy now threw their support

594

00:35:43,500 --> 00:35:45,600 behind yet another candidate,

595

00:35:45,600 --> 00:35:49,300 South Dakota Senator George McGovern.

596

00:35:49,300 --> 00:35:52,633 ABRAHAM RIBICOFF: And with George McGovern as President of the United States,

597

00:35:52,633 --> 00:35:56,600 we wouldn't have to have Gestapo tactics

598

00:35:56,600 --> 00:36:00,466 in the streets of Chicago.

599

00:36:00,466 --> 00:36:07,300 (crowd reacts boisterously)

600

00:36:07,300 --> 00:36:09,733 PRESSMAN: The persistent chanting by the crowd,

601

00:36:09,733 --> 00:36:12,033 "The whole world is watching."

602

00:36:12,033 --> 00:36:15,333 NARRATOR: LBJ, watching the chaos on television,

603

00:36:15,333 --> 00:36:17,300 considered flying to Chicago

604

00:36:17,300 --> 00:36:20,533 and getting back in the race himself.

605

00:36:20,533 --> 00:36:23,566 Mayor Daley told the president he'd have enough delegates

606

00:36:23,566 --> 00:36:25,533 to win the nomination,

607

00:36:25,533 --> 00:36:29,833 but the Secret Service warned it could not guarantee his safety.

608

00:36:34,333 --> 00:36:38,933 RON FERRIZZI: I got to Australia the last week of August 1968-- R&R.

609

00:36:38,933 --> 00:36:41,466 I never really wanted to go on R&R.

610

00:36:41,466 --> 00:36:44,066 I felt that, how can you relax?

611

00:36:44,066 --> 00:36:47,833 So I turn on the TV and the first scene...

612

00:36:47,833 --> 00:36:50,100 The TV gets bright.

613

00:36:50,100 --> 00:36:52,700 The first scene on... it was the camera...

614

00:36:52,700 --> 00:36:56,633 was a close-up, was over the shoulder of this storm trooper

615

00:36:56,633 --> 00:36:58,933 who had a kid by the scruff of his shirt.

616

00:36:58,933 --> 00:37:01,633 And he smacks him with his bat.

617

00:37:01,633 --> 00:37:04,766 And there's blood and everything and all this jumble.

618

00:37:04,766 --> 00:37:07,533 And then the camera pans out and it's far away.

619

00:37:07,533 --> 00:37:09,200 And these riots and there's fighting going on.

620

00:37:09,200 --> 00:37:10,866 And I go, "Oh, my God,

621

00:37:10,866 --> 00:37:12,666 the Russians invaded Czechoslovakia."

622

00:37:12,666 --> 00:37:15,666 And then ditto, ditto, ditto, "Chicago Democratic Convention,

623

00:37:15,666 --> 00:37:17,533 United States of America."

624

00:37:17,533 --> 00:37:20,133 And I said... you know, at that moment my...

625

00:37:20,133 --> 00:37:22,133 I-I was politicized.

626

00:37:22,133 --> 00:37:25,066 ("For What It's Worth" by Buffalo Springfield playing)

627

00:37:32,066 --> 00:37:36,333 ♪ There's somethin' happenin' here ♪

628

00:37:36,333 --> 00:37:39,600 ♪ What it is ain't exactly clear ♪

629

00:37:39,600 --> 00:37:41,400 FERRIZZI: At that moment in time,

630

00:37:41,400 --> 00:37:44,566 I realized that anybody who really cared for America

631

00:37:44,566 --> 00:37:47,933 was sent halfway around the world chasing some ghost

632

00:37:47,933 --> 00:37:50,933 in the jungle, killing somebody else's grandmother

633

00:37:50,933 --> 00:37:52,933 for no reason at all.

634

00:37:52,933 --> 00:37:55,033 BUFFALO SPRINGFIELD: ♪ What's that sound, everybody look what's going down ♪

635

00:37:55,033 --> 00:37:58,766 FERRIZZI: And, in the meantime, my country's being torn apart.

636

00:37:58,766 --> 00:38:00,733 So I saw somebody who looked like my dad

637

00:38:00,733 --> 00:38:02,333 hitting somebody who looked like me.[12]

638

00:38:02,333 --> 00:38:06,333 Oh, my God, whose side would I be on?

639

00:38:06,333 --> 00:38:09,766 BUFFALO SPRINGFIELD: ♪ There's battle lines being drawn ♪

640

00:38:09,766 --> 00:38:16,166 ♪ Nobody's right if everybody's wrong ♪

641

00:38:16,166 --> 00:38:20,033 ♪ Young people speakin' their minds ♪

642

00:38:20,033 --> 00:38:24,166 ♪ Getting so much resistance from behind ♪

643

00:38:24,166 --> 00:38:25,266 ♪ It's time we stop

644

00:38:25,266 --> 00:38:26,933 NARRATOR: In the end,

645

00:38:26,933 --> 00:38:30,000 Humphrey won the nomination on the first ballot.

646

00:38:30,000 --> 00:38:32,566 He told the press how pleased he was,

647

00:38:32,566 --> 00:38:36,700 but he confessed to his wife that the convention had left him

648

00:38:36,700 --> 00:38:40,566 feeling heartbroken, battered, and beaten,

649

00:38:40,566 --> 00:38:42,700 as if he'd survived a shipwreck.

650

00:38:44,766 --> 00:38:47,466 A presidential commission would declare what had happened

651

00:38:47,466 --> 00:38:51,800 in Chicago a "police riot," but in a Gallup poll,

652

00:38:51,800 --> 00:38:55,166 56% of Americans approved

653

00:38:55,166 --> 00:38:58,900 of the way the police had handled the demonstrators.

654

00:38:58,900 --> 00:39:03,233 And when Richard Nixon chose to open his campaign

655

00:39:03,233 --> 00:39:05,500 with a motorcade through the Chicago Loop,

656

00:39:05,500 --> 00:39:10,033 nearly half a million Chicagoans turned out to cheer him.

657

00:39:17,233 --> 00:39:19,266 MICHAEL HOLMES ARMY (on tape): Hello, Mom, Pop.

658

00:39:19,266 --> 00:39:21,566 I really can't tell you too much about this country

659

00:39:21,566 --> 00:39:23,333 except the rice paddies stink.

660

00:39:23,333 --> 00:39:27,766 And it's just miles and miles of nothing but rice paddies.

661

00:39:27,766 --> 00:39:29,266 And they got dikes in them.

662

00:39:29,266 --> 00:39:30,300 Real cool looking.

663

00:39:30,300 --> 00:39:32,000 We go through them with our APCs

664

00:39:32,000 --> 00:39:34,466 and tear them down and everything else.

665

00:39:34,466 --> 00:39:38,566 ("Road to Marscota" by Peter Walker playing)

666

00:39:38,566 --> 00:39:42,566 NARRATOR: On August 29, the day after police and demonstrators clashed

667

00:39:42,566 --> 00:39:46,433 in Chicago, 20-year-old private Michael Holmes

668

00:39:46,433 --> 00:39:49,866 arrived in Vietnam.

669

00:39:49,866 --> 00:39:53,933 He was born and brought up in the tiny town of Williamsville,

670

00:39:53,933 --> 00:39:56,633 in the heart of the Missouri Ozarks.

671

00:39:56,633 --> 00:39:59,133 His father and mother ran the general store

672

00:39:59,133 --> 00:40:01,866 where Michael worked every day after school.

673

00:40:01,866 --> 00:40:05,900 He floated the rivers, hunted deer and squirrels,

674

00:40:05,900 --> 00:40:09,000 and was going steady with a girl named Darlene.

675

00:40:09,000 --> 00:40:13,000 He had trouble keeping up in high school,

676

00:40:13,000 --> 00:40:16,633 did not complete community college and, as a result,

677

00:40:16,633 --> 00:40:20,666 was immediately drafted into the Army.

678

00:40:20,666 --> 00:40:25,900 In Vietnam, he was assigned to F Troop, 17th Armored Cavalry,

679

00:40:25,900 --> 00:40:29,366 196th Light Infantry Brigade,

680

00:40:29,366 --> 00:40:32,033 stationed at an isolated firebase

681

00:40:32,033 --> 00:40:37,266 22 miles south of Danang called Baldy.

MINUTES 40-50

682

00:40:37,266 --> 00:40:39,800 HOLMES (on tape): So you ask what the size of Baldy was.

683

00:40:39,800 --> 00:40:42,633 Well, it's just about as big as Williamsville

684

00:40:42,633 --> 00:40:45,900 and maybe a little bit bigger.

685

00:40:45,900 --> 00:40:50,100 I sent you a picture of me and a bunch of the other guys.

686

00:40:53,900 --> 00:40:55,733 It's not really that bad.

687

00:40:55,733 --> 00:40:57,500 It's... in a way I like it.

688

00:40:57,500 --> 00:40:59,633 It's just being away from home

689

00:40:59,633 --> 00:41:01,433 and everything that I don't like.

690

00:41:04,666 --> 00:41:08,633 NARRATOR: In Williamsville, family and friends gathered to listen

691

00:41:08,633 --> 00:41:11,100 to Michael's reports from Vietnam

692

00:41:11,100 --> 00:41:15,466 and to fill him in on what was happening back home.

693

00:41:15,466 --> 00:41:18,533 WOMAN (on tape): We're all down here at your dad and mother's tonight

694

00:41:18,533 --> 00:41:21,833 and we thought we'd all say something for you.

695

00:41:21,833 --> 00:41:26,833 And you could hear our voice and feel like you's back home.

696

00:41:26,833 --> 00:41:27,833 And we're looking forward...

697

00:41:27,833 --> 00:41:29,266 HAROLD (on tape): Hello, Mike.

698

00:41:29,266 --> 00:41:31,133 I've been doing a lot of squirrel hunting lately,

699

00:41:31,133 --> 00:41:33,366 and killing quite a few.

700

00:41:33,366 --> 00:41:36,733 Well, the Ozarks really look beautiful this time of year.

701

00:41:36,733 --> 00:41:38,133 Looking forward to seeing you.

702

00:41:38,133 --> 00:41:39,833 JERRY (on tape): Uh, this is Jerry, Mike.

703

00:41:39,833 --> 00:41:43,133 I think Ricky and Carol broke up, Mike.

704

00:41:43,133 --> 00:41:45,033 Ricky, he's really prowling now.

705

00:41:45,033 --> 00:41:47,933 GLENDA (on tape): Mike, this is Glenda.

706

00:41:47,933 --> 00:41:51,233 Um, I got a boyfriend, and his name's Danny.

707

00:41:51,233 --> 00:41:52,533 And...

708

00:41:52,533 --> 00:41:54,266 GLEN (on tape): Mike, this is Glen.

709

00:41:54,266 --> 00:41:56,633 All these other boys been talking about hunting,

710

00:41:56,633 --> 00:41:58,466 I'm gonna talk about girls.

711

00:41:58,466 --> 00:42:01,466 (chuckling): Girls and fast cars.

712

00:42:01,466 --> 00:42:04,566 Gene Bilbury got him a new Bonneville.

713

00:42:04,566 --> 00:42:08,066 MICHAEL'S MOTHER (on tape): Michael, this is Mother.

714

00:42:08,066 --> 00:42:11,533 The picture you sent us was real good, it looked just like you.

715

00:42:11,533 --> 00:42:15,500 I even liked that moustache, and I didn't think I would.

716

00:42:15,500 --> 00:42:17,100 And we miss you a lot.

717

00:42:17,100 --> 00:42:19,066 MICHAEL'S FATHER (on tape): This is your dad talking.

718

00:42:19,066 --> 00:42:23,966 We think that you'll be okay, just don't be nosing around

719

00:42:23,966 --> 00:42:26,666 where you don't have any business

720

00:42:26,666 --> 00:42:30,166 and get hold of a booby trap or something.

721

00:42:30,166 --> 00:42:34,233 This is about the end of this tape, so goodbye for now.

722

00:42:41,966 --> 00:42:45,866 HOLMES (on tape): We burned down a whole lot of hooches today

723

00:42:45,866 --> 00:42:49,133 of these people who don't cooperate with us, you know.

724

00:42:49,133 --> 00:42:50,900 Yeah, I don't I don't really understand it

725

00:42:50,900 --> 00:42:56,166 because if, if they are, you know, not VC,

726

00:42:56,166 --> 00:42:59,300 and we do that to them, you know, treat them bad,

727

00:42:59,300 --> 00:43:01,433 then they're gonna turn VC.

728

00:43:01,433 --> 00:43:02,966 The Army does everything backward.

729

00:43:09,533 --> 00:43:13,800 NARRATOR: One morning that fall, several APCs from F Troop

730

00:43:13,800 --> 00:43:16,866 moved cautiously up Highway One toward Danang.

731

00:43:16,866 --> 00:43:21,366 Michael Holmes rode in the second vehicle.

732

00:43:21,366 --> 00:43:25,133 (explosion)

733

00:43:30,100 --> 00:43:34,933 His APC hit a 300-pound bomb buried beneath the road.

734

00:43:34,933 --> 00:43:38,333 Three of his friends died instantly.

735

00:43:38,333 --> 00:43:40,700 Holmes was thrown clear

736

00:43:40,700 --> 00:43:45,000 and woke up five hours later in the hospital.

737

00:43:48,166 --> 00:43:50,333 HOLMES (on tape): Hello, Mom, Pop.

738

00:43:50,333 --> 00:43:51,700 This is me.

739

00:43:51,700 --> 00:43:53,600 Up to this point I didn't know

740

00:43:53,600 --> 00:43:56,966 if there was really a war going on over here.

741

00:43:56,966 --> 00:44:00,866 I just thought maybe they was playing a game or something.

742

00:44:00,866 --> 00:44:04,566 But I could've reached out and touched two of those people.

743

00:44:04,566 --> 00:44:06,700 I knew them real good.

744

00:44:06,700 --> 00:44:08,300 And please don't worry about me getting hurt

745

00:44:08,300 --> 00:44:11,466 because I'm not hurt all that bad.

746

00:44:11,466 --> 00:44:14,866 Two more Purple Hearts and I'm out of the field,

747

00:44:14,866 --> 00:44:18,633 and I think maybe I get to get out of the country altogether.

748

00:44:24,100 --> 00:44:29,633 NARRATOR: Six months later, Michael Holmes was on patrol, walking point,

749

00:44:29,633 --> 00:44:33,800 when he was killed by a North Vietnamese soldier.[13]

750

00:44:42,166 --> 00:44:44,333 LIZ TROTTA: This is Long An province.

751

00:44:44,333 --> 00:44:47,766 Since 1962, it has been an important testing ground

752

00:44:47,766 --> 00:44:49,966 for the pacification program.

753

00:44:49,966 --> 00:44:54,833 Amidst the flat rice fields and coconut trees lies Loc Tien Mot.

754

00:44:54,833 --> 00:44:58,500 The hamlet chief says only more troops will make his people safe

755

00:44:58,500 --> 00:45:00,300 from the Viet Cong.

756

00:45:00,300 --> 00:45:01,733 During the night, he adds,

757

00:45:01,733 --> 00:45:04,966 the guerrillas go from house to house collecting taxes.

758

00:45:04,966 --> 00:45:08,900 The government may have left its traces of pacification.

759

00:45:08,900 --> 00:45:10,900 The Viet Cong have not left.

760

00:45:10,900 --> 00:45:14,033 Liz Trotta, NBC News, South Vietnam.

761

00:45:15,666 --> 00:45:18,433 NARRATOR: Since the Viet Cong had been so badly weakened

762

00:45:18,433 --> 00:45:22,066 in the Tet Offensive and the two offensives that followed it,

763

00:45:22,066 --> 00:45:23,966 General Abrams believed

764

00:45:23,966 --> 00:45:26,733 that hundreds of thousands of ARVN troops

765

00:45:26,733 --> 00:45:29,533 could now be freed to secure the countryside

766

00:45:29,533 --> 00:45:32,400 and win support for the government in Saigon.

767

00:45:34,266 --> 00:45:37,333 But permanent security was not possible

768

00:45:37,333 --> 00:45:40,600 unless the Viet Cong political infrastructure--

769

00:45:40,600 --> 00:45:43,500 the tax collectors and village chiefs,

770

00:45:43,500 --> 00:45:46,433 runners and spies and sympathizers--

771

00:45:46,433 --> 00:45:51,366 were killed, captured, or persuaded to defect.

772

00:45:51,366 --> 00:45:57,600 To do that, the CIA had created the Phoenix Program.

773

00:45:57,600 --> 00:46:00,733 RICHARD THRELKELD: The villagers of Thuy Xuan have been assembled

774

00:46:00,733 --> 00:46:02,533 in the village schoolyard,

775

00:46:02,533 --> 00:46:06,033 where teams of government interrogators are trying

776

00:46:06,033 --> 00:46:08,666 to pick out from among them the members of the Viet Cong

777

00:46:08,666 --> 00:46:10,566 who live here.

778

00:46:10,566 --> 00:46:13,933 This sort of Phoenix exercise is a weekly event

779

00:46:13,933 --> 00:46:16,800 in districts throughout South Vietnam.

780

00:46:19,333 --> 00:46:21,266 NARRATOR: After recovering from his wounds,

781

00:46:21,266 --> 00:46:25,366 Lieutenant Vincent Okamoto became an intelligence officer

782

00:46:25,366 --> 00:46:28,666 attached to the program.

783

00:46:28,666 --> 00:46:30,066 OKAMOTO: The Phoenix Program was premised on the fact

784

00:46:30,066 --> 00:46:32,333 that the North Vietnamese coming down the Ho Chi Minh Trail,

785

00:46:32,333 --> 00:46:33,966 when they went into South Vietnam,

786

00:46:33,966 --> 00:46:35,533 they were strangers, just like the Americans.

787

00:46:35,533 --> 00:46:39,166 They didn't know the terrain, they didn't know the people.

788

00:46:39,166 --> 00:46:42,533 So in order for them to function operationally,

789

00:46:42,533 --> 00:46:44,866 they needed the Viet Cong infrastructure.

790

00:46:44,866 --> 00:46:49,300 And so the project was to eliminate those guys.

791

00:46:49,300 --> 00:46:51,933 And I think it made a great deal of sense.

792

00:46:53,866 --> 00:46:57,166 STUART HERRINGTON: The communists thought Phoenix was very effective.

793

00:46:57,166 --> 00:46:59,766 They saw it as a significant threat

794

00:46:59,766 --> 00:47:02,233 to the viability of the revolution

795

00:47:02,233 --> 00:47:06,833 because to the extent that you could take a sharp pointed knife

796

00:47:06,833 --> 00:47:08,633 and carve out the Viet Cong,

797

00:47:08,633 --> 00:47:10,933 the shadow Viet Cong, the shadow government,

798

00:47:10,933 --> 00:47:14,200 then their means of control over the civilian population

799

00:47:14,200 --> 00:47:16,266 in the South was dealt a death blow.

800

00:47:18,566 --> 00:47:21,633 NARRATOR: The pressure the Phoenix Program put on the Viet Cong

801

00:47:21,633 --> 00:47:26,000 caused dangerous signs of what one communist official described

802

00:47:26,000 --> 00:47:30,233 as "wavering" among his followers in the Mekong Delta--

803

00:47:30,233 --> 00:47:34,033 depression, discouragement, and widespread drunkenness

804

00:47:34,033 --> 00:47:38,100 even among men going into battle.

805

00:47:39,600 --> 00:47:43,566 But Phoenix's targeting was only as good as the intelligence

806

00:47:43,566 --> 00:47:49,033 upon which it was based, and that varied widely.

807

00:47:49,033 --> 00:47:52,533 DAVID CULHANE: This film, made by a CBS stringer cameraman

808

00:47:52,533 --> 00:47:55,666 some weeks ago shows South Vietnamese forces

809

00:47:55,666 --> 00:47:57,066 interrogating an old man

810

00:47:57,066 --> 00:47:59,300 identified as a minor VC official.

811

00:48:01,666 --> 00:48:02,933 NARRATOR: In the Phoenix Program,

812

00:48:02,933 --> 00:48:07,100 Americans served in an advisory capacity;

813

00:48:07,100 --> 00:48:10,433 most of the day-to-day enforcement was left to

814

00:48:10,433 --> 00:48:13,966 the South Vietnamese Provincial Reconnaissance Units--

815

00:48:13,966 --> 00:48:16,000 the PRUs--

816

00:48:16,000 --> 00:48:18,433 who sometimes were more interested

817

00:48:18,433 --> 00:48:22,966 in settling old scores than in rooting out communists.

818

00:48:24,900 --> 00:48:28,066 OKAMOTO: It was scary because it was subject to abuse,

819

00:48:28,066 --> 00:48:31,433 and was abused.

820

00:48:31,433 --> 00:48:36,200 Again, the geniuses in Saigon would use their computers

821

00:48:36,200 --> 00:48:39,666 to come up with the blacklists.

822

00:48:41,666 --> 00:48:44,400 You get the list, and you check with other intelligence officers

823

00:48:44,400 --> 00:48:46,433 in the district.

824

00:48:46,433 --> 00:48:49,300 And you try to pool that information.

825

00:48:49,300 --> 00:48:51,433 Next night, or a couple nights later,

826

00:48:51,433 --> 00:48:54,000 a bunch of cowboys from the PRUs would go out there.

827

00:48:54,000 --> 00:48:57,700 And, you know, knock on the door,

828

00:48:57,700 --> 00:48:59,100 "April Fool, ...!"

829

00:48:59,100 --> 00:49:00,166 And boom.

830

00:49:01,800 --> 00:49:03,400 There wasn't any real accountability.

831

00:49:06,666 --> 00:49:09,433 NARRATOR: Later, the director of the Phoenix Program

832

00:49:09,433 --> 00:49:13,000 admitted to Congress that no one knew how many

833

00:49:13,000 --> 00:49:17,600 of the more than 20,000 who had been killed were innocent.

834

00:49:19,766 --> 00:49:22,100 And although the program did succeed

835

00:49:22,100 --> 00:49:25,100 in degrading the Viet Cong infrastructure,

836

00:49:25,100 --> 00:49:27,866 the government of Nguyen Van Thieu remained

837

00:49:27,866 --> 00:49:29,866 as unpopular as ever.

838

00:49:32,766 --> 00:49:36,233 A poll taken in the Delta province of Long An

839

00:49:36,233 --> 00:49:40,600 would show 35% of the people ready to vote for Thieu,

840

00:49:40,600 --> 00:49:44,700 20% favoring the National Liberation Front,

841

00:49:44,700 --> 00:49:49,633 and 45% backing someone, anyone,[14]

842

00:49:49,633 --> 00:49:52,166 opposed to both the Viet Cong

843

00:49:52,166 --> 00:49:56,033 and the American-backed regime in Saigon.

844

00:50:00,666 --> 00:50:02,300 MAN: In Vietnam there's a wound

845

00:50:02,300 --> 00:50:04,500 that does not cease its bleeding.

846

00:50:04,500 --> 00:50:10,133 I'm talking about the scream of death and the wound of war.

847

00:50:10,133 --> 00:50:12,200 We did not come to talk with you, Mr. Humphrey.

848

00:50:12,200 --> 00:50:14,133 We have come to arrest you.

849

00:50:14,133 --> 00:50:15,800 HUMBERT HUMPHREY: Now you've had equal time.

850

00:50:15,800 --> 00:50:16,800 Shut up!

851

00:50:16,800 --> 00:50:18,733 (mixture of boos and cheers)

852

00:50:18,733 --> 00:50:22,466 NARRATOR: Hubert Humphrey's presidential campaign was in trouble.

853

00:50:22,466 --> 00:50:26,066 Richard Nixon was comfortably ahead in the polls

854

00:50:26,066 --> 00:50:28,033 and refused to debate.

855

00:50:28,033 --> 00:50:30,700 "I've come to the conclusion

856

00:50:30,700 --> 00:50:32,766 that there's no way to win the war,"

857

00:50:32,766 --> 00:50:36,366 he told three of his speechwriters in private.

858

00:50:36,366 --> 00:50:38,300 "But we have to say the opposite,

859

00:50:38,300 --> 00:50:41,433 just to keep some bargaining leverage."

MINUTES 50-60

860

00:50:41,433 --> 00:50:45,833 Compounding Humphrey's problem was a third-party candidate,

861

00:50:45,833 --> 00:50:47,333 George Wallace,

862

00:50:47,333 --> 00:50:50,500 the segregationist former Governor of Alabama.

863

00:50:50,500 --> 00:50:53,933 He was sure to peel away some white voters

864

00:50:53,933 --> 00:50:57,366 who normally voted Democratic.

865

00:50:57,366 --> 00:51:01,633 Humphrey had confided his doubts about the war to Johnson

866

00:51:01,633 --> 00:51:05,933 early on, but had always remained stubbornly loyal to him

867

00:51:05,933 --> 00:51:07,300 in public.

868

00:51:07,300 --> 00:51:11,200 Now his advisors told him that if he wanted to win

869

00:51:11,200 --> 00:51:13,500 he had to break with the president

870

00:51:13,500 --> 00:51:17,166 and make a bold gesture toward ending the war.

871

00:51:19,000 --> 00:51:22,200 On September 30, he called for a total halt

872

00:51:22,200 --> 00:51:25,033 to the bombing of North Vietnam.

873

00:51:25,033 --> 00:51:27,566 HUMPHREY: I would stop the bombing of the North

874

00:51:27,566 --> 00:51:30,966 as an acceptable risk for peace

875

00:51:30,966 --> 00:51:35,700 because I believe it could lead to success in the negotiations[15]

876

00:51:35,700 --> 00:51:37,633 and thereby shorten the war.

877

00:51:37,633 --> 00:51:41,666 This would be the best protection for our troops.

878

00:51:41,666 --> 00:51:45,100 NARRATOR: Johnson felt betrayed and refused to speak

879

00:51:45,100 --> 00:51:47,300 to his own Vice President for a time.

880

00:51:48,633 --> 00:51:52,500 But on October 31, just five days before the election,

881

00:51:52,500 --> 00:51:56,000 the President himself made a surprise announcement.

882

00:51:58,133 --> 00:52:02,433 He was stopping all bombing of North Vietnam.

883

00:52:02,433 --> 00:52:06,166 There had been real progress in Paris, he said.

884

00:52:06,166 --> 00:52:10,466 Hanoi had agreed for the first time to talk with Saigon,

885

00:52:10,466 --> 00:52:15,200 and the United States had agreed to include the Viet Cong.

886

00:52:15,200 --> 00:52:20,866 It suddenly looked as if peace were possible.

887

00:52:20,866 --> 00:52:22,733 Humphrey was jubilant.

888

00:52:22,733 --> 00:52:25,633 His poll numbers rose overnight.

889

00:52:25,633 --> 00:52:30,100 He was confident he would now be able to overtake Nixon.

890

00:52:30,100 --> 00:52:33,566 But then, on November 2,

891

00:52:33,566 --> 00:52:37,433 with just three days to go until Americans went to the polls,

892

00:52:37,433 --> 00:52:40,400 President Thieu suddenly announced

893

00:52:40,400 --> 00:52:43,600 that the South Vietnamese government would not attend

894

00:52:43,600 --> 00:52:45,866 the proposed talks after all.

895

00:52:47,700 --> 00:52:50,366 A representative of the Nixon campaign[16]

896

00:52:50,366 --> 00:52:54,400 at the candidate's personal direction had secretly contacted

897

00:52:54,400 --> 00:52:55,966 the Saigon government

898

00:52:55,966 --> 00:52:58,900 urging Thieu to stay away from the talks,

899

00:52:58,900 --> 00:53:01,766 promising that once Nixon was elected,

900

00:53:01,766 --> 00:53:06,066 he would drive a harder bargain with Hanoi than Humphrey would.

901

00:53:06,066 --> 00:53:11,566 Thanks to a CIA bug planted in Thieu's Saigon office

902

00:53:11,566 --> 00:53:15,233 and an FBI wiretap on the South Vietnamese embassy

903

00:53:15,233 --> 00:53:19,200 in Washington, Johnson got wind of what had happened

904

00:53:19,200 --> 00:53:21,600 and called his friend Everett Dirksen,

905

00:53:21,600 --> 00:53:24,100 the Republican Senate minority leader,

906

00:53:24,100 --> 00:53:28,966 to warn him that the Nixon people were committing treason.

907

00:53:28,966 --> 00:53:30,866 LYNDON JOHNSON: I'm reading their hand, Everett.[17]

908

00:53:30,866 --> 00:53:32,833 I don't want to get this in the campaign.

909

00:53:32,833 --> 00:53:34,233 DIRKSEN: That's right.

910

00:53:34,233 --> 00:53:35,500 JOHNSON: And they oughtn't to be doing this.

911

00:53:35,500 --> 00:53:36,666 This is treason. I know.

912

00:53:36,666 --> 00:53:38,866 And I think it would shock America

913

00:53:38,866 --> 00:53:42,833 if a principal candidate was playing with a source like this

914

00:53:42,833 --> 00:53:44,333 on a matter this important.

915

00:53:44,333 --> 00:53:45,600 DIRKSON: Yeah.

916

00:53:45,600 --> 00:53:46,933 JOHNSON: I know this--

917

00:53:46,933 --> 00:53:49,666 that they're contacting a foreign power

918

00:53:49,666 --> 00:53:51,000 in the middle of a war.

919

00:53:51,000 --> 00:53:52,133 That's a mistake.

920

00:53:52,133 --> 00:53:53,366 And it's a damn bad mistake.

921

00:53:54,966 --> 00:53:55,966 RICHARD NIXON: Mr. President?

922

00:53:55,966 --> 00:53:56,966 JOHNSON: Yes.

923

00:53:56,966 --> 00:53:57,966 This is Dick Nixon.

924

00:53:57,966 --> 00:53:58,966 Yes, Dick.

925

00:53:58,966 --> 00:54:01,533 I just went on Meet the Press

926

00:54:01,533 --> 00:54:06,600 and said that I had given you my personal assurance

927

00:54:06,600 --> 00:54:09,766 that I would do everything possible to cooperate

928

00:54:09,766 --> 00:54:12,800 both before the election and, if elected, after the election.

929

00:54:12,800 --> 00:54:14,300 I just wanted you to know

930

00:54:14,300 --> 00:54:17,600 that I feel very, very strongly about this

931

00:54:17,600 --> 00:54:21,233 and any rumblings around

932

00:54:21,233 --> 00:54:25,100 about somebody trying to sabotage

933

00:54:25,100 --> 00:54:26,700 the Saigon government's attitude

934

00:54:26,700 --> 00:54:28,100 certainly has no...

935

00:54:28,100 --> 00:54:32,500 absolutely no credibility as far as I am concerned.

936

00:54:32,500 --> 00:54:33,866 That's, that's...

937

00:54:33,866 --> 00:54:35,433 JOHNSON: I'm very happy to hear that, Dick,

938

00:54:35,433 --> 00:54:38,400 because that is taking place.

939

00:54:38,400 --> 00:54:42,166 NIXON: My God, I would never do anything to encourage Saigon

940

00:54:42,166 --> 00:54:43,766 not to come to the table because basically,

941

00:54:43,766 --> 00:54:46,133 that was what you got.

942

00:54:46,133 --> 00:54:47,366 JOHNSON: Well, that's good, Dick.

943

00:54:47,366 --> 00:54:49,433 We've got to get this goddamned war off the plate,

944

00:54:49,433 --> 00:54:51,866 the quicker the better, and the hell with the political credit.

945

00:54:51,866 --> 00:54:52,966 Believe me.

946

00:54:52,966 --> 00:54:53,966 JOHNSON: Thank you, Dick.

947

00:54:58,100 --> 00:55:01,766 NARRATOR: Nixon was lying and Johnson knew it.

948

00:55:01,766 --> 00:55:03,766 But to go public with the information,

949

00:55:03,766 --> 00:55:06,533 the president would have to reveal the methods

950

00:55:06,533 --> 00:55:07,766 by which he had learned

951

00:55:07,766 --> 00:55:11,066 of the Republican candidate's duplicity.

952

00:55:11,066 --> 00:55:13,633 He was unwilling to do so.

953

00:55:13,633 --> 00:55:17,266 Nixon's secret was safe.

954

00:55:17,266 --> 00:55:19,500 The American public was never told

955

00:55:19,500 --> 00:55:23,866 that the regime for which 35,000 Americans had died

956

00:55:23,866 --> 00:55:26,333 had been willing to boycott peace talks

957

00:55:26,333 --> 00:55:30,000 to help elect Richard Nixon or that he had been willing

958

00:55:30,000 --> 00:55:35,700 to delay an end to the bloodshed in order to get elected.

959

00:55:35,700 --> 00:55:40,233 REPORTER: At 10:45 this morning, Eastern Standard Time...

960

00:55:40,233 --> 00:55:45,466 NARRATOR: On Election Day, Richard Milhous Nixon won the presidency

961

00:55:45,466 --> 00:55:49,000 with 43.4% of the vote.

962

00:55:49,000 --> 00:55:53,033 Hubert Humphrey received 42.7%.

963

00:55:57,333 --> 00:56:00,600 The Nixon campaign's secret maneuvering may have helped him

964

00:56:00,600 --> 00:56:04,200 win the election, but the President-Elect's fear

965

00:56:04,200 --> 00:56:07,466 that that maneuvering might someday be exposed

966

00:56:07,466 --> 00:56:09,833 would be part of his undoing.[18]

967

00:56:13,500 --> 00:56:16,200 Thieu waited several weeks after the election

968

00:56:16,200 --> 00:56:21,466 before agreeing to send a delegation to Paris.

969

00:56:21,466 --> 00:56:26,466 There, everything stalled over the seating arrangements.

970

00:56:26,466 --> 00:56:31,400 The North Vietnamese had insisted on a square table,

971

00:56:31,400 --> 00:56:34,966 with separate sides for all four parties to the talks--

972

00:56:34,966 --> 00:56:39,666 Hanoi, the Viet Cong, Saigon, and the United States.

973

00:56:39,666 --> 00:56:44,933 Saigon refused to take part unless Hanoi and the Viet Cong

974

00:56:44,933 --> 00:56:47,400 sat on the same side of the table.

975

00:56:47,400 --> 00:56:51,333 The standoff went on for ten weeks.

976

00:56:54,233 --> 00:56:58,300 It was the Soviets who finally came up with a solution:

977

00:56:58,300 --> 00:57:00,566 a round table.

978

00:57:02,866 --> 00:57:05,933 (gunfire)

979

00:57:05,933 --> 00:57:08,533 RADIO OPERATOR: Type of injury is urgent, shrapnel wounds.

980

00:57:08,533 --> 00:57:09,966 (gunfire)

981

00:57:09,966 --> 00:57:11,833 The area is insecure.

982

00:57:15,433 --> 00:57:16,733 MEDIC: Keep your head down.

983

00:57:18,933 --> 00:57:20,800 RADIO OPERATOR: Got some fire.

984

00:57:23,766 --> 00:57:27,333 KARL MARLANTES: MARINES You have these 19-year-old kids with these huge hearts.

985

00:57:27,333 --> 00:57:30,500 They will do what you ask them.

986

00:57:30,500 --> 00:57:34,900 The issue is are you asking them to do something worthwhile?

987

00:57:34,900 --> 00:57:36,133 That's up to the adults.

988

00:57:36,133 --> 00:57:38,600 And that's where the failure comes.

989

00:57:38,600 --> 00:57:41,200 The failure isn't the kids saying, "I'm not gonna do this."

990

00:57:41,200 --> 00:57:43,733 Because that's not the way they are built.

991

00:57:43,733 --> 00:57:46,066 19-year-olds don't know to take a raincoat on

992

00:57:46,066 --> 00:57:47,733 when it's raining, all right?

993

00:57:47,733 --> 00:57:50,133 That's-that's why they're so good at being warriors.

994

00:57:50,133 --> 00:57:51,733 They'll do it.

995

00:57:51,733 --> 00:57:53,066 They won't even ask you a question.

996

00:57:54,466 --> 00:57:57,033 "All right, we'll do it."

997

00:57:57,033 --> 00:57:59,866 The responsibility is on the grownups to make sure

998

00:57:59,866 --> 00:58:01,566 they're not being wasted

999

00:58:01,566 --> 00:58:05,566 because they'll do what they're told, and they'll do it well.

1000

00:58:08,466 --> 00:58:12,400 NARRATOR: Karl Marlantes was born in Astoria, Oregon,

1001

00:58:12,400 --> 00:58:15,733 the son of a veteran of the Battle of the Bulge.

1002

00:58:15,733 --> 00:58:18,766 He had joined the Marine Reserves the summer before

1003

00:58:18,766 --> 00:58:20,800 his freshman year at Yale,

1004

00:58:20,800 --> 00:58:25,100 eager to prove himself and defend his country.

1005

00:58:25,100 --> 00:58:27,133 When he became a Rhodes scholar,[19]

1006

00:58:27,133 --> 00:58:30,766 the Marines allowed him to defer going on active duty,

1007

00:58:30,766 --> 00:58:34,566 and instead of serving in Vietnam, he went to Oxford

1008

00:58:34,566 --> 00:58:38,966 in the fall of 1967.

1009

00:58:38,966 --> 00:58:41,066 A few months after he got there,

1010

00:58:41,066 --> 00:58:44,800 he wrote to his parents back home.

1011

00:58:44,800 --> 00:58:46,566 MARLANTES: "It is with a little apprehension

1012

00:58:46,566 --> 00:58:49,966 "that I write this letter.

1013

00:58:49,966 --> 00:58:52,100 "I have given up my scholarship,

1014

00:58:52,100 --> 00:58:56,500 "and I will be on active duty as of May 3.

1015

00:58:56,500 --> 00:59:00,033 "As you know, I feel the U.S. is absolutely wrong

1016

00:59:00,033 --> 00:59:02,066 "to be in the war.

1017

00:59:02,066 --> 00:59:04,733 "A lot of people are dying for no good reason.

1018

00:59:04,733 --> 00:59:09,366 "I can only feel an increasing rage and frustration.

1019

00:59:09,366 --> 00:59:11,766 And a complete feeling of helplessness."

1020

00:59:13,433 --> 00:59:19,133 "I have, in effect, been hiding, and I'll not do it anymore.

1021

00:59:19,133 --> 00:59:24,166 "I guess I'm about to do a highly immoral thing.

1022

00:59:24,166 --> 00:59:25,400 "I will be taking part

1023

00:59:25,400 --> 00:59:27,800 "in one of the greatest crimes of our century,

1024

00:59:27,800 --> 00:59:32,733 "and I will be doing so out of frustration, bitterness,

1025

00:59:32,733 --> 00:59:36,400 "and a sense of the absurd that I have only come to appreciate

1026

00:59:36,400 --> 00:59:39,200 "in its entirety in the past year.

1027

00:59:39,200 --> 00:59:41,933 From now on my logic will be changed."

1028

00:59:43,833 --> 00:59:45,866 "I can do something.

1029

00:59:45,866 --> 00:59:48,633 "That is, I can do my very best to get 40 kids

1030

00:59:48,633 --> 00:59:51,066 "out of Vietnam alive,

1031

00:59:51,066 --> 00:59:54,600 "and if I have to turn into an evil machine to do it,

1032

00:59:54,600 --> 00:59:56,466 then by God I will."

1033

00:59:59,533 --> 01:00:03,600 It was my friends, guys that I trained with.

1034

01:00:03,600 --> 01:00:08,466 I felt like I was going to let the side down.

1035

01:00:08,466 --> 01:00:11,533 That by not joining in with them and sharing the burden

1036

01:00:11,533 --> 01:00:14,700 that I wouldn't be a decent person.

1037

01:00:14,700 --> 01:00:17,700 It's a mixed bag because I went over there and killed people

1038

01:00:17,700 --> 01:00:19,500 for, you know... is that why I did that?

1039

01:00:21,533 --> 01:00:23,266 O'BRIEN: Do you go off and kill people

1040

01:00:23,266 --> 01:00:25,433 if you're not pretty sure it's right?

1041

01:00:25,433 --> 01:00:29,033 And if your nation isn't pretty sure it's right?

1042

01:00:29,033 --> 01:00:33,166 If there isn't some consensus, do you do that?

1043

01:00:36,000 --> 01:00:37,600 I was at Fort Lewis, Washington,

1044

01:00:37,600 --> 01:00:41,566 and Canada was, what, a 90-minute bus ride away.

1045

01:00:41,566 --> 01:00:43,933 I wrote my mom and dad and asked for money.

1046

01:00:43,933 --> 01:00:47,100 I asked for my passport.

1047

01:00:47,100 --> 01:00:49,633 And they sent them to me with, again, no questions.

1048

01:00:49,633 --> 01:00:51,333 Like, "What do you want the passport for?"

1049

01:00:51,333 --> 01:00:53,033 They just sent it.

1050

01:00:53,033 --> 01:00:54,566 And I kept all this stuff stashed,

1051

01:00:54,566 --> 01:00:57,433 including civilian clothes stashed in my footlocker,

1052

01:00:57,433 --> 01:00:59,266 thinking maybe I'll... maybe I'll do it.

MINUTES 60-70

1053

01:00:59,266 --> 01:01:01,233 ("Bookends Theme" by Simon and Garfunkel playing)

1054

01:01:01,233 --> 01:01:03,966 It was this kind of "maybe" thing going on

1055

01:01:03,966 --> 01:01:07,600 all throughout this training as Vietnam got closer

1056

01:01:07,600 --> 01:01:10,166 and closer and closer.

1057

01:01:10,166 --> 01:01:13,500 What prevented me from doing it?

1058

01:01:13,500 --> 01:01:16,933 I think it was pretty simple and stupid.

1059

01:01:16,933 --> 01:01:20,566 It was a fear of embarrassment,

1060

01:01:20,566 --> 01:01:25,000 a fear of ridicule and humiliation.

1061

01:01:26,666 --> 01:01:29,133 What my girlfriend would have thought of me

1062

01:01:29,133 --> 01:01:32,633 and the people in the Gobbler Cafe in downtown Worthington.

1063

01:01:34,266 --> 01:01:36,466 The Kiwanis boys and the country club boys

1064

01:01:36,466 --> 01:01:38,900 and that small town I grew up in,

1065

01:01:38,900 --> 01:01:41,366 the things they'd say about me.[20]

1066

01:01:41,366 --> 01:01:47,433 "What a coward and what a sissy for going to Canada."

1067

01:01:47,433 --> 01:01:50,366 SIMON AND GARFUNKEL: ♪ It was a time of innocence

1068

01:01:50,366 --> 01:01:52,233 O'BRIEN: And I would imagine my mom and dad

1069

01:01:52,233 --> 01:01:55,533 overhearing something like that.

1070

01:01:55,533 --> 01:01:59,000 SIMON AND GARFUNKEL: ♪ Long ago it must be

1071

01:01:59,000 --> 01:02:02,666 O'BRIEN: I couldn't summon the courage to say no

1072

01:02:02,666 --> 01:02:12,366 to those nameless, faceless people who really, in essence,

1073

01:02:12,366 --> 01:02:16,433 this was the United States of America.

1074

01:02:16,433 --> 01:02:20,133 And I couldn't say no to them.

1075

01:02:20,133 --> 01:02:26,100 And I had to live with it now for, you know, 40 years.

1076

01:02:26,100 --> 01:02:31,900 That's a long time to live with a failure of conscience

1077

01:02:31,900 --> 01:02:37,000 and a failure of nerve.

1078

01:02:37,000 --> 01:02:40,800 And the nightmare of Vietnam for me is not the bombs

1079

01:02:40,800 --> 01:02:42,133 and the bullets.

1080

01:02:50,900 --> 01:02:54,766 (voice breaking): It's that failure of nerve

1081

01:02:54,766 --> 01:02:56,366 that I so regret.[21]

1082

01:03:07,566 --> 01:03:12,466 HAL KUSHNER: In the fall of 1968 was probably the toughest time we had.

1083

01:03:15,600 --> 01:03:22,700 Our daily life was a continuing struggle for survival.

1084

01:03:22,700 --> 01:03:30,133 Our food ration was three cups of rice per day.

1085

01:03:31,500 --> 01:03:35,733 We slept on a large bamboo pallet.

1086

01:03:35,733 --> 01:03:39,800 Sometimes there were ten or 12 people on one pallet.

1087

01:03:39,800 --> 01:03:42,133 And we were sick.

1088

01:03:42,133 --> 01:03:44,300 We were very sick.

1089

01:03:44,300 --> 01:03:48,866 Four people died within...

1090

01:03:48,866 --> 01:03:50,500 a month.

1091

01:03:50,500 --> 01:03:53,266 And then two more died very shortly after that.

1092

01:03:55,900 --> 01:03:58,400 NARRATOR: Thirteen Americans would die

1093

01:03:58,400 --> 01:04:02,366 during Captain Hal Kushner's time in jungle prison camps

1094

01:04:02,366 --> 01:04:03,933 in South Vietnam.

1095

01:04:05,300 --> 01:04:08,333 He was a doctor but had no medications,

1096

01:04:08,333 --> 01:04:11,033 no antibiotics or saline solution

1097

01:04:11,033 --> 01:04:13,433 with which to treat his comrades.

1098

01:04:13,433 --> 01:04:17,966 All he could do was bury each in a bamboo coffin

1099

01:04:17,966 --> 01:04:21,700 and make sure the spot was marked with a heap of stones

1100

01:04:21,700 --> 01:04:24,366 daubed with Mercurochrome.

1101

01:04:26,566 --> 01:04:29,466 KUSHNER: We had nothing to eat.

1102

01:04:29,466 --> 01:04:33,333 And I thought that I was just going insane.

1103

01:04:33,333 --> 01:04:36,700 So we were sitting around and with this little fire.

1104

01:04:36,700 --> 01:04:38,800 And we saw the camp commander's cat,

1105

01:04:38,800 --> 01:04:40,400 who had free rein of the camp.

1106

01:04:40,400 --> 01:04:41,833 And he came down to our area.

1107

01:04:41,833 --> 01:04:43,966 And we were starving to death.

1108

01:04:43,966 --> 01:04:47,333 So someone suggested, "Let's eat the cat."

1109

01:04:49,633 --> 01:04:50,733 So we killed the cat.

1110

01:04:52,333 --> 01:04:55,833 And we cut the head off and we cut the paws off.

1111

01:04:55,833 --> 01:04:59,233 And we had this little carcass of about two pounds.

1112

01:04:59,233 --> 01:05:03,466 And one of the guards came down, and we told him it was a weasel,

1113

01:05:03,466 --> 01:05:06,066 and we threw a rock at it and killed it.

1114

01:05:06,066 --> 01:05:07,800 And then he looked around

1115

01:05:07,800 --> 01:05:11,233 and someone had neglected to bury one of the paws.

1116

01:05:11,233 --> 01:05:12,833 And he saw the paw.

1117

01:05:12,833 --> 01:05:16,533 And he knew instantly that it was the camp commander's cat.

1118

01:05:16,533 --> 01:05:19,000 And things got very serious.

1119

01:05:21,100 --> 01:05:24,300 And they lined us up and they said, "Who did this?"

1120

01:05:24,300 --> 01:05:25,666 Nobody said anything.

1121

01:05:25,666 --> 01:05:27,700 I thought they were going to kill us all.

1122

01:05:27,700 --> 01:05:29,600 Just execute us.

1123

01:05:29,600 --> 01:05:34,833 And one of the people who was a ringleader in this

1124

01:05:34,833 --> 01:05:37,133 said he did it.

1125

01:05:37,133 --> 01:05:40,733 And I said that I did it also.

1126

01:05:40,733 --> 01:05:42,966 And we all said we did it.

1127

01:05:42,966 --> 01:05:44,933 "I am Spartacus," you know?

1128

01:05:44,933 --> 01:05:46,700 It was that.

1129

01:05:46,700 --> 01:05:50,933 So they called that person and me out.

1130

01:05:50,933 --> 01:05:54,533 And the guard kicked him and beat him to the ground,

1131

01:05:54,533 --> 01:05:56,600 and just beat him unmercifully.

1132

01:05:58,066 --> 01:06:01,633 And they hit me in the face with fists and didn't beat me

1133

01:06:01,633 --> 01:06:03,600 as badly as they beat him.

1134

01:06:03,600 --> 01:06:07,633 And then tied me with commo wire very tightly to a hooch

1135

01:06:07,633 --> 01:06:11,266 and left me for a day.

1136

01:06:11,266 --> 01:06:15,166 And with the carcass of the cat draped around my neck.

1137

01:06:15,166 --> 01:06:16,800 And I was so crazy I thought,

1138

01:06:16,800 --> 01:06:18,900 "Maybe they're going to let me eat this cat."

1139

01:06:18,900 --> 01:06:21,533 But I had to bury it.

1140

01:06:21,533 --> 01:06:26,666 So, the fellow that they beat very badly died two weeks later.

1141

01:06:28,133 --> 01:06:32,000 But to me the tragedy of it was we didn't get the cat.

1142

01:06:37,900 --> 01:06:40,300 CHARLES COLLINGWOOD: For the capital of a nation at war,

1143

01:06:40,300 --> 01:06:43,933 Saigon abounds with a phenomenal number of young men

1144

01:06:43,933 --> 01:06:47,033 of draft age in sharp, civilian clothes.

1145

01:06:47,033 --> 01:06:50,466 Saigon cowboys they're called.

1146

01:06:50,466 --> 01:06:54,033 It's a war profiteer's economy, fanned by the forced draft

1147

01:06:54,033 --> 01:06:55,500 of American money.

1148

01:06:55,500 --> 01:06:57,166 They count it a good year in Saigon

1149

01:06:57,166 --> 01:06:59,500 when the prices only go up by 25%.

1150

01:07:03,666 --> 01:07:05,433 NARRATOR: Years of American presence,

1151

01:07:05,433 --> 01:07:09,833 and the tens of billions of U.S. dollars that came with it,

1152

01:07:09,833 --> 01:07:12,466 had transformed much of South Vietnam,

1153

01:07:12,466 --> 01:07:16,233 creating a false economy that was utterly dependent

1154

01:07:16,233 --> 01:07:19,900 on that presence becoming perpetual.[22]

1155

01:07:19,900 --> 01:07:23,233 GEORGE LEWIS: Since the U.S. began its big buildup in the mid-'60s,

1156

01:07:23,233 --> 01:07:25,800 millions of dollars worth of goods have entered the country

1157

01:07:25,800 --> 01:07:27,533 each month.

1158

01:07:27,533 --> 01:07:30,566 Some economists say ten percent or more of the cargo

1159

01:07:30,566 --> 01:07:33,166 is diverted into black market channels.

1160

01:07:36,933 --> 01:07:39,600 NARRATOR: With so much money flowing into the country,

1161

01:07:39,600 --> 01:07:42,800 corruption and crime inevitably grew.

1162

01:07:45,400 --> 01:07:47,833 Government officials were on the take.

1163

01:07:47,833 --> 01:07:50,800 So were many ARVN officers.

1164

01:07:50,800 --> 01:07:54,200 Policemen could not be trusted.

1165

01:07:57,366 --> 01:08:01,466 PHAN QUANG TUE: Who benefit from the financial aspect of the war?

1166

01:08:02,600 --> 01:08:04,233 Generals.

1167

01:08:04,233 --> 01:08:06,533 Don't deny that.

1168

01:08:06,533 --> 01:08:10,033 Then they get the money, then they become richer.

1169

01:08:10,033 --> 01:08:15,433 We have a term, and I call it, they were war profiteers,

1170

01:08:15,433 --> 01:08:19,733 from Thieu and Ky down to every echelon.

1171

01:08:19,733 --> 01:08:22,300 HERRINGTON: The Vietnamese had a saying:

1172

01:08:22,300 --> 01:08:25,500 a house leaks from the roof on down.

1173

01:08:25,500 --> 01:08:28,500 (saying phrase in Vietnamese)

1174

01:08:30,433 --> 01:08:35,333 And that was, of course, their way to elliptically refer

1175

01:08:35,333 --> 01:08:39,033 to the ever-present, nagging problem of corruption.

1176

01:08:39,033 --> 01:08:44,466 JOE GALLOWAY: They were stealing from us and selling to anybody.

1177

01:08:44,466 --> 01:08:46,233 Two-man helicopter, you want one of those?

1178

01:08:46,233 --> 01:08:49,300 They got it in a box in the back.

1179

01:08:49,300 --> 01:08:53,566 Probably get it for 12,000 bucks if you negotiated strongly.

1180

01:08:54,966 --> 01:08:58,766 The corruption was endemic.

1181

01:08:58,766 --> 01:09:02,066 And we tolerated it.

1182

01:09:02,066 --> 01:09:06,600 NARRATOR: Tons of American goods piled up on Saigon's docks.

1183

01:09:06,600 --> 01:09:10,266 Some GIs took advantage, too.

1184

01:09:10,266 --> 01:09:14,233 U.S. products flowed out the back doors of PXs.

1185

01:09:14,233 --> 01:09:17,366 In just one year,

1186

01:09:17,366 --> 01:09:23,800 the black market cost the U.S. military $2 billion.[23]

1187

01:09:23,800 --> 01:09:26,766 COLLINGWOOD: The impact of the war has disrupted the ancient patterns

1188

01:09:26,766 --> 01:09:28,866 of Vietnamese life.

1189

01:09:28,866 --> 01:09:31,966 The cities are crowded to the bursting point with people

1190

01:09:31,966 --> 01:09:34,899 uprooted from the land and the ancestral values

1191

01:09:34,899 --> 01:09:37,333 of a rural-oriented society

1192

01:09:37,333 --> 01:09:40,066 but who have found nothing to replace them.

1193

01:09:40,066 --> 01:09:43,366 NARRATOR: Before U.S. troops arrived,

1194

01:09:43,366 --> 01:09:47,500 eight out of ten South Vietnamese lived in villages.

1195

01:09:47,500 --> 01:09:50,933 By the end of the 1960s,

1196

01:09:50,933 --> 01:09:55,466 almost half would be crowded into urban areas.

1197

01:09:55,466 --> 01:09:59,600 Saigon's population tripled to three million.

1198

01:09:59,600 --> 01:10:03,900 Half the refugees had no permanent shelter.

1199

01:10:06,300 --> 01:10:09,000 Cholera and typhoid killed thousands.

1200

01:10:11,500 --> 01:10:15,366 Hungry children roamed the streets, scavenging, begging,

1201

01:10:15,366 --> 01:10:19,766 searching for jobs to do or pockets to pick.

1202

01:10:19,766 --> 01:10:24,433 Tens of thousands of young women left their village homes

1203

01:10:24,433 --> 01:10:29,600 and came to Saigon to become bar girls and prostitutes.

1204

01:10:34,066 --> 01:10:35,566 The communist government in Hanoi

1205

01:10:35,566 --> 01:10:37,766 tried to make the most of it,

1206

01:10:37,766 --> 01:10:42,366 accusing the United States and its puppet government in Saigon

1207

01:10:42,366 --> 01:10:45,500 of destroying Vietnamese culture in the South.

1208

01:10:49,166 --> 01:10:52,866 But the citizens of Saigon were far freer

1209

01:10:52,866 --> 01:10:54,466 than the North Vietnamese.

MINUTES 70-80

1210

01:10:54,466 --> 01:10:58,900 The South Vietnamese people could express their views,

1211

01:10:58,900 --> 01:11:00,500 for and against their government,

1212

01:11:00,500 --> 01:11:05,700 in the pages of hundreds of newspapers and magazines.

1213

01:11:05,700 --> 01:11:09,166 And they held demonstrations denouncing

1214

01:11:09,166 --> 01:11:13,266 the rampant corruption and demanding religious freedom

1215

01:11:13,266 --> 01:11:15,700 and better treatment for veterans.

1216

01:11:19,700 --> 01:11:23,200 For all of its problems, one man remembered,

1217

01:11:23,200 --> 01:11:27,766 Saigon was "filthy and free."

1218

01:11:27,766 --> 01:11:29,300 (car horn honking)

1219

01:11:35,600 --> 01:11:38,633 NGUYEN NGOC: NORTH VIETNAMESE ARMY: When a soldier goes to the front, and kills his first enemy, he's really afraid. He's really afraid. Because to kill somebody is terrifying. But then you get used to it. War awakens a savagery in people. I was in the jungle a long time. Animals aren't that savage. Tigers aren't that savage. Tigers kill when they need to eat. But people don't kill each other because they're hungry. When people kill and mutilate, that's the savagery of war.[24]

1220

01:12:09,500 --> 01:12:11,233 (gunfire)

1221

01:13:00,000 --> 01:13:03,133 NARRATOR: In the densely populated Mekong Delta,

1222

01:13:03,133 --> 01:13:07,966 the war in the countryside suddenly intensified.

1223

01:13:07,966 --> 01:13:10,333 General Abrams assigned the commander

1224

01:13:10,333 --> 01:13:14,766 of the 9th Infantry Division, General Julian J. Ewell,

1225

01:13:14,766 --> 01:13:17,666 the job of destroying the remaining Viet Cong

1226

01:13:17,666 --> 01:13:20,066 south of Saigon.

1227

01:13:20,066 --> 01:13:24,533 His operation was called Speedy Express.

1228

01:13:26,333 --> 01:13:31,066 "The hearts and minds approach can be overdone," Ewell said.

1229

01:13:31,066 --> 01:13:35,566 "In the Delta the only way to overcome VC control and terror

1230

01:13:35,566 --> 01:13:38,633 is by brute force."

1231

01:13:40,133 --> 01:13:43,300 Patrols would pursue the enemy around the clock.

1232

01:13:43,300 --> 01:13:46,833 The night sky was filled with helicopters,

1233

01:13:46,833 --> 01:13:49,500 some armed with instruments that could detect

1234

01:13:49,500 --> 01:13:51,600 traces of carbon and ammonia[25]

1235

01:13:51,600 --> 01:13:54,500 that meant human beings were below,

1236

01:13:54,500 --> 01:13:57,800 though not which side they were on.

1237

01:13:57,800 --> 01:14:02,200 In areas designated "free-fire zones,"[26]

1238

01:14:02,200 --> 01:14:04,900 anyone out after curfew could be shot.

1239

01:14:06,900 --> 01:14:10,766 During the day, anyone seen running was targeted.

1240

01:14:13,266 --> 01:14:17,366 Colonel Robert Gard was one of Ewell's artillery commanders.

1241

01:14:17,366 --> 01:14:22,566 ROBERT GARD: If someone was told that anyone who runs away should be assumed

1242

01:14:22,566 --> 01:14:26,466 to be an enemy, I certainly would disagree with that.

1243

01:14:26,466 --> 01:14:28,366 That's totally improper.

1244

01:14:28,366 --> 01:14:32,100 People run away because they're afraid.

1245

01:14:32,100 --> 01:14:36,266 I've seen instances of farmers,

1246

01:14:36,266 --> 01:14:39,066 when you descend in a helicopter suddenly,

1247

01:14:39,066 --> 01:14:42,100 and they freeze, and they're frightened, and they run.

1248

01:14:42,100 --> 01:14:46,866 You can't just make a blanket judgment.

1249

01:14:46,866 --> 01:14:51,466 NARRATOR: General Ewell boasted of his unit's statistical record--

1250

01:14:51,466 --> 01:14:57,133 10,899 Viet Cong killed in six months

1251

01:14:57,133 --> 01:15:00,433 with a loss of only 242 Americans,

1252

01:15:00,433 --> 01:15:06,100 an astonishing kill ratio of 45-to-1.

1253

01:15:08,633 --> 01:15:13,400 GARD: To say that we killed only enemy combatants,

1254

01:15:13,400 --> 01:15:17,100 and to talk about ratios of 40-to-1

1255

01:15:17,100 --> 01:15:20,200 simply defies my imagination.

1256

01:15:21,733 --> 01:15:25,133 NARRATOR: At Abrams' recommendation, Ewell was promoted,

1257

01:15:25,133 --> 01:15:29,666 but the Army Inspector General would eventually estimate

1258

01:15:29,666 --> 01:15:32,833 that more than half of the roughly 11,000 kills

1259

01:15:32,833 --> 01:15:35,266 claimed by the 9th Infantry

1260

01:15:35,266 --> 01:15:38,266 had been unarmed, innocent civilians.

1261

01:15:41,933 --> 01:15:44,833 No one was ever held accountable.[27]

1262

01:15:49,633 --> 01:15:54,400 ("Don't Think Twice, It's All Right" by Bob Dylan playing)

1263

01:15:58,500 --> 01:16:04,033 ♪ It ain't no use to sit and wonder why, babe ♪

1264

01:16:04,033 --> 01:16:07,866 ♪ It don't matter, anyhow

1265

01:16:07,866 --> 01:16:13,033 ♪ And it ain't no use to sit and wonder why, babe ♪

1266

01:16:13,033 --> 01:16:16,933 ♪ If you don't know by now

1267

01:16:16,933 --> 01:16:21,566 ♪ When your rooster crows at the break of dawn ♪

1268

01:16:21,566 --> 01:16:26,533 ♪ Look out your window and I'll be gone ♪

1269

01:16:26,533 --> 01:16:30,600 ♪ You're the reason I'm travelin' on ♪

1270

01:16:30,600 --> 01:16:34,266 ♪ Don't think twice, it's all right. ♪ 1965

1271

01:16:40,533 --> 01:16:45,566 CAROL CROCKER: I think moving away from one's family's ideologies

1272

01:16:45,566 --> 01:16:52,433 is a scary balance on a very tricky precipice

1273

01:16:52,433 --> 01:16:56,233 because they have been the focal point

1274

01:16:56,233 --> 01:16:57,733 of how we judge how we're doing.

1275

01:16:57,733 --> 01:17:02,566 And I was now trying to judge my decisions and my actions

1276

01:17:02,566 --> 01:17:06,766 on the basis of my own ideas and own thoughts.

1277

01:17:06,766 --> 01:17:10,066 NARRATOR: The war was already uncomfortably close

1278

01:17:10,066 --> 01:17:12,533 to Carol Crocker.

1279

01:17:12,533 --> 01:17:15,400 Her brother Mogie had volunteered to fight

1280

01:17:15,400 --> 01:17:20,366 and had been killed in Vietnam in 1966.

1281

01:17:20,366 --> 01:17:22,033 She was still grieving.

1282

01:17:24,300 --> 01:17:28,333 That fall, Carol had entered Goucher College in Baltimore,

1283

01:17:28,333 --> 01:17:33,333 an all-women's school with a long conservative tradition.

1284

01:17:33,333 --> 01:17:35,366 CAROL CROCKER: We dressed for dinner.

1285

01:17:35,366 --> 01:17:38,533 We had an 11:00 curfew.

1286

01:17:38,533 --> 01:17:43,933 Obviously no boys or men were allowed in the dorms.

1287

01:17:43,933 --> 01:17:46,000 That was the rule.

1288

01:17:46,000 --> 01:17:48,033 ("Piece of My Heart" by Big Brother and the Holding Company)

1289

01:17:48,033 --> 01:17:51,866 It could not have even been any later than the beginning

1290

01:17:51,866 --> 01:17:57,666 of the second semester that most of the rules that were in place

1291

01:17:57,666 --> 01:18:02,700 and had been in place for many, many years, no longer existed.

1292

01:18:02,700 --> 01:18:08,366 JANIS JOPLIN: ♪ Oh, come on, come on, come on, come on ♪

1293

01:18:08,366 --> 01:18:09,933 ♪ And take it

1294

01:18:09,933 --> 01:18:11,200 ♪ Take another little piece...

1295

01:18:11,200 --> 01:18:12,300 CAROL CROCKER: The challenge

1296

01:18:12,300 --> 01:18:16,533 to campuses countrywide was

1297

01:18:16,533 --> 01:18:18,266 how do we maintain our student body

1298

01:18:18,266 --> 01:18:24,000 to behave in a civil manner, and teach them,

1299

01:18:24,000 --> 01:18:27,033 and not have them try to burn us down?

1300

01:18:27,033 --> 01:18:29,600 If that means not dressing for dinner, so be it.

1301

01:18:29,600 --> 01:18:31,800 JOPLIN: ♪ If it makes you feel good

1302

01:18:31,800 --> 01:18:34,066 ♪ Oh yes, it did.

1303

01:18:34,066 --> 01:18:37,100 CAROL CROCKER: Our guy friends, we were spending time and talking

1304

01:18:37,100 --> 01:18:38,233 and they were scared.

1305

01:18:38,233 --> 01:18:40,200 And they were worried.

1306

01:18:40,200 --> 01:18:43,333 And they weren't sure what they were going to do.

1307

01:18:43,333 --> 01:18:47,133 And more discussion was happening about

1308

01:18:47,133 --> 01:18:51,066 whether this was a valid war.

1309

01:18:51,066 --> 01:18:55,700 And this was really, for me, the first time I opened my ears

1310

01:18:55,700 --> 01:18:58,200 to the war in a way other than

1311

01:18:58,200 --> 01:19:01,833 that it was about my brother's death.

1312

01:19:01,833 --> 01:19:04,633 I honored him.

1313

01:19:04,633 --> 01:19:09,166 I respected him for doing what he believed in.

1314

01:19:09,166 --> 01:19:11,200 But I did not agree with him.

1315

01:19:11,200 --> 01:19:15,933 JOPLIN: ♪ Come on, come on, come on and take it. ♪

1316

01:19:15,933 --> 01:19:19,533 NARRATOR: Eva Jefferson was a sophomore at Northwestern.

1317

01:19:19,533 --> 01:19:22,866 A serviceman's daughter, she had entered college convinced

1318

01:19:22,866 --> 01:19:26,733 the American government would never mislead its citizens.

1319

01:19:26,733 --> 01:19:30,566 But for her, too, things had begun to change.

1320

01:19:30,566 --> 01:19:32,466 Earlier that year,

1321

01:19:32,466 --> 01:19:35,833 when a handful of black Northwestern students decided

1322

01:19:35,833 --> 01:19:38,100 to occupy the bursar's office

1323

01:19:38,100 --> 01:19:41,600 demanding African-American studies, she joined them,

1324

01:19:41,600 --> 01:19:45,566 then called her parents to tell them what she'd done.

1325

01:19:45,566 --> 01:19:48,466 EVA JEFFERSON PATERSON: And I said, "Mom and Dad, guess where I am?

1326

01:19:48,466 --> 01:19:50,233 We just took over the bursar's office."

1327

01:19:50,233 --> 01:19:52,166 They were horrified.

1328

01:19:52,166 --> 01:19:55,366 And upon reflection, of course they were horrified.

1329

01:19:55,366 --> 01:19:56,833 And they said, "If you don't get out of there

1330

01:19:56,833 --> 01:19:58,200 we're going to cut off your money."

1331

01:19:58,200 --> 01:20:00,700 So that was the moment in my own consciousness

1332

01:20:00,700 --> 01:20:02,833 when I became independent.

1333

01:20:02,833 --> 01:20:05,200 I thought, "Well, they're going to cut off my money.

1334

01:20:05,200 --> 01:20:06,933 C'est la vie."

MINUTES 80-90

1335

01:20:06,933 --> 01:20:11,133 NARRATOR: "The University met all our demands in three days,"

1336

01:20:11,133 --> 01:20:12,533 she remembered.

1337

01:20:12,533 --> 01:20:15,333 "If you asked for black studies on Friday,

1338

01:20:15,333 --> 01:20:17,500 you got it on Monday."

1339

01:20:17,500 --> 01:20:21,900 PATERSON: It felt like something was happening that was profound,

1340

01:20:21,900 --> 01:20:23,766 that was irreversible.

1341

01:20:23,766 --> 01:20:25,766 But also you're 18, 19 years old.

1342

01:20:25,766 --> 01:20:26,766 It's exciting.

1343

01:20:28,800 --> 01:20:32,066 I felt as though a revolution was coming.

1344

01:20:32,066 --> 01:20:35,866 And I thought the revolution would be won by our side.[28]

1345

01:20:43,466 --> 01:20:47,866 NARRATOR: Relations between parents and children, brothers and sisters,

1346

01:20:47,866 --> 01:20:51,133 were changing everywhere.

1347

01:20:51,133 --> 01:20:54,933 ANNE HARRISON BOWMAN: When I stood in the living room and I was hugging two brothers,

1348

01:20:54,933 --> 01:20:57,366 it didn't matter to me about their choices

1349

01:20:57,366 --> 01:21:01,766 or that they were on two different sides of the fence.

1350

01:21:01,766 --> 01:21:05,900 All I knew was that they were both my brothers

1351

01:21:05,900 --> 01:21:08,666 and they were both back in the same room and there we were.

1352

01:21:08,666 --> 01:21:12,866 NARRATOR: Captain Matt Harrison, Jr.-- Chips--

1353

01:21:12,866 --> 01:21:18,933 had graduated West Point, served a tour in Vietnam

1354

01:21:18,933 --> 01:21:23,133 and took part in two of the war's bloodiest battles--

1355

01:21:23,133 --> 01:21:26,766 Hill 1338 and Hill 875.

1356

01:21:29,033 --> 01:21:32,800 He was back stateside in the autumn of 1968,

1357

01:21:32,800 --> 01:21:36,966 when the family began to worry about his younger brother, Bob,

1358

01:21:36,966 --> 01:21:41,066 whom his siblings sometimes called Robin.

1359

01:21:41,066 --> 01:21:46,100 MATT HARRISON: He and I were just great pals since we were growing up

1360

01:21:46,100 --> 01:21:50,200 because we moved every year or two years.

1361

01:21:50,200 --> 01:21:52,400 And, you know, new set of friends

1362

01:21:52,400 --> 01:21:53,633 but always had my brother.

1363

01:21:55,266 --> 01:21:57,400 BOWMAN: Bob was in ROTC

1364

01:21:57,400 --> 01:22:01,666 and polished and buffed his shoes and had short hair

1365

01:22:01,666 --> 01:22:05,633 and said "Yes, sir" and "Yes, ma'am."

1366

01:22:05,633 --> 01:22:10,000 And then we moved to California his senior year in high school.

1367

01:22:10,000 --> 01:22:16,533 And he was the consummate blond surfer boy and cutting school.

1368

01:22:16,533 --> 01:22:18,800 And he was immediately very popular

1369

01:22:18,800 --> 01:22:21,166 and having a great time.

1370

01:22:24,233 --> 01:22:26,500 NARRATOR: Robin did not go to West Point,

1371

01:22:26,500 --> 01:22:29,400 entered Marin Junior College instead,

1372

01:22:29,400 --> 01:22:32,433 and then shocked his family by signing on

1373

01:22:32,433 --> 01:22:36,233 with the Marine-- not the Army-- Reserves.

1374

01:22:37,966 --> 01:22:42,200 HARRISON: At some point Robin became convinced that...

1375

01:22:42,200 --> 01:22:46,466 that the war was wrong, and not only wrong, it was immoral.

1376

01:22:46,466 --> 01:22:51,733 So he quit going to the Reserve weekends,

1377

01:22:51,733 --> 01:22:54,800 and because of that he was activated...

1378

01:22:54,800 --> 01:22:59,966 and was very likely now he was going to be going to Vietnam

1379

01:22:59,966 --> 01:23:03,366 as a Marine Corps rifleman.

1380

01:23:03,366 --> 01:23:05,766 I didn't think being a Marine Corps rifleman

1381

01:23:05,766 --> 01:23:08,766 was a very safe occupation.

1382

01:23:08,766 --> 01:23:11,866 And I didn't think Robin would be a particularly good

1383

01:23:11,866 --> 01:23:13,766 Marine Corps rifleman.

1384

01:23:13,766 --> 01:23:18,266 And so I just thought that this was a very bad outcome for him

1385

01:23:18,266 --> 01:23:19,733 and for the family.

1386

01:23:24,000 --> 01:23:27,666 NARRATOR: Matt Harrison knew that under military regulations,

1387

01:23:27,666 --> 01:23:31,133 if one brother was already in a combat zone,

1388

01:23:31,133 --> 01:23:34,500 a second brother need not accept assignment there.

1389

01:23:34,500 --> 01:23:38,133 So to keep Robin out of the war,

1390

01:23:38,133 --> 01:23:42,933 he volunteered for a second tour in Vietnam.

1391

01:23:42,933 --> 01:23:47,733 HARRISON: I was back in Vietnam I think in less than 30 days.

1392

01:23:47,733 --> 01:23:49,333 I was a seasoned veteran.

1393

01:23:49,333 --> 01:23:51,666 I was going to go command a company.

1394

01:23:51,666 --> 01:23:54,600 My chances of getting hurt were a lot less than Robin's were.

1395

01:23:54,600 --> 01:23:56,633 And if I did choose to make it a career,

1396

01:23:56,633 --> 01:23:58,766 the fact that I had had a second tour

1397

01:23:58,766 --> 01:24:00,900 as a rifle company commander was going to be good for me.

1398

01:24:00,900 --> 01:24:04,100 And so, you know, it wasn't entirely selfless.

1399

01:24:04,100 --> 01:24:08,633 BOWMAN: I honestly don't remember a tremendous amount of dialogue

1400

01:24:08,633 --> 01:24:10,666 between my mom and dad.

1401

01:24:10,666 --> 01:24:13,866 I think they felt like if Bob had gone,

1402

01:24:13,866 --> 01:24:15,800 he would have been killed.

1403

01:24:15,800 --> 01:24:21,400 Whereas I think they felt that Chips was going to be okay.

1404

01:24:21,400 --> 01:24:26,366 I can't imagine, having had a son now go to Iraq,

1405

01:24:26,366 --> 01:24:31,933 how my mother could have gotten through every single day at all,

1406

01:24:31,933 --> 01:24:37,333 without believing very firmly that he was going to be fine.

1407

01:24:40,166 --> 01:24:42,933 NARRATOR: Matt Harrison's decision to serve a second tour

1408

01:24:42,933 --> 01:24:46,300 did not fully protect his brother Robin.

1409

01:24:46,300 --> 01:24:48,933 He went AWOL, was court-martialed

1410

01:24:48,933 --> 01:24:51,833 and sentenced to three months hard labor.

1411

01:24:51,833 --> 01:24:54,200 The sentence was suspended.

1412

01:24:54,200 --> 01:24:56,000 He returned to the Marines,

1413

01:24:56,000 --> 01:24:58,266 served as a chaplain's assistant,

1414

01:24:58,266 --> 01:25:01,733 applied for conscientious objector status,

1415

01:25:01,733 --> 01:25:06,200 and then went AWOL again.

1416

01:25:06,200 --> 01:25:08,933 VICTORIA HARRISON: I remember the FBI coming and knocking on the door

1417

01:25:08,933 --> 01:25:11,066 and looking for him.

1418

01:25:11,066 --> 01:25:14,900 They asked if Robert Harrison was there

1419

01:25:14,900 --> 01:25:18,800 and I just knew this wasn't good

1420

01:25:18,800 --> 01:25:22,166 and said "No" and slammed the door.

1421

01:25:22,166 --> 01:25:27,300 And Bob went out the back

1422

01:25:27,300 --> 01:25:29,766 and ran out to the main street.

1423

01:25:29,766 --> 01:25:34,833 And as I understand it, got in a car and left

1424

01:25:34,833 --> 01:25:37,833 and that was the last I saw of him.

1425

01:25:42,533 --> 01:25:46,300 BOWMAN: I don't think a military mom at the time would want

1426

01:25:46,300 --> 01:25:47,900 to announce, "My son has gone AWOL.

1427

01:25:47,900 --> 01:25:49,900 "My son has run to Canada.

1428

01:25:49,900 --> 01:25:53,000 "My son is all the words that were associated with it,

1429

01:25:53,000 --> 01:25:56,966 a deserter, a coward."

1430

01:25:56,966 --> 01:25:59,366 All of the things that these guys were called.

1431

01:26:01,766 --> 01:26:04,900 I don't think that's what those guys thought they were doing.

1432

01:26:04,900 --> 01:26:07,066 I do not think they thought they were deserting.

1433

01:26:07,066 --> 01:26:09,066 I do not think they thought they were cowards.

1434

01:26:09,066 --> 01:26:12,066 In fact, I think they thought they were very brave.

1435

01:26:16,066 --> 01:26:18,966 NARRATOR: When Matt Harrison assumed command of Alpha Company,

1436

01:26:18,966 --> 01:26:24,400 2nd Battalion, 14th Regiment of the 25th Infantry Division,

1437

01:26:24,400 --> 01:26:26,966 his Army had changed.

1438

01:26:29,833 --> 01:26:33,033 HARRISON: I was commanding a company of draftees,

1439

01:26:33,033 --> 01:26:35,500 almost none of whom wanted to be there.

1440

01:26:35,500 --> 01:26:37,266 They didn't want to be in the Army

1441

01:26:37,266 --> 01:26:39,200 and they certainly didn't want to be

1442

01:26:39,200 --> 01:26:41,133 an infantryman in Vietnam.

1443

01:26:41,133 --> 01:26:44,600 There were times when it was very difficult

1444

01:26:44,600 --> 01:26:47,000 to keep the men under control,

1445

01:26:47,000 --> 01:26:49,433 particularly if we had taken casualties on the way

1446

01:26:49,433 --> 01:26:50,933 into a village.

1447

01:26:52,566 --> 01:26:57,333 One of the things I learned is the veneer of civilization

1448

01:26:57,333 --> 01:27:00,100 is very thin-- very thin--

1449

01:27:00,100 --> 01:27:05,266 on me, probably on you, and I think on everybody.

1450

01:27:07,066 --> 01:27:09,600 I just saw over and over again

1451

01:27:09,600 --> 01:27:13,666 some nice young guy out of Huron, South Dakota,

1452

01:27:13,666 --> 01:27:16,900 who back in Huron helped old ladies across the street

1453

01:27:16,900 --> 01:27:19,766 and went to church every Sunday.

1454

01:27:19,766 --> 01:27:27,000 It did not take long for that veneer of civilization to erode.

1455

01:27:27,000 --> 01:27:31,233 And he was now capable of doing things

1456

01:27:31,233 --> 01:27:34,233 that just simply are inhuman.

1457

01:27:36,600 --> 01:27:40,333 I was not willing to allow it to happen on my watch

1458

01:27:40,333 --> 01:27:42,900 and I didn't think it was good for the soldiers

1459

01:27:42,900 --> 01:27:44,433 to do those kinds of things.

1460

01:27:44,433 --> 01:27:48,600 Now, I'm not saying that we didn't do some horrific things.

1461

01:27:48,600 --> 01:27:49,600 We did.

1462

01:27:51,533 --> 01:27:55,133 But there's a difference between being spontaneous

1463

01:27:55,133 --> 01:27:57,633 and being premeditated.

1464

01:28:04,066 --> 01:28:08,400 NARRATOR: Many years later, Robin Harrison, still adrift,

1465

01:28:08,400 --> 01:28:10,566 got caught up in the world of drugs

1466

01:28:10,566 --> 01:28:17,100 and died 10,000 miles from home in a hotel room in Hong Kong,

1467

01:28:17,100 --> 01:28:20,400 another casualty, his brother Matt believed,

1468

01:28:20,400 --> 01:28:23,133 of the war in Vietnam.[29]

1469

01:28:26,200 --> 01:28:29,900 ("Magic Carpet Ride" by Steppenwolf playing)

1470

01:28:32,900 --> 01:28:35,300 ♪ I like to dream

1471

01:28:35,300 --> 01:28:41,400 ♪ Yes, yes, right between my sound machine ♪

1472

01:28:41,400 --> 01:28:44,300 ♪ On a cloud of sound I drift in the night ♪

1473

01:28:44,300 --> 01:28:46,033 ♪ Any place it goes is right

1474

01:28:46,033 --> 01:28:49,866 ♪ Goes far, flies near, to the stars away from here ♪

1475

01:28:49,866 --> 01:28:52,100 ♪ Well, you don't know...

1476

01:28:52,100 --> 01:28:54,200 MERRILL McPEAK: AIR FORCE: I dropped a bomb one afternoon

1477

01:28:54,200 --> 01:28:57,100 that must have had a broken fin or something on the bomb.

1478

01:28:57,100 --> 01:29:00,500 It just went crazy, went over and hit, you know,

1479

01:29:00,500 --> 01:29:03,266 a mile away from where I was aiming.

1480

01:29:03,266 --> 01:29:10,033 And it started a series of secondary explosions,

1481

01:29:10,033 --> 01:29:13,266 meaning that I had hit an ammunition dump,

1482

01:29:13,266 --> 01:29:14,766 or a cache of ammunition or something.

1483

01:29:14,766 --> 01:29:16,700 So it cooked off for 15 minutes.

1484

01:29:16,700 --> 01:29:20,500 As we were leaving, the thing was still blowing up.

1485

01:29:20,500 --> 01:29:23,233 The best result I achieved in a year,

1486

01:29:23,233 --> 01:29:26,566 it was a result of a gross miss from what I was aiming at.

1487

01:29:26,566 --> 01:29:31,166 Now that's the exact reverse of how you want to use air power.

1488

01:29:32,933 --> 01:29:36,133 NARRATOR: Major Merrill McPeak was a crack fighter pilot

1489

01:29:36,133 --> 01:29:40,300 when he arrived in Vietnam in late 1968.

1490

01:29:40,300 --> 01:29:44,200 At first, he had helped provide air support for the Army,

1491

01:29:44,200 --> 01:29:48,666 with a guaranteed number of sorties per day, he remembered,

1492

01:29:48,666 --> 01:29:51,733 "whether or not they had anything in front of them

1493

01:29:51,733 --> 01:29:53,033 worth blowing up."

1494

01:29:55,500 --> 01:29:58,633 MERRILL McPEAK: At the end of any sortie where we dropped bombs

1495

01:29:58,633 --> 01:30:00,700 on what we called "trees in contact"

1496

01:30:00,700 --> 01:30:03,366 because there was nothing important down there,

1497

01:30:03,366 --> 01:30:06,333 we would always get back a list of bomb damage assessment

1498

01:30:06,333 --> 01:30:07,900 from the forward air controller.

1499

01:30:07,900 --> 01:30:13,100 And it would be, like, "12 supply sources destroyed,

1500

01:30:13,100 --> 01:30:15,566 two structures collapsed."

1501

01:30:15,566 --> 01:30:17,066 All these metrics.

1502

01:30:17,066 --> 01:30:19,033 It was phony.

1503

01:30:19,033 --> 01:30:20,200 Just a waste of time.

1504

01:30:22,200 --> 01:30:25,733 NARRATOR: Then, McPeak was assigned to a top-secret squadron

1505

01:30:25,733 --> 01:30:28,600 seeking to pinpoint men and supplies

1506

01:30:28,600 --> 01:30:31,933 moving on the Ho Chi Minh Trail in Laos.

1507

01:30:31,933 --> 01:30:36,033 He and his fellow pilots called their unit Misty,

1508

01:30:36,033 --> 01:30:39,266 after its radio call sign.

MINUTES 90-100

1509

01:30:39,266 --> 01:30:40,933 McPEAK: I spent four months in Misty.

1510

01:30:40,933 --> 01:30:44,600 And that was the best four months of the war,

1511

01:30:44,600 --> 01:30:46,100 as far as I'm concerned,

1512

01:30:46,100 --> 01:30:49,600 because what we were doing was simple, straightforward,

1513

01:30:49,600 --> 01:30:51,100 and made sense.

1514

01:30:51,100 --> 01:30:54,866 We want to stop traffic from A to B down this dirt road.

1515

01:30:54,866 --> 01:30:57,900 That I can understand.

1516

01:30:57,900 --> 01:31:00,166 Somebody in Saigon wasn't saying,

1517

01:31:00,166 --> 01:31:03,066 "Go bomb trees at such-and-such a location."

1518

01:31:03,066 --> 01:31:05,866 We went out and actually found the target.

1519

01:31:15,233 --> 01:31:17,033 NARRATOR: It was dangerous work.

1520

01:31:17,033 --> 01:31:21,866 One out of five pilots was shot down.

1521

01:31:24,233 --> 01:31:25,633 (radio chatter)

1522

01:31:30,300 --> 01:31:34,400 Misty put up seven sorties a day from dawn to dusk,

1523

01:31:34,400 --> 01:31:37,700 on the lookout for signs of human activity--

1524

01:31:37,700 --> 01:31:43,000 gardens, encampments, roadside trees coated with dust,

1525

01:31:43,000 --> 01:31:47,166 or wet roads on either side of fords

1526

01:31:47,166 --> 01:31:52,166 that signaled a truck convoy had recently passed through.

1527

01:31:56,133 --> 01:31:59,233 McPEAK: I have enormous respect for those truck drivers.

1528

01:32:00,933 --> 01:32:02,966 They left their homes in the North,

1529

01:32:02,966 --> 01:32:06,933 and they weren't drafted for a year or two.

1530

01:32:06,933 --> 01:32:08,633 They just left and didn't know

1531

01:32:08,633 --> 01:32:10,600 if they were ever going to come back.

1532

01:32:12,400 --> 01:32:16,200 NARRATOR: Although McPeak and his fellow pilots did not know it,

1533

01:32:16,200 --> 01:32:17,966 among the drivers threading their way

1534

01:32:17,966 --> 01:32:21,733 down the Ho Chi Minh Trail by night were hundreds of women.

1535

01:32:24,700 --> 01:32:28,866 NGUYEN NGUYET ANH: NORTH VIETNAMESE ARMY The leadership wanted to encourage the young men who faced vicious bombing and shelling at the choke points. If they saw us next to them, they would be more enthusiastic.[30]

1536

01:32:47,066 --> 01:32:50,766 NARRATOR: For three years, Nguyen Nguyet Anh drove her section

1537

01:32:50,766 --> 01:32:57,400 of the Trail, ferrying arms and supplies south,

1538

01:32:57,400 --> 01:33:02,133 then heading back north with cargoes of wounded men.

1539

01:33:04,633 --> 01:33:06,433 NGUYEN NGUYET ANH: We took treacherous back roads. They were winding, slippery and steep.

1540

01:33:15,333 --> 01:33:17,700 McPEAK: They drove in stages.

1541

01:33:17,700 --> 01:33:20,733 So they knew 15, 20 clicks of the road.

1542

01:33:20,733 --> 01:33:23,200 And they drove from A to B and back to A.

1543

01:33:27,700 --> 01:33:29,600 And then they rested, during the daytime,

1544

01:33:29,600 --> 01:33:32,633 and then the next night, they drove from A to B and back to A.

1545

01:33:34,000 --> 01:33:38,566 They had kind of memorized the road, which was very important,

1546

01:33:38,566 --> 01:33:41,100 because they were running without lights at night.

NGUYEN NGUYET ANH: The light was the size of an apple, very small. It would light the road about three feet in front of the truck, so you couldn't drive fast. If we didn't reach our destination before daybreak, we would become targets for enemy planes.

1547

01:34:06,533 --> 01:34:07,733 (jet engine roars)

1548

01:34:17,133 --> 01:34:20,800 McPEAK: One time I stumbled across a bunch of trucks backed up,

1549

01:34:20,800 --> 01:34:23,266 and that was a great morning for me.

1550

01:34:23,266 --> 01:34:25,600 Occasionally one of 'em would break down,

1551

01:34:25,600 --> 01:34:27,566 in a spot where the trucks behind it

1552

01:34:27,566 --> 01:34:29,533 would get trapped and couldn't back out of there.

1553

01:34:29,533 --> 01:34:34,566 So you try to strafe the last truck, so that it can't move.

1554

01:34:37,033 --> 01:34:39,866 And these are one-lane roads.

1555

01:34:39,866 --> 01:34:43,100 So once you get the back truck disabled,

1556

01:34:43,100 --> 01:34:45,333 then you just call in fighters.

1557

01:34:46,766 --> 01:34:49,100 You're shooting fish in a barrel.

1558

01:34:53,600 --> 01:34:57,566 NARRATOR: As she drove the Ho Chi Minh Trail, Anh thought constantly

1559

01:34:57,566 --> 01:35:00,366 of her fiancé, Tran Cong Thang,

1560

01:35:00,366 --> 01:35:05,766 an army engineer she'd fallen in love with four years earlier.

1561

01:35:05,766 --> 01:35:10,000 He was also stationed somewhere on the Trail.

1562

01:35:10,000 --> 01:35:13,533 NGUYEN NGUYET ANH: I worried for him every single day. Whenever I saw a truck carrying wounded soldiers to the North, I would ask the soldiers about him. I looked to see if he was there.

1563

01:35:27,666 --> 01:35:29,600 TRAN CONG THANG: NORTH VIETNAMESE ARMY. When a comrade told me Anh was a truck driver, I was shocked and panicked. It was such a vicious battlefield even for us young men. How could a girl withstand it?

1564

01:36:04,766 --> 01:36:09,700 NARRATOR: Over 20,000 engineers, soldiers, and truck drivers died

1565

01:36:09,700 --> 01:36:12,966 along the Ho Chi Minh Trail.

1566

01:36:12,966 --> 01:36:17,233 72 military cemeteries would eventually be required

1567

01:36:17,233 --> 01:36:19,500 to hold their remains.

1568

01:36:22,000 --> 01:36:26,333 TRAN CONG THANG: Sometimes we had just buried our comrades, planes would attack again, and they died a second death. There was nothing left of them.

1569

01:36:40,133 --> 01:36:42,933 McPEAK: We dropped more tonnage of munitions

1570

01:36:42,933 --> 01:36:48,200 than the United States dropped in World War II,

1571

01:36:48,200 --> 01:36:51,066 most of it aimed at the Ho Chi Minh Trail.

1572

01:36:53,233 --> 01:36:55,666 We did not stop traffic down the trail.

1573

01:36:55,666 --> 01:36:59,200 And that is a big disappointment for me.

1574

01:36:59,200 --> 01:37:01,766 To this day, it irritates me.

1575

01:37:03,933 --> 01:37:07,266 The real failures were made at the policy level.

1576

01:37:09,400 --> 01:37:12,866 We were fighting on the wrong side.[31]

1577

01:37:12,866 --> 01:37:16,600 The South, the government in the South was corrupt.

1578

01:37:16,600 --> 01:37:18,933 And its people knew it.

1579

01:37:18,933 --> 01:37:19,933 And we knew it.

1580

01:37:21,366 --> 01:37:22,733 I'll tell you something,

1581

01:37:22,733 --> 01:37:25,133 those truck drivers fought very well.

1582

01:37:25,133 --> 01:37:29,866 I would have been proud to fight with them.

1583

01:37:29,866 --> 01:37:32,433 So one of the things you got to do when you go to war

1584

01:37:32,433 --> 01:37:34,066 is pick the right side, okay.

1585

01:37:34,066 --> 01:37:35,333 Get the right allies.

1586

01:37:39,633 --> 01:37:44,100 NARRATOR: Merrill McPeak would serve 37 years and retire

1587

01:37:44,100 --> 01:37:46,600 as Air Force Chief of Staff.

1588

01:37:49,233 --> 01:37:53,166 Nguyen Nguyet Anh and Tran Cong Thang were reunited

1589

01:37:53,166 --> 01:37:55,766 after the war and married.

1590

01:37:59,933 --> 01:38:03,466 NIXON: January 20, 1969 The peace we seek to win

1591

01:38:03,466 --> 01:38:08,133 is not victory over any other people,

1592

01:38:08,133 --> 01:38:12,600 but the peace that comes with healing in its wings;

1593

01:38:12,600 --> 01:38:15,566 with compassion for those who have suffered;

1594

01:38:15,566 --> 01:38:18,600 with understanding for those who have opposed us;

1595

01:38:18,600 --> 01:38:22,233 with the opportunity for all the peoples of this earth

1596

01:38:22,233 --> 01:38:24,166 to choose their own destiny.

1597

01:38:24,166 --> 01:38:26,866 ("Lonely Road" by the Sandals playing)

1598

01:38:26,866 --> 01:38:28,466 NARRATOR: Like Lyndon Johnson,

1599

01:38:28,466 --> 01:38:33,333 Richard Nixon had an ambitious agenda for his presidency--

1600

01:38:33,333 --> 01:38:37,600 easing a quarter of a century of tensions with the Soviet Union

1601

01:38:37,600 --> 01:38:39,866 and opening the door to China,

1602

01:38:39,866 --> 01:38:43,700 whose existence the United States had refused to recognize

1603

01:38:43,700 --> 01:38:47,700 since the communists took over in 1949.

1604

01:38:47,700 --> 01:38:50,933 But as it had with Johnson,

1605

01:38:50,933 --> 01:38:55,266 the ongoing war in Vietnam threatened all those plans.

1606

01:38:57,233 --> 01:39:02,733 37,563 Americans had died there

1607

01:39:02,733 --> 01:39:05,533 by the time he took the oath of office.

1608

01:39:05,533 --> 01:39:09,366 "I'm not going to end up like LBJ,

1609

01:39:09,366 --> 01:39:11,400 "holed up in the White House,

1610

01:39:11,400 --> 01:39:13,633 afraid to show my face on the street,"

1611

01:39:13,633 --> 01:39:15,766 Richard Nixon told an aide.

1612

01:39:15,766 --> 01:39:17,733 "I'm going to stop that war.

1613

01:39:17,733 --> 01:39:19,300 Fast."

1614

01:39:19,300 --> 01:39:23,966 Nixon's national security advisor was Henry Kissinger.

1615

01:39:23,966 --> 01:39:28,466 A refugee from Nazi Germany, he had taught government at Harvard

1616

01:39:28,466 --> 01:39:32,300 and was already a well-known advocate of a foreign policy

1617

01:39:32,300 --> 01:39:35,933 based on pragmatism, not ideology.

1618

01:39:35,933 --> 01:39:40,666 "Give us six months," Kissinger told a group of Quakers

1619

01:39:40,666 --> 01:39:42,933 demonstrating on Pennsylvania Avenue,

1620

01:39:42,933 --> 01:39:47,500 "and if we haven't ended the war by then, you can come back

1621

01:39:47,500 --> 01:39:49,600 and tear down the White House fence."[32]

1622

01:39:52,533 --> 01:39:58,200 In February of 1969, the North launched yet another offensive.

1623

01:40:00,833 --> 01:40:05,733 This time, they killed 1,100 Americans in just three weeks.[33]

1624

01:40:09,566 --> 01:40:12,100 Nixon did not feel he could retaliate

1625

01:40:12,100 --> 01:40:14,533 by resuming the bombing of the North

1626

01:40:14,533 --> 01:40:18,433 for fear of provoking the antiwar movement at home.

MINUTES 100-110

1627

01:40:18,433 --> 01:40:24,666 So in March, he secretly ordered B-52s to begin attacking

1628

01:40:24,666 --> 01:40:26,933 the North Vietnamese bases within Cambodia,

1629

01:40:26,933 --> 01:40:31,266 which had offered sanctuary to the enemy for years.

1630

01:40:33,000 --> 01:40:35,800 The American public was told nothing about the bombing.

1631

01:40:35,800 --> 01:40:39,800 Congress was kept in the dark, as well.[34]

1632

01:40:39,800 --> 01:40:43,533 Even members of Nixon's own cabinet

1633

01:40:43,533 --> 01:40:45,900 were not initially informed.

1634

01:40:48,466 --> 01:40:52,566 When the New York Times finally discovered what was happening,

1635

01:40:52,566 --> 01:40:55,866 the White House denied any bombing was taking place

1636

01:40:55,866 --> 01:40:59,666 and ordered that illegal wiretaps be placed

1637

01:40:59,666 --> 01:41:02,333 on the telephones of 17 reporters

1638

01:41:02,333 --> 01:41:04,100 and government officials

1639

01:41:04,100 --> 01:41:07,966 in an effort to find out who had leaked the story.

1640

01:41:07,966 --> 01:41:11,100 "We will not make the same old mistakes,"

1641

01:41:11,100 --> 01:41:13,333 Henry Kissinger had joked to an aide

1642

01:41:13,333 --> 01:41:16,066 shortly after coming to Washington.

1643

01:41:16,066 --> 01:41:18,200 "We will make our own."

1644

01:41:20,200 --> 01:41:22,433 The war went on.

1645

01:41:22,433 --> 01:41:25,600 (helicopter blades whirring, men shouting)

1646

01:41:28,566 --> 01:41:31,866 (gunfire)

1647

01:41:31,866 --> 01:41:35,633 MARLANTES: There's basically two sides to heroism.

1648

01:41:35,633 --> 01:41:37,900 One is that I want to be special.

1649

01:41:37,900 --> 01:41:40,433 I want people to look at me, I'm an important person.

1650

01:41:40,433 --> 01:41:42,133 I've done heroic deeds.

1651

01:41:44,933 --> 01:41:48,466 The other side is simply somebody's got to do something

1652

01:41:48,466 --> 01:41:53,100 to save these people, my platoon or my company, from destruction.

1653

01:41:53,100 --> 01:41:58,300 The exact same act can be done with one attitude or the other.

1654

01:42:02,333 --> 01:42:06,333 NARRATOR: After leaving Oxford, First Lieutenant Karl Marlantes

1655

01:42:06,333 --> 01:42:10,033 found himself executive officer of Charlie Company,

1656

01:42:10,033 --> 01:42:14,000 First Battalion, Fourth Marines, Third Marine Division,

1657

01:42:14,000 --> 01:42:16,633 just south of the DMZ.

1658

01:42:16,633 --> 01:42:20,633 His unit was fighting the same sort of war

1659

01:42:20,633 --> 01:42:24,100 over the same terrain that Marines had been fighting now

1660

01:42:24,100 --> 01:42:25,766 for four years.

1661

01:42:25,766 --> 01:42:27,666 MARLANTES: You would hear, "Well, it's going to be

1662

01:42:27,666 --> 01:42:30,733 Operation Purple Martin I or Operation Scotland II."

1663

01:42:30,733 --> 01:42:32,800 And, and it'd be like, "Yeah, whatever."

1664

01:42:32,800 --> 01:42:36,066 What that meant to us was that someday soon

1665

01:42:36,066 --> 01:42:38,200 some choppers are going to show up and drop us

1666

01:42:38,200 --> 01:42:40,666 into the jungle someplace or a valley north of us

1667

01:42:40,666 --> 01:42:41,966 or wherever it was going to be.

1668

01:42:41,966 --> 01:42:43,566 And then we'd be off the hill

1669

01:42:43,566 --> 01:42:45,466 and we'd be humping, as we called it.

1670

01:42:49,433 --> 01:42:53,833 NARRATOR: On March 5, 1969, Marlantes' company was ordered

1671

01:42:53,833 --> 01:42:57,400 to attack a regiment of North Vietnamese regulars

1672

01:42:57,400 --> 01:43:02,700 dug in on the slopes of a hill the Americans called 484.

1673

01:43:02,700 --> 01:43:06,800 A few days earlier, his unit had taken the hill

1674

01:43:06,800 --> 01:43:09,966 and then, under heavy fire, had abandoned it.

1675

01:43:09,966 --> 01:43:14,566 This time air strikes meant to soften up the enemy

1676

01:43:14,566 --> 01:43:16,833 hit the wrong hill.

1677

01:43:16,833 --> 01:43:21,466 Charlie Company was ordered to advance anyway.

1678

01:43:21,466 --> 01:43:24,133 Marlantes led the way.

1679

01:43:25,466 --> 01:43:27,366 MARLANTES: It was a very steep hill.

1680

01:43:27,366 --> 01:43:31,566 And you don't charge because you have a lot of weight.

1681

01:43:31,566 --> 01:43:33,966 And we had started walking up and we had probably gotten

1682

01:43:33,966 --> 01:43:35,833 about a third of the way up the hill

1683

01:43:35,833 --> 01:43:37,200 and then they unleashed on us.

1684

01:43:40,733 --> 01:43:42,666 We were in the middle of this horrible ... sandwich.

1685

01:43:42,666 --> 01:43:44,866 (gunfire, explosions)

1686

01:43:44,866 --> 01:43:46,966 NARRATOR: The Marines took what cover they could.

1687

01:43:46,966 --> 01:43:50,900 Marlantes realized that if they continued up the slope

1688

01:43:50,900 --> 01:43:54,133 they would face machine gun fire,

1689

01:43:54,133 --> 01:43:55,766 but if they stayed where they were,

1690

01:43:55,766 --> 01:43:58,333 mortar shells would surely find them.

1691

01:43:58,333 --> 01:43:59,700 (explosion)

1692

01:44:01,800 --> 01:44:03,733 MARLANTES: And then I stood up

1693

01:44:03,733 --> 01:44:05,800 and went up the hill.

1694

01:44:05,800 --> 01:44:08,800 And I thought it was... I was all by myself.

1695

01:44:08,800 --> 01:44:11,033 And I was running at this point

1696

01:44:11,033 --> 01:44:15,266 because I wanted to cover that ground fast as I could.

1697

01:44:15,266 --> 01:44:18,100 And I caught some movement out of the corner of my eye,

1698

01:44:18,100 --> 01:44:21,100 and I rolled to the ground to come up with my rifle

1699

01:44:21,100 --> 01:44:24,233 to shoot the person.

1700

01:44:24,233 --> 01:44:27,133 And it was a kid from my platoon.

1701

01:44:27,133 --> 01:44:30,666 And then I looked behind him, there was more kids.

1702

01:44:30,666 --> 01:44:33,900 They had all come behind me.

1703

01:44:33,900 --> 01:44:36,266 It felt to me like I was there for a week

1704

01:44:36,266 --> 01:44:37,900 but I think I was probably by myself

1705

01:44:37,900 --> 01:44:42,033 four seconds, five seconds.

1706

01:44:42,033 --> 01:44:47,200 The entire platoon just stood up and out they came.

1707

01:44:47,200 --> 01:44:49,866 It remains to me a moment that is just

1708

01:44:49,866 --> 01:44:56,066 almost inexpressible of the heart that these kids had.

1709

01:44:56,066 --> 01:44:57,200 (explosion, gunfire)

1710

01:44:57,200 --> 01:44:59,600 And then we just hit those bunkers.

1711

01:44:59,600 --> 01:45:03,500 NARRATOR: The Marines cleared the bunkers one by one.

1712

01:45:11,300 --> 01:45:16,866 For his bravery, Marlantes was awarded the Navy Cross.

1713

01:45:16,866 --> 01:45:20,866 MARLANTES: Combat is like crack cocaine.

1714

01:45:20,866 --> 01:45:25,100 It's an enormous high but it has enormous costs.

1715

01:45:25,100 --> 01:45:29,333 Any sane person would never do crack.

1716

01:45:29,333 --> 01:45:32,200 Combat is like that.

1717

01:45:32,200 --> 01:45:35,900 You're scared, you're terrified, you're miserable,

1718

01:45:35,900 --> 01:45:38,600 but then the fighting starts...

1719

01:45:38,600 --> 01:45:42,333 (gunfire)

1720

01:45:42,333 --> 01:45:44,966 ...and suddenly everything is at stake--

1721

01:45:44,966 --> 01:45:46,933 your life, your friend's lives.

1722

01:45:46,933 --> 01:45:49,300 It's almost transcendence

1723

01:45:49,300 --> 01:45:51,933 because you're no longer a person.

1724

01:45:51,933 --> 01:45:54,466 You lose that sense; you're just... you're just the platoon.

1725

01:45:54,466 --> 01:45:57,933 And the platoon can't be beat.

1726

01:45:57,933 --> 01:45:59,966 And not to mention there's a savage joy

1727

01:45:59,966 --> 01:46:02,866 in overcoming your enemy, just a savage joy.

1728

01:46:02,866 --> 01:46:05,966 And I think that we make a big mistake if we say,

1729

01:46:05,966 --> 01:46:07,233 "Oh, war is hell."

1730

01:46:07,233 --> 01:46:09,533 We all know the "war is hell" story.

1731

01:46:09,533 --> 01:46:11,133 It is.

1732

01:46:11,133 --> 01:46:16,033 But there's an enormously exhilarating part of it.

1733

01:46:16,033 --> 01:46:17,200 (explosion)

1734

01:46:19,400 --> 01:46:21,833 ("Tell the Truth" by Otis Redding playing)

1735

01:46:24,033 --> 01:46:28,300 ♪ Tell the truth

1736

01:46:28,300 --> 01:46:34,433 ♪ Tell the truth, girl, now

1737

01:46:34,433 --> 01:46:37,933 ♪ You know you got me doin' everything crazy ♪

1738

01:46:37,933 --> 01:46:41,433 ♪ That you want me to do

1739

01:46:41,433 --> 01:46:43,066 ♪ Yes, you have, girl

1740

01:46:43,066 --> 01:46:44,700 ♪ Don't you, don't you, don't you know ♪

1741

01:46:44,700 --> 01:46:47,566 ♪ You got to tell the truth, yeah ♪

1742

01:46:47,566 --> 01:46:49,233 ♪ Baby, baby, baby, babe

1743

01:46:49,233 --> 01:46:54,800 ♪ Why don't you tell me the truth, now? ♪

1744

01:46:54,800 --> 01:46:57,100 ♪ You know you got me doin'

1745

01:46:57,100 --> 01:47:03,000 ♪ Everything crazy that you want me to do ♪

1746

01:47:03,000 --> 01:47:06,666 ♪ Yes, you have, yeah, watch it ♪

1747

01:47:07,966 --> 01:47:15,633 ♪ Loving you is just a little bit easy to start it ♪

1748

01:47:15,633 --> 01:47:17,266 ♪ So hard to stop

1749

01:47:21,366 --> 01:47:26,833 ♪ If I could

1750

01:47:26,833 --> 01:47:31,466 ♪ Baby, baby, you know I would

1751

01:47:31,466 --> 01:47:36,000 ♪ I'd build a stone wall around ♪

1752

01:47:36,000 --> 01:47:41,366 ♪ If I thought that it would do any good, mama ♪

1753

01:47:41,366 --> 01:47:43,866 ♪ Tell me the truth, yeah

1754

01:47:43,866 --> 01:47:48,200 ♪ Lit-lit-lit-lit-little girl, just tell me the truth now ♪

1755

01:47:48,200 --> 01:47:51,600 ♪ Yeah, huh

1756

01:47:51,600 --> 01:47:55,566 ♪ You know you got me doin' everything foolish ♪

1757

01:47:55,566 --> 01:47:59,333 ♪ That you want me to do, oh

1758

01:47:59,333 --> 01:48:01,833 ♪ Oh, play it

1759

01:48:01,833 --> 01:48:06,300 ♪ Come on, yeah

1760

01:48:06,300 --> 01:48:08,600 ♪ Tell me, tell me, tell me the truth now ♪

1761

01:48:08,600 --> 01:48:12,233 (saxophone solo)

1762

01:48:23,933 --> 01:48:29,966 ♪ Lovin' you

1763

01:48:29,966 --> 01:48:34,766 ♪ Is easy to start

1764

01:48:34,766 --> 01:48:36,533 ♪ Hard to stop

1765

01:48:36,533 --> 01:48:42,266 ♪ But I'm gonna just tell you this, uh ♪

1766

01:48:42,266 --> 01:48:46,066 ♪ Baby, you know I would

1767

01:48:46,066 --> 01:48:50,966 ♪ I would build a stone wall around ♪

1768

01:48:50,966 --> 01:48:55,866 ♪ If I just thought that it would do me some good ♪

1769

01:48:55,866 --> 01:48:57,733 ♪ The truth now

1770

01:48:57,733 --> 01:48:59,166 ♪ Tell 'em, tell 'em, tell 'em, tell 'em ♪

1771

01:48:59,166 --> 01:49:02,133 ♪ Tell, tell me the truth now

1772

01:49:02,133 --> 01:49:04,766 ♪ Just tell me the truth now

1773

01:49:04,766 --> 01:49:08,066 ♪ Got to tell me no lie...

1774

01:49:08,066 --> 01:49:10,666 Captioned by Media Access Group at WGBH, access.wgbh.org

1775

01:49:15,566 --> 01:49:16,766 ANNOUNCER: LEARN MORE ABOUT THE FILM

1776

01:49:16,766 --> 01:49:19,633 AND FIND ADDITIONAL RESOURCES AT PBS.ORG/VIETNAMWAR

1777

01:49:19,633 --> 01:49:23,566 AND JOIN THE CONVERSATION USING HASHTAG VIETNAMWARPBS.

1778

01:49:23,566 --> 01:49:25,033 "THE VIETNAM WAR" IS AVAILABLE

1779

01:49:25,033 --> 01:49:26,700 ON BLU-RAY AND DVD.

1780

01:49:26,700 --> 01:49:28,366 THE COMPANION BOOK, SOUNDTRACK,

1781

01:49:28,366 --> 01:49:29,766 AND ORIGINAL SCORE FROM THE FILM

1782

01:49:29,766 --> 01:49:30,900 ARE ALSO AVAILABLE.

1783

01:49:30,900 --> 01:49:33,000 TO ORDER, VISIT SHOPPBS.ORG

1784

01:49:33,000 --> 01:49:35,466 OR CALL 1-800-PLAY-PBS.

1785

01:49:35,466 --> 01:49:36,900 EPISODES OF THIS SERIES ALSO

1786

01:49:36,900 --> 01:49:38,000 AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD

1787

01:49:38,000 --> 01:49:39,100 FROM iTUNES.

1788

01:49:42,366 --> 01:49:44,500 ANNOUNCER: BANK OF AMERICA PROUDLY SUPPORTS

1789

01:49:44,500 --> 01:49:49,400 KEN BURNS' AND LYNN NOVICK'S FILM "THE VIETNAM WAR"

1790

01:49:49,400 --> 01:49:51,800 BECAUSE FOSTERING DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES

1791

01:49:51,800 --> 01:49:54,400 AND CIVIL DISCOURSE AROUND IMPORTANT ISSUES

1792

01:49:54,400 --> 01:49:56,700 FURTHERS PROGRESS, EQUALITY,

1793

01:49:56,700 --> 01:49:58,700 AND A MORE CONNECTED SOCIETY.

1794

01:50:03,166 --> 01:50:07,200 GO TO BANKOFAMERICA.COM/ BETTERCONNECTED TO LEARN MORE.

MINUTES 150-END

1795

01:50:10,666 --> 01:50:12,100 ANNOUNCER: MAJOR SUPPORT FOR "THE VIETNAM WAR"

1796

01:50:12,100 --> 01:50:15,600 WAS PROVIDED BY MEMBERS OF THE BETTER ANGELS SOCIETY,

1797

01:50:15,600 --> 01:50:19,566 INCLUDING JONATHAN AND JEANNIE LAVINE,

1798

01:50:19,566 --> 01:50:22,466 DIANE AND HAL BRIERLEY,

1799

01:50:22,466 --> 01:50:24,866 AMY AND DAVID ABRAMS,

1800

01:50:24,866 --> 01:50:27,366 JOHN AND CATHERINE DEBS,

1801

01:50:27,366 --> 01:50:30,266 THE FULLERTON FAMILY CHARITABLE FUND,

1802

01:50:30,266 --> 01:50:32,333 THE MONTRONE FAMILY,

1803

01:50:32,333 --> 01:50:34,666 LYNDA AND STEWART RESNICK,

1804

01:50:34,666 --> 01:50:37,433 THE PERRY AND DONNA GOLKIN FAMILY FOUNDATION,

1805

01:50:37,433 --> 01:50:38,433 THE LYNCH FOUNDATION,

1806

01:50:38,433 --> 01:50:41,300 THE ROGER AND ROSEMARY ENRICO FOUNDATION,

1807

01:50:41,300 --> 01:50:44,733 AND BY THESE ADDITIONAL FUNDERS.

1808

01:50:44,733 --> 01:50:46,633 MAJOR FUNDING WAS ALSO PROVIDED

1809

01:50:46,633 --> 01:50:48,366 BY DAVID H. KOCH...

1810

01:50:50,666 --> 01:50:52,866 THE BLAVATNIK FAMILY FOUNDATION...

1811

01:50:55,200 --> 01:50:57,633 THE PARK FOUNDATION,

1812

01:50:57,633 --> 01:50:59,800 THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES,

1813

01:50:59,800 --> 01:51:02,066 THE PEW CHARITABLE TRUSTS,

1814

01:51:02,066 --> 01:51:04,733 THE JOHN S. AND JAMES L. KNIGHT FOUNDATION,

1815

01:51:04,733 --> 01:51:07,500 THE ANDREW W. MELLON FOUNDATION,

1816

01:51:07,500 --> 01:51:10,100 THE ARTHUR VINING DAVIS FOUNDATIONS,

1817

01:51:10,100 --> 01:51:12,300 THE FORD FOUNDATION JUSTFILMS,

1818

01:51:12,300 --> 01:51:13,500 BY THE CORPORATION

1819

01:51:13,500 --> 01:51:14,733 FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING,

1820

01:51:14,733 --> 01:51:16,700 AND BY VIEWERS LIKE YOU.

1821

01:51:16,700 --> 01:51:17,833 THANK YOU.

References

  1. Let's see if there is anything behind BOA's nice words.
  2. What was unpatriotic, the decision to go or the optioned declined?
  3. See Negotiations
  4. What did that matter if you burned your draft card?
  5. Knowingly or not, that was a signal to the North Vietnamese that the U.S. had abandoned any plans to cut the Ho Chi Minh Trail in Laos, since Khe Sanh would have been the logical jump off point. This was the reason that the NVA had tied up two of their divisions at Khe Sanh, against a single Marine regiment during the Tet offensive, despite the fact that those Communist forces would have been better employed elsewhere, e.g. in Hue.
  6. But it probably exceeded the total number of casualties reported by the Americans using the disparaged "body count."
  7. RADIO HANOI
  8. Safest for who: the mother or the government?
  9. Chuck Robb, a son-in-law of Lyndon Johnson was a Marine and earned a Bronze Star as a rifle company commander. Patrick Nugent, the other son-in-law, an Air Force National Guardsman did not serve in Vietnam as far as I know. But North Vietnam had the same draft problems as the U.S. but didn't abide by protests.
  10. You don't hear much about seriously wounded veterans in North Vietnam.
  11. Because Mayor Daley delivered the Illinois vote to Kennedy. Nixon declined to protest the "graveyard tally" because he felt it would have a bad impact on Americans perception of our elections. Al Gore didn't have the same concern in 2000.
  12. Oedipus redux.
  13. Not Kerry.
  14. Not surprising.
  15. See Negotiations.
  16. Anna Chennault, possibly acting on her own initiative, but not telling Thieu anything he couldn't surmise from reading the newspapers and com to his own conclusions.
  17. Johnson was also bugging Nixon's limo and Humprey's people were talking with Hanoi.
  18. In reference to Watergate, I suspect the 1960 elections were more on Nixon's mind. And there were other factors as well.
  19. A few years before Bill Clinton.
  20. I suspect that is what is called a moral compass.
  21. So stop writing and give up what you didn't want to earn.
  22. See Lilienthal Study
  23. Check
  24. People don't kill to eat, they kill over ideals, often misperceived. It would be nice just to say no to war, but the other side gets a vote. You may not want to fight, but if diplomacy and its ostensible civilized methods break down, war is the extension of politics.
  25. People sniffer detecting urine.
  26. See Free-fire zones
  27. See Body Counts
  28. It was, but as usual, your side betrayed you.
  29. Who had the character to do the right thing?
  30. In some ways comparable to the rise of prostitution in the South, except this had communist government sponsorship.
  31. This guy became Air Force Chief of Staff!
  32. Did they come back?
  33. Who are the Americans pictured as surrendering?
  34. Certain leaders were told.

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