Annotated Transcript Of Episode 4

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ANNOTATED TRANSCRIPT BURNS EPISODE 4 This Is What We Do (July 1967-December 1967)

Color Coding: Red = False statement; Yellow = Warning; Green = Not yet used; Blue = Interesting, warranting Attention;

Gray = I’ve got to study and verify this item; Pink = Loaded Words?

MINUTES 1-10

1

00:00:01,566 --> 00:00:03,000 ANNOUNCER: MAJOR SUPPORT FOR "THE VIETNAM WAR"

2

00:00:03,000 --> 00:00:06,500 WAS PROVIDED BY MEMBERS OF THE BETTER ANGELS SOCIETY,

3

00:00:06,500 --> 00:00:10,466 INCLUDING JONATHAN AND JEANNIE LAVINE,

4

00:00:10,466 --> 00:00:13,366 DIANE AND HAL BRIERLEY,

5

00:00:13,366 --> 00:00:15,766 AMY AND DAVID ABRAMS,

6

00:00:15,766 --> 00:00:18,266 JOHN AND CATHERINE DEBS,

7

00:00:18,266 --> 00:00:21,166 THE FULLERTON FAMILY CHARITABLE FUND,

8

00:00:21,166 --> 00:00:23,233 THE MONTRONE FAMILY,

9

00:00:23,233 --> 00:00:25,566 LYNDA AND STEWART RESNICK,

10

00:00:25,566 --> 00:00:28,333 THE PERRY AND DONNA GOLKIN FAMILY FOUNDATION,

11

00:00:28,333 --> 00:00:29,333 THE LYNCH FOUNDATION,

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00:00:29,333 --> 00:00:32,200 THE ROGER AND ROSEMARY ENRICO FOUNDATION,

13

00:00:32,200 --> 00:00:35,633 AND BY THESE ADDITIONAL FUNDERS.

14

00:00:35,633 --> 00:00:37,533 MAJOR FUNDING WAS ALSO PROVIDED

15

00:00:37,533 --> 00:00:39,266 BY DAVID H. KOCH...

16

00:00:41,566 --> 00:00:43,766 THE BLAVATNIK FAMILY FOUNDATION...

17

00:00:46,100 --> 00:00:48,533 THE PARK FOUNDATION,

18

00:00:48,533 --> 00:00:50,700 THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES,

19

00:00:50,700 --> 00:00:52,900 THE PEW CHARITABLE TRUSTS,

20

00:00:52,900 --> 00:00:55,566 THE JOHN S. AND JAMES L. KNIGHT FOUNDATION,

21

00:00:55,566 --> 00:00:58,333 THE ANDREW W. MELLON FOUNDATION,

22

00:00:58,333 --> 00:01:01,000 THE ARTHUR VINING DAVIS FOUNDATIONS,

23

00:01:01,000 --> 00:01:03,200 THE FORD FOUNDATION JUSTFILMS,

24

00:01:03,200 --> 00:01:04,400 BY THE CORPORATION

25

00:01:04,400 --> 00:01:05,633 FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING,

26

00:01:05,633 --> 00:01:07,600 AND BY VIEWERS LIKE YOU.

27

00:01:07,600 --> 00:01:08,733 THANK YOU.

28

00:01:13,266 --> 00:01:15,400 ANNOUNCER: BANK OF AMERICA PROUDLY SUPPORTS

29

00:01:15,400 --> 00:01:20,300 KEN BURNS' AND LYNN NOVICK'S FILM "THE VIETNAM WAR"

30

00:01:20,300 --> 00:01:22,700 BECAUSE FOSTERING DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES

31

00:01:22,700 --> 00:01:25,300 AND CIVIL DISCOURSE AROUND IMPORTANT ISSUES

32

00:01:25,300 --> 00:01:27,600 FURTHERS PROGRESS, EQUALITY,

33

00:01:27,600 --> 00:01:29,600 AND A MORE CONNECTED SOCIETY.

34

00:01:34,066 --> 00:01:38,100 GO TO BANKOFAMERICA.COM/ BETTERCONNECTED TO LEARN MORE.

35

00:01:58,933 --> 00:02:02,666 JEAN-MARIE CROCKER: Sometimes I would hear a car crunch up in the snow,

36

00:02:02,666 --> 00:02:05,100 and I'd think maybe it would be somebody coming

37

00:02:05,100 --> 00:02:06,666 to give us bad news.

38

00:02:06,666 --> 00:02:09,699 Which was not good for me to think.

39

00:02:09,699 --> 00:02:11,700 It was an underlying anxiety

40

00:02:11,700 --> 00:02:14,566 that I really think was there all the time.

41

00:02:16,200 --> 00:02:19,266 NARRATOR: All his young life, Denton Crocker, Jr.--

42

00:02:19,266 --> 00:02:21,566 known as "Mogie" to his family--

43

00:02:21,566 --> 00:02:23,766 had dreamed of serving his country,

44

00:02:23,766 --> 00:02:26,133 of putting his own life on the line

45

00:02:26,133 --> 00:02:30,066 in defense of what he called "individual freedom."

46

00:02:30,066 --> 00:02:34,133 He'd wanted to serve in Vietnam so much

47

00:02:34,133 --> 00:02:37,266 he'd pressured his parents into granting their permission

48

00:02:37,266 --> 00:02:40,200 for him to join the Army before he was 18.

49

00:02:42,633 --> 00:02:46,366 He was eager for combat and pleased when he was assigned

50

00:02:46,366 --> 00:02:50,833 to the 1st Brigade of the celebrated 101st Airborne,

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00:02:50,833 --> 00:02:55,066 the "Screaming Eagles" who had led the way on D-Day.

52

00:02:55,066 --> 00:02:58,933 But he was quickly disappointed to find himself attached

53

00:02:58,933 --> 00:03:04,000 to battalion headquarters, repairing weapons, making lists,

54

00:03:04,000 --> 00:03:05,866 keeping records.

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00:03:05,866 --> 00:03:09,466 It was "boring," he wrote home.

56

00:03:09,466 --> 00:03:12,733 MOGIE CROCKER (dramatized): I think perhaps you will understand my disappointment

57

00:03:12,733 --> 00:03:15,633 when you see that there is little sense in being over here

58

00:03:15,633 --> 00:03:17,933 unless one faces the main objective,

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00:03:17,933 --> 00:03:20,466 the destruction of the VC.

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00:03:22,766 --> 00:03:25,333 Certainly one feels no sense of accomplishment

61

00:03:25,333 --> 00:03:28,000 when one's friends are facing all the dangers.

62

00:03:31,366 --> 00:03:34,666 JEAN-MARIE CROCKER: I had a map on the back of the living room door.

63

00:03:34,666 --> 00:03:38,700 And I put pins in it every time Denton Jr. moved.

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00:03:38,700 --> 00:03:40,033 And he moved a lot.

65

00:03:41,333 --> 00:03:43,800 And I knew those names at one time

66

00:03:43,800 --> 00:03:48,966 as well as any area of our own world. THE VIETNAM WAR

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00:04:00,066 --> 00:04:02,600 LYNDON JOHNSON: PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: Well, how'd you have a good weekend?

68

00:04:02,600 --> 00:04:03,666 ROBERT McNAMARA: SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (laughs)

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00:04:03,666 --> 00:04:05,066 Yeah, I did, Mr. President.

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00:04:05,066 --> 00:04:06,366 I hope you did too.

71

00:04:06,366 --> 00:04:07,900 JOHNSON: What's your thinking these days?

72

00:04:07,900 --> 00:04:09,266 I haven't talked to you.

73

00:04:09,266 --> 00:04:10,666 What's happening to our pause?

74

00:04:10,666 --> 00:04:12,200 What are our generals saying?

75

00:04:12,200 --> 00:04:14,733 McNAMARA: See, I think you'll find some foreign leaders

76

00:04:14,733 --> 00:04:17,633 will criticize you if you resume bombing.

77

00:04:17,633 --> 00:04:21,333 As a matter of fact, no other intelligence source

78

00:04:21,333 --> 00:04:24,533 that I've seen indicates that Hanoi is even considering

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00:04:24,533 --> 00:04:26,333 moving toward negotiation

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00:04:26,333 --> 00:04:28,566 in order to lead us to extend the pause.

81

00:04:28,566 --> 00:04:30,133 Intelligence information...

82

00:04:30,133 --> 00:04:34,033 NARRATOR: As 1966 began, the President[1] of the United States

83

00:04:34,033 --> 00:04:36,533 was just learning the name of the man

84

00:04:36,533 --> 00:04:40,833 who was the most powerful member of the Politburo in Hanoi--

85

00:04:40,833 --> 00:04:42,433 Le Duan.

86

00:04:42,433 --> 00:04:44,300 McNAMARA: ...First Secretary of the Communist Party,

87

00:04:44,300 --> 00:04:47,533 a man named Le Duan-- L-E capital D-U-A-N--

88

00:04:47,533 --> 00:04:50,000 who today is putting considerable pressure

89

00:04:50,000 --> 00:04:53,633 on Ho Chi Minh and others to ensure continuing a war

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00:04:53,633 --> 00:04:56,066 that he thinks they either are winning or can win.

91

00:04:56,066 --> 00:04:58,066 ("Masters of War" by The Staple Singers playing)

92

00:04:58,066 --> 00:05:00,500 ♪ They're masters of war

93

00:05:03,333 --> 00:05:08,600 ♪ You build all the big guns

94

00:05:08,600 --> 00:05:10,200 ♪ You build the big planes. ♪

95

00:05:10,200 --> 00:05:11,966 NARRATOR: As they continued to escalate the war,

96

00:05:11,966 --> 00:05:14,933 Johnson and McNamara were frustrated

97

00:05:14,933 --> 00:05:18,966 that American commanders in Vietnam, who had come of age

98

00:05:18,966 --> 00:05:21,400 during World War II and Korea,

99

00:05:21,400 --> 00:05:23,700 were having a hard time making sense

100

00:05:23,700 --> 00:05:26,200 of what was happening on the ground.

101

00:05:26,200 --> 00:05:31,433 In the months and years to come, as the American presence grew,

102

00:05:31,433 --> 00:05:33,833 Hanoi would escalate too,

103

00:05:33,833 --> 00:05:36,766 sending more and more soldiers south,

104

00:05:36,766 --> 00:05:40,033 strengthening its own air defenses,

105

00:05:40,033 --> 00:05:42,200 and recruiting more fighters

106

00:05:42,200 --> 00:05:45,566 from the alienated South Vietnamese countryside.

107

00:05:49,433 --> 00:05:52,533 The Johnson administration was desperately trying

108

00:05:52,533 --> 00:05:56,700 to prop up the government in Saigon and, at the same time,

109

00:05:56,700 --> 00:06:00,000 help that government to somehow win the loyalty

110

00:06:00,000 --> 00:06:02,033 of its own people.

111

00:06:02,033 --> 00:06:06,200 Johnson had tried to forge an international coalition

112

00:06:06,200 --> 00:06:08,600 to defend South Vietnam.

113

00:06:08,600 --> 00:06:13,833 But only five other countries would ever send combat troops--

114

00:06:13,833 --> 00:06:17,833 Australia and New Zealand, Thailand, the Philippines,

115

00:06:17,833 --> 00:06:19,733 and South Korea.

116

00:06:21,300 --> 00:06:26,033 America's most important allies, Britain, France and Canada,

117

00:06:26,033 --> 00:06:32,133 refused to take part and were calling instead for peace talks.

118

00:06:32,133 --> 00:06:34,900 And more and more Americans,

119

00:06:34,900 --> 00:06:37,733 including some of the country's most respected

120

00:06:37,733 --> 00:06:39,666 foreign policy experts,

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00:06:39,666 --> 00:06:43,233 were beginning to question the way the war was being fought,

122

00:06:43,233 --> 00:06:45,566 whether it could ever be won,

123

00:06:45,566 --> 00:06:50,466 and if the United States should be in Vietnam at all.

124

00:06:51,633 --> 00:06:53,133 (explosion)

125

00:06:53,133 --> 00:07:01,033 As 1966 began, 2,344 Americans had died in Vietnam.

126

00:07:01,033 --> 00:07:04,000 Nearly 200,000 were stationed there,

127

00:07:04,000 --> 00:07:07,033 and more were on their way.

128

00:07:08,533 --> 00:07:11,066 Those soldiers would quickly discover

129

00:07:11,066 --> 00:07:13,400 that the war they were being asked to fight

130

00:07:13,400 --> 00:07:16,066 was not their father's war.

131

00:07:19,000 --> 00:07:22,366 SAM WILSON: We tend to fight the next war

132

00:07:22,366 --> 00:07:25,400 in the same way we fought the last one.

133

00:07:25,400 --> 00:07:29,666 We are prisoners of our own experience.[2]

134

00:07:29,666 --> 00:07:32,166 And many of the things that we learned that worked

135

00:07:32,166 --> 00:07:33,333 in World War II

136

00:07:33,333 --> 00:07:36,800 were not applicable to the war in Vietnam.

137

00:07:38,700 --> 00:07:40,866 We simply thought we'd go in with a sledgehammer

138

00:07:40,866 --> 00:07:42,633 and knock things down, clean them up,

139

00:07:42,633 --> 00:07:44,600 and it would be all over.

140

00:07:44,600 --> 00:07:48,166 It was a kind of an oversimplification

141

00:07:48,166 --> 00:07:50,033 of the problem

142

00:07:50,033 --> 00:07:54,366 combined with our overconfidence that caused us,

143

00:07:54,366 --> 00:07:57,000 I think, to be arrogant.

144

00:07:57,000 --> 00:08:00,400 And it's very, very difficult to dispel ignorance

145

00:08:00,400 --> 00:08:02,733 if you retain arrogance.

146

00:08:02,733 --> 00:08:07,833 STAPLES SINGERS: ♪ I'll stand over your body and make sure that you're dead. ♪

147

00:08:16,133 --> 00:08:17,466 (gavel pounding)

148

00:08:18,900 --> 00:08:21,966 NARRATOR: In early February of 1966,

149

00:08:21,966 --> 00:08:25,233 President Johnson got more bad news.

150

00:08:25,233 --> 00:08:28,133 His old friend, J. William Fulbright,

151

00:08:28,133 --> 00:08:29,300 the powerful chairman

152

00:08:29,300 --> 00:08:31,900 of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee,

153

00:08:31,900 --> 00:08:35,100 planned to hold hearings on the Vietnam War,

154

00:08:35,100 --> 00:08:39,700 and the television networks intended to cover the hearings

155

00:08:39,700 --> 00:08:41,533 from gavel to gavel.

156

00:08:41,533 --> 00:08:45,066 Fulbright, who had once supported the war,

157

00:08:45,066 --> 00:08:47,066 now opposed it.

158

00:08:47,066 --> 00:08:50,433 LBJ was alarmed.

159

00:08:50,433 --> 00:08:53,366 His own advisers had been giving him conflicting advice

160

00:08:53,366 --> 00:08:55,900 about Vietnam for years.

161

00:08:55,900 --> 00:08:59,100 But a public debate about how he was running the war

162

00:08:59,100 --> 00:09:03,166 in front of millions of Americans filled him with dread.

163

00:09:05,000 --> 00:09:07,366 As the hearings got underway,

164

00:09:07,366 --> 00:09:09,133 the President tried to deflect attention

165

00:09:09,133 --> 00:09:12,966 by suddenly announcing he was going to a military conference

166

00:09:12,966 --> 00:09:17,266 in Honolulu, to meet for the first time the two generals

167

00:09:17,266 --> 00:09:20,133 who now headed the Saigon government.

168

00:09:20,133 --> 00:09:21,866 ED HERLIHY: It is a meeting without precedent,

169

00:09:21,866 --> 00:09:24,833 and is designed to strengthen United States determination

170

00:09:24,833 --> 00:09:28,400 to pursue to the end the drive against communist domination

171

00:09:28,400 --> 00:09:29,733 in South Vietnam.

172

00:09:33,866 --> 00:09:37,400 NARRATOR: General Nguyen Van Thieu was the chief of state,

173

00:09:37,400 --> 00:09:40,966 but real power lay with Thieu's bitter rival,

174

00:09:40,966 --> 00:09:44,200 the former head of the South Vietnamese Air Force,

175

00:09:44,200 --> 00:09:47,366 Prime Minister Nguyen Cao Ky.

176

00:09:47,366 --> 00:09:52,266 Ky was "an unguided missile," according to one U.S. diplomat,

177

00:09:52,266 --> 00:09:55,066 known for his flamboyant uniforms,

178

00:09:55,066 --> 00:09:59,200 his gaudy private life, and his public pronouncements.

179

00:09:59,200 --> 00:10:03,600 He once told a reporter that what Vietnam really needed

180

00:10:03,600 --> 00:10:06,133 was "five Hitlers."

MINUTES 10-20

181

00:10:06,133 --> 00:10:09,900 PHAN QUANG TUE: How could we allow and accept that to happen? [3]

182

00:10:09,900 --> 00:10:11,933 He was a charlatan.

183

00:10:11,933 --> 00:10:14,600 The man not only has no training,

184

00:10:14,600 --> 00:10:17,766 has no education, but doesn't seem to inter...

185

00:10:17,766 --> 00:10:22,433 be interested in being educated, and proud of his ignorance.

186

00:10:23,433 --> 00:10:26,900 TRAN NGOC CHAU (speaking English): SOUTH VIETNAMESE POLITICIAN President Johnson after meeting and talking with Ky, he very happy. He said, "Well, this is just like an American boy," because he speak good English and he know how to drink, and how to flirt the woman.

187

00:10:39,933 --> 00:10:42,833 (laughing) He's a, he's a type of, I called it, the stranger in his own, own country.

188

00:10:56,600 --> 00:11:00,000 NARRATOR: President Johnson spent most of his time in Honolulu

189

00:11:00,000 --> 00:11:03,366 urging Ky to focus on pacification--

190

00:11:03,366 --> 00:11:06,500 earning the support of the South Vietnamese people

191

00:11:06,500 --> 00:11:09,900 by undertaking economic and social reforms

192

00:11:09,900 --> 00:11:14,066 Americans had been calling for for more than a decade.

193

00:11:14,066 --> 00:11:17,700 Johnson wasn't interested in "high-sounding words"

194

00:11:17,700 --> 00:11:19,966 about progress, he said.

195

00:11:19,966 --> 00:11:22,466 He wanted genuine achievements--

196

00:11:22,466 --> 00:11:27,600 what they called in Texas, "coonskins on the wall."

197

00:11:27,600 --> 00:11:31,500 BUI DIEM: Well, nobody understood what does it mean "coonskin."

198

00:11:31,500 --> 00:11:36,200 And people the Vietnamese at the delegation they ask me,

199

00:11:36,200 --> 00:11:38,133 "You understand what it is?"

200

00:11:38,133 --> 00:11:40,666 And myself I said, "Well, I don't understand."

201

00:11:40,666 --> 00:11:43,200 I have to ask some Americans to explain to me.

202

00:11:43,200 --> 00:11:46,466 And some American friends, they explain to me later on

203

00:11:46,466 --> 00:11:48,566 and only by then the Vietnamese understood.

204

00:11:50,333 --> 00:11:52,433 SEN WAYNE MORSE (D-OR): I happen to hold the point of view

205

00:11:52,433 --> 00:11:54,033 that it isn't going to be too long

206

00:11:54,033 --> 00:11:56,200 before the American people, as a people,

207

00:11:56,200 --> 00:11:58,866 will repudiate our war in Southeast Asia.

208

00:11:58,866 --> 00:12:00,733 MAXWELL TAYLOR: That, of course, is good news

209

00:12:00,733 --> 00:12:02,033 to Hanoi, Senator.

210

00:12:02,033 --> 00:12:03,800 MORSE: Oh, I know that

211

00:12:03,800 --> 00:12:06,533 that's the smear artist that you militarists give to those of us

212

00:12:06,533 --> 00:12:08,233 that have honest differences of opinion with you.

213

00:12:08,233 --> 00:12:11,000 But I don't intend to get down in the gutter with you

214

00:12:11,000 --> 00:12:13,333 and engage in that kind of debate, General.

215

00:12:13,333 --> 00:12:16,900 NARRATOR: Johnson's trip to Honolulu had not distracted

216

00:12:16,900 --> 00:12:18,300 the American public.

217

00:12:18,300 --> 00:12:21,500 They were riveted to the hearings.

218

00:12:21,500 --> 00:12:24,100 SEN J. WILLIAM FULBRIGHT (D-AR): And I also think that great countries,

219

00:12:24,100 --> 00:12:26,166 especially this country,

220

00:12:26,166 --> 00:12:29,100 is quite strong enough to engage in a compromise[4]

221

00:12:29,100 --> 00:12:31,366 without losing its standing in the world,

222

00:12:31,366 --> 00:12:33,933 without losing its prestige as a great nation.

223

00:12:33,933 --> 00:12:36,100 On the contrary, I think it would be

224

00:12:36,100 --> 00:12:40,466 one of the greatest victories for us and our prestige

225

00:12:40,466 --> 00:12:44,333 if we could be ingenious enough and magnanimous enough

226

00:12:44,333 --> 00:12:46,300 to bring about some kind of a settlement

227

00:12:46,300 --> 00:12:48,166 of this particular struggle.

228

00:12:48,166 --> 00:12:52,733 NARRATOR: Fulbright invited the respected diplomat George Kennan

229

00:12:52,733 --> 00:12:54,366 to testify.

230

00:12:54,366 --> 00:12:57,433 For two decades, his doctrine of containment--

231

00:12:57,433 --> 00:12:59,433 stopping Soviet expansion--

232

00:12:59,433 --> 00:13:02,666 had been the basis of American foreign policy,

233

00:13:02,666 --> 00:13:05,833 and had in some ways been the justification

234

00:13:05,833 --> 00:13:11,200 for leading the United States into its proxy war in Vietnam.

235

00:13:11,200 --> 00:13:12,600 KENNAN: FORMER DIPLOMAT The first point I would like to make

236

00:13:12,600 --> 00:13:16,933 is that if we were not already involved as we are today

237

00:13:16,933 --> 00:13:18,733 in Vietnam,

238

00:13:18,733 --> 00:13:20,300 I would know of no reason

239

00:13:20,300 --> 00:13:23,066 why we should wish to become so involved,

240

00:13:23,066 --> 00:13:24,800 and I could think of several reasons

241

00:13:24,800 --> 00:13:26,333 why we should wish not to.

242

00:13:26,333 --> 00:13:30,566 SEN JOHN SPARKMAN (D-AL): You have referred to containment here.

243

00:13:30,566 --> 00:13:35,933 How... how can we contain in Vietnam?

244

00:13:35,933 --> 00:13:39,700 KEENAN: We would do better if we really would show ourselves

245

00:13:39,700 --> 00:13:43,200 a little more relaxed and less terrified of what happens

246

00:13:43,200 --> 00:13:45,266 in the...

247

00:13:45,266 --> 00:13:49,166 certainly in the smaller countries of Asia and Africa,

248

00:13:49,166 --> 00:13:53,300 and not jump around like an elephant frightened by a mouse

249

00:13:53,300 --> 00:13:55,533 every time these things occur.

250

00:13:55,533 --> 00:13:59,333 NARRATOR: Johnson was relieved when, at the last moment,

251

00:13:59,333 --> 00:14:02,466 instead of airing Kennan's testimony,

252

00:14:02,466 --> 00:14:05,966 CBS showed reruns of The Real McCoys,

253

00:14:05,966 --> 00:14:10,066 The Andy Griffith Show and I Love Lucy.

254

00:14:10,066 --> 00:14:14,233 But NBC kept the cameras running.

255

00:14:14,233 --> 00:14:17,133 KEENAN: This is not only not our business,

256

00:14:17,133 --> 00:14:19,133 but I don't think we can do it successfully.

257

00:14:19,133 --> 00:14:22,100 FULBRIGHT: And I take it by this you mean that

258

00:14:22,100 --> 00:14:25,266 this is simply not a practicable objective,

259

00:14:25,266 --> 00:14:27,833 as I understand it, in this country.

260

00:14:27,833 --> 00:14:30,233 We can't achieve it even with the best of will.

261

00:14:30,233 --> 00:14:32,966 KEENAN: This is correct, and I have a fear

262

00:14:32,966 --> 00:14:38,600 that our thinking about this whole problem is still affected

263

00:14:38,600 --> 00:14:43,133 by some sort of illusions about invincibility on our part.

264

00:14:52,866 --> 00:14:55,133 NARRATOR: Just before the hearings began,

265

00:14:55,133 --> 00:14:58,300 the President had decided to resume the bombing of targets

266

00:14:58,300 --> 00:15:00,266 in North Vietnam.

267

00:15:00,266 --> 00:15:06,266 The 37-day pause that had begun on Christmas Eve 1965

268

00:15:06,266 --> 00:15:09,433 had yielded no hint of Hanoi's willingness

269

00:15:09,433 --> 00:15:11,533 to come to the negotiating[5] table.

270

00:15:13,733 --> 00:15:17,733 In South Vietnam, Viet Cong guerrillas were now believed

271

00:15:17,733 --> 00:15:21,833 to control nearly three-quarters of the country.

272

00:15:21,833 --> 00:15:24,800 But General William Westmoreland,

273

00:15:24,800 --> 00:15:28,700 the American commander, thought his most urgent task

274

00:15:28,700 --> 00:15:32,500 was to destroy the North Vietnamese regular army units[6]

275

00:15:32,500 --> 00:15:34,266 Hanoi was sending South.

276

00:15:36,300 --> 00:15:39,300 Westmoreland's target for the next two years

277

00:15:39,300 --> 00:15:43,500 would be reaching what he called the "crossover point"-- [7]

278

00:15:43,500 --> 00:15:46,466 the point at which U.S. and ARVN forces

279

00:15:46,466 --> 00:15:50,333 were killing more enemy troops than could be replaced.

280

00:15:51,366 --> 00:15:55,066 It would be a war of attrition.

281

00:15:55,066 --> 00:15:59,933 But that would require still more American soldiers.

282

00:16:02,133 --> 00:16:05,366 They came from every corner of the country.

283

00:16:08,600 --> 00:16:12,233 MATT HARRISON: WEST POINT I was born at West Point when my dad was on the faculty there.

284

00:16:12,233 --> 00:16:14,833 From my earliest recollection,

285

00:16:14,833 --> 00:16:17,200 West Point was what I wanted to do,

286

00:16:17,200 --> 00:16:20,066 not even particularly because I had an inkling

287

00:16:20,066 --> 00:16:22,333 or a strong desire for a military career.

288

00:16:22,333 --> 00:16:23,600 It's just...

289

00:16:23,600 --> 00:16:25,533 West Point was kind of the height of my ambition.

290

00:16:25,533 --> 00:16:27,733 ("On, Brave Old Army Team" playing)

291

00:16:27,733 --> 00:16:30,900 NARRATOR: The son of a colonel who had served in World War II,

292

00:16:30,900 --> 00:16:35,766 Matt Harrison had grown up on Army bases around the world.

293

00:16:35,766 --> 00:16:37,866 For him and his four siblings,

294

00:16:37,866 --> 00:16:42,266 the military was always at the center of their lives.

295

00:16:42,266 --> 00:16:46,533 ANNE HARRISON BOWMAN: SISTER You addressed parents "sir" and "ma'am,"

296

00:16:46,533 --> 00:16:49,433 and you said "yes" and not "yeah."

297

00:16:49,433 --> 00:16:52,800 And you answered the phone, "Colonel Harrison's quarters."

298

00:16:52,800 --> 00:16:55,633 We got up every Saturday morning and we dusted the house.

299

00:16:55,633 --> 00:16:58,666 My dad would put on the West Point marching band

300

00:16:58,666 --> 00:17:00,766 and my sister and I would dust around the living room.

301

00:17:02,266 --> 00:17:04,000 NARRATOR: It seemed to Matt's parents

302

00:17:04,000 --> 00:17:06,300 that he could do no wrong.

303

00:17:06,300 --> 00:17:09,666 He was the embodiment of the values they had hoped to instill

304

00:17:09,666 --> 00:17:14,666 in all their children: duty, honor, and country.

305

00:17:16,233 --> 00:17:18,766 HARRISON: The strongest impression I have from my class

306

00:17:18,766 --> 00:17:23,266 and my classmates was they were guys who just were idealists.

307

00:17:23,266 --> 00:17:26,300 And I think guys drawn from little towns

308

00:17:26,300 --> 00:17:29,733 all across the United States had that in common.

309

00:17:29,733 --> 00:17:32,733 It was a time before the questions

310

00:17:32,733 --> 00:17:34,900 about American exceptionalism.

311

00:17:34,900 --> 00:17:36,933 We didn't question.

312

00:17:36,933 --> 00:17:40,166 We believed in what this country stood for,

313

00:17:40,166 --> 00:17:44,433 and we believed that people who had the ability

314

00:17:44,433 --> 00:17:47,533 to lead soldiers should do that.

315

00:17:49,033 --> 00:17:51,733 ("Mustang Sally" by Wilson Pickett playing)

316

00:17:56,700 --> 00:17:59,300 PICKETT: ♪ Mustang Sally [8]

317

00:17:59,300 --> 00:18:00,866 ♪ Huh!

318

00:18:00,866 --> 00:18:03,066 ROGER HARRIS: ROXBURY, MA I wanted to go with the gladiators.

319

00:18:03,066 --> 00:18:04,900 I wanted to go with the tough guys.

320

00:18:07,566 --> 00:18:11,666 I was born in Boston, in the Roxbury section of Boston.

321

00:18:11,666 --> 00:18:14,833 There were those who would recruit you for gangs

322

00:18:14,833 --> 00:18:18,200 and try to entice you to do things

323

00:18:18,200 --> 00:18:21,866 that-that weren't in the best interest of society.

324

00:18:21,866 --> 00:18:22,866 Let's put it like that.

325

00:18:24,400 --> 00:18:26,700 NARRATOR: Roger Harris dreamed of going to college

326

00:18:26,700 --> 00:18:29,466 on a football scholarship, but was not big enough

327

00:18:29,466 --> 00:18:32,000 to play for his team in high school.

328

00:18:32,000 --> 00:18:34,266 HARRIS: And so I enlisted in the Marine Corps.

329

00:18:34,266 --> 00:18:38,333 And I felt that... that it was a win-win

330

00:18:38,333 --> 00:18:43,166 because, one, if I died, then my mother would be able

331

00:18:43,166 --> 00:18:46,433 to receive the $10,000 insurance policy.

332

00:18:46,433 --> 00:18:48,233 I thought that was a lot of money,

333

00:18:48,233 --> 00:18:49,900 that my mother will be rich if I die.

334

00:18:49,900 --> 00:18:50,900 You know, she'll be rich.

335

00:18:52,533 --> 00:18:55,333 If I live, then I'll be a hero, you know,

336

00:18:55,333 --> 00:18:57,733 and I can come back and get a job.

337

00:18:57,733 --> 00:19:00,133 Naive, dumb, you know?

338

00:19:01,800 --> 00:19:04,366 NARRATOR: John Musgrave was from the Fairmount neighborhood

339

00:19:04,366 --> 00:19:06,833 of Independence, Missouri.

340

00:19:06,833 --> 00:19:10,300 MUSGRAVE: I was 17 and my best friend and I

341

00:19:10,300 --> 00:19:12,533 went down and enlisted in the Marine Corps.

342

00:19:12,533 --> 00:19:15,566 I had always dreamed of being a Marine.

343

00:19:15,566 --> 00:19:17,166 And...

344

00:19:20,100 --> 00:19:24,100 Well, I knew I wasn't going to be a man right away

345

00:19:24,100 --> 00:19:26,700 but I was going to be a Marine, and that was enough.

346

00:19:26,700 --> 00:19:31,033 I'd be doing something mature.

347

00:19:31,033 --> 00:19:33,700 And I'd be doing something that was important.

348

00:19:33,700 --> 00:19:38,466 And there was a war on and I wanted a piece of it.

349

00:19:40,400 --> 00:19:42,600 BILL EHRHART: I grew up in Perkasie, Pennsylvania.

350

00:19:42,600 --> 00:19:44,833 And every Memorial Day

351

00:19:44,833 --> 00:19:48,033 all that generation of World War II would dress up

352

00:19:48,033 --> 00:19:50,000 in their American Legion uniforms and parade around.

353

00:19:51,566 --> 00:19:55,533 And I'd put red, white, and blue crepe paper on my bicycle.

354

00:19:55,533 --> 00:19:57,800 And the kids could ride behind the parade.

355

00:19:59,566 --> 00:20:03,166 NARRATOR: Bill Ehrhart would sign up in part because his father,

356

00:20:03,166 --> 00:20:06,133 a pastor, had not served. [9]

357

00:20:06,133 --> 00:20:09,266 Ehrhart was a gifted student

358

00:20:09,266 --> 00:20:11,300 and in his senior year in high school

359

00:20:11,300 --> 00:20:14,400 was accepted by four colleges.

360

00:20:14,400 --> 00:20:16,300 Had he attended any one of them,

361

00:20:16,300 --> 00:20:19,666 he would have been deferred from the draft.

362

00:20:19,666 --> 00:20:21,300 It all came down to this notion

363

00:20:21,300 --> 00:20:24,400 of I was going to serve my country and be a hero

364

00:20:24,400 --> 00:20:27,966 and have that gorgeous Marine Corps uniform.

365

00:20:27,966 --> 00:20:31,033 And the girls would just be draped around my neck [10]

366

00:20:31,033 --> 00:20:33,766 and nobody would beat me up again.

367

00:20:33,766 --> 00:20:35,166 But at the same time

368

00:20:35,166 --> 00:20:38,733 I would really be serving my country.

369

00:20:38,733 --> 00:20:41,500 It was my chance to be... (sighs)

370

00:20:41,500 --> 00:20:44,166 one doesn't want to trivialize it, but it was my chance to be

371

00:20:44,166 --> 00:20:46,100 the star of my own John Wayne movie.

372

00:20:46,100 --> 00:20:51,400 It was my chance to do what that World War II generation had done

373

00:20:51,400 --> 00:20:53,733 and seemed to be so proud of.

374

00:20:53,733 --> 00:20:56,600 Now I had my turn.

MINUTES 20-30

375

00:20:58,033 --> 00:20:59,366 NARRATOR: Wherever they came from,

376

00:20:59,366 --> 00:21:02,500 whatever their reasons for joining the military,

377

00:21:02,500 --> 00:21:05,000 training transformed them.[11]

378

00:21:05,000 --> 00:21:09,333 (United States Marine Band playing "Semper Fidelis" march)

379

00:21:13,900 --> 00:21:16,266 For about the first five weeks at Parris Island,

380

00:21:16,266 --> 00:21:19,733 I was convinced that I was going to die there.

381

00:21:21,233 --> 00:21:23,433 The drill instructors said they were going to kill me.

382

00:21:23,433 --> 00:21:24,966 And they certainly sounded serious.

383

00:21:27,633 --> 00:21:30,433 MUSGRAVE: I grew up in segregated neighborhoods all my life.

384

00:21:30,433 --> 00:21:34,300 So, I'd never met a black person till I arrived at boot camp.

385

00:21:34,300 --> 00:21:38,100 Never stood next to a black person or a Hispanic

386

00:21:38,100 --> 00:21:39,866 or anyone who was Jewish.

387

00:21:39,866 --> 00:21:43,100 I just... they didn't mix where I grew up.

388

00:21:43,100 --> 00:21:45,700 So that was just eye opening.[12]

389

00:21:45,700 --> 00:21:49,266 But when I got to talking to everybody, we were all the same.

390

00:21:49,266 --> 00:21:51,966 We were all working class and poor.

391

00:21:51,966 --> 00:21:55,100 And we all wanted to be Marines real bad.

392

00:21:56,300 --> 00:21:57,933 EHRHART: By the time I graduated,

393

00:21:57,933 --> 00:22:01,400 I felt like I was king of the world.

394

00:22:01,400 --> 00:22:03,433 I was God.

395

00:22:03,433 --> 00:22:05,800 I could do anything.

396

00:22:05,800 --> 00:22:09,133 On that day I became a Marine.

397

00:22:09,133 --> 00:22:13,033 ROGER HARRIS: You know, the Marine Corps trains you to be a fighter.

398

00:22:13,033 --> 00:22:15,200 They train you to fight, they train you to kill.

399

00:22:15,200 --> 00:22:18,466 They used to say that if you're a Marine, you can't die

400

00:22:18,466 --> 00:22:21,033 until you kill three Vietnamese.

401

00:22:22,400 --> 00:22:24,466 And I said, "Well, I'm from Roxbury.

402

00:22:24,466 --> 00:22:29,333 If the expectation is three, I'll do ten."

403

00:22:31,166 --> 00:22:32,900 You know, craziness.

404

00:22:32,900 --> 00:22:34,833 (gunshot)

405

00:22:41,666 --> 00:22:44,766 LESLIE GELB: The tendency for a great power is to use

406

00:22:44,766 --> 00:22:46,766 what it's greatest at-- [13]

407

00:22:46,766 --> 00:22:50,066 namely its firepower, destructive power.

408

00:22:50,066 --> 00:22:53,366 Dropping a lot of bombs and shooting a lot of artillery

409

00:22:53,366 --> 00:22:55,233 at a distance.

410

00:22:55,233 --> 00:22:56,600 You save lives.

411

00:22:56,600 --> 00:22:59,166 You kill a lot of them, you don't lose a lot of us.

412

00:23:00,800 --> 00:23:03,733 NARRATOR: The central coastal province of Binh Dinh

413

00:23:03,733 --> 00:23:06,733 was home to more than half a million people.

414

00:23:06,733 --> 00:23:10,433 For decades, it had been a guerrilla stronghold,

415

00:23:10,433 --> 00:23:13,400 and in early 1966,

416

00:23:13,400 --> 00:23:18,633 the Viet Cong had been augmented by North Vietnamese regulars,

417

00:23:18,633 --> 00:23:21,200 some 8,000 men in all.

418

00:23:24,833 --> 00:23:27,800 General Westmoreland sent 20,000 American,

419

00:23:27,800 --> 00:23:30,766 South Vietnamese and South Korean troops

420

00:23:30,766 --> 00:23:34,166 storming across the province in pursuit of the enemy

421

00:23:34,166 --> 00:23:36,833 and their sources of supply.

422

00:23:36,833 --> 00:23:41,433 They first dropped leaflets and broadcast from loudspeakers

423

00:23:41,433 --> 00:23:43,566 to warn villagers of the terrible fate

424

00:23:43,566 --> 00:23:47,366 that awaited anyone who fired on their helicopters,

425

00:23:47,366 --> 00:23:49,700 urged them to leave their homes,

426

00:23:49,700 --> 00:23:53,033 promised safe passage to any Viet Cong

427

00:23:53,033 --> 00:23:54,633 who wished to surrender.[14]

428

00:23:54,633 --> 00:23:58,333 Then they called in airstrikes and artillery

429

00:23:58,333 --> 00:24:02,266 and blew the hamlets to bits.[15]

430

00:24:02,266 --> 00:24:06,766 It was the first large-scale search-and-destroy campaign

431

00:24:06,766 --> 00:24:08,700 of the war.

432

00:24:08,700 --> 00:24:10,066 (shouting, gunfire)

433

00:24:12,766 --> 00:24:15,966 The offensive lasted 42 days.

434

00:24:15,966 --> 00:24:22,666 The Army reported 2,389 enemy soldiers killed.[16]

435

00:24:22,666 --> 00:24:25,766 Westmoreland was pleased.

436

00:24:25,766 --> 00:24:28,466 But commanders on the scene were concerned

437

00:24:28,466 --> 00:24:32,266 that despite all the American firepower brought against them,

438

00:24:32,266 --> 00:24:36,200 most of the North Vietnamese regulars had still managed

439

00:24:36,200 --> 00:24:39,933 to escape back into the Central Highlands.

440

00:24:39,933 --> 00:24:44,566 The operation would drive more than 100,000 civilians

441

00:24:44,566 --> 00:24:46,200 from their homes.

442

00:24:47,533 --> 00:24:50,700 Similar search-and-destroy and bombing campaigns--

443

00:24:50,700 --> 00:24:55,900 17 large-scale U.S. offensives in 1966 alone--

444

00:24:55,900 --> 00:24:57,433 would produce a total

445

00:24:57,433 --> 00:25:00,500 of more than three million homeless people

446

00:25:00,500 --> 00:25:02,233 all across the country,

447

00:25:02,233 --> 00:25:07,433 roughly one-fifth of South Vietnam's population.[17]

448

00:25:11,766 --> 00:25:15,200 Since there was no front in Vietnam,

449

00:25:15,200 --> 00:25:18,800 as there had been in the first and second World Wars,

450

00:25:18,800 --> 00:25:23,233 since no ground was ever permanently won or lost,

451

00:25:23,233 --> 00:25:27,033 the American military command in Vietnam-- MACV--

452

00:25:27,033 --> 00:25:31,566 fell back more and more on a single grisly measure

453

00:25:31,566 --> 00:25:33,433 of supposed success:

454

00:25:33,433 --> 00:25:35,766 counting corpses.

455

00:25:35,766 --> 00:25:38,400 Body count.

456

00:25:43,566 --> 00:25:45,000 JAMES WILLBANKS: The problem with the war,

457

00:25:45,000 --> 00:25:47,733 as it often is, are the metrics. [18]

458

00:25:47,733 --> 00:25:52,700 It is a situation where if you can't count what's important,

459

00:25:52,700 --> 00:25:55,100 you make what you can count important.

460

00:25:56,466 --> 00:25:58,366 So, in this particular case what you could count

461

00:25:58,366 --> 00:26:00,866 was dead enemy bodies.

462

00:26:02,833 --> 00:26:05,666 JOE GALLOWAY: You don't get details with a body count.

463

00:26:05,666 --> 00:26:07,600 You get numbers.

464

00:26:07,600 --> 00:26:12,500 And the numbers are lies, most of 'em.

465

00:26:12,500 --> 00:26:17,133 If body count is your success mark,

466

00:26:17,133 --> 00:26:23,300 then you're pushing otherwise honorable men, warriors,

467

00:26:23,300 --> 00:26:24,666 to become liars.

468

00:26:26,533 --> 00:26:28,466 ROBERT GARD: If body count

469

00:26:28,466 --> 00:26:29,800 is the measure of success,

470

00:26:29,800 --> 00:26:33,466 then there's the tendency to count every body

471

00:26:33,466 --> 00:26:35,700 as an enemy soldier.

472

00:26:35,700 --> 00:26:40,266 There's a tendency to want to pile up dead bodies

473

00:26:40,266 --> 00:26:46,400 and perhaps to use less discriminate firepower

474

00:26:46,400 --> 00:26:47,966 than you otherwise might

475

00:26:47,966 --> 00:26:51,533 in order to achieve the result

476

00:26:51,533 --> 00:26:55,100 that you're charged with trying to obtain.

477

00:27:08,800 --> 00:27:11,200 (man shouting)

478

00:27:15,633 --> 00:27:21,300 MERRILL McPEAK: Just think about the problem from the North's point of view.

479

00:27:21,300 --> 00:27:24,733 They had to supply the South.

480

00:27:24,733 --> 00:27:28,066 I'm talking about bringing in people, equipment, supplies,

481

00:27:28,066 --> 00:27:30,066 and so forth.

482

00:27:30,066 --> 00:27:35,133 They started from nothing and pushed a road through that...

483

00:27:35,133 --> 00:27:38,166 through an area the size of Massachusetts.

484

00:27:38,166 --> 00:27:42,133 So this is not a trivial amount of real estate

485

00:27:42,133 --> 00:27:45,400 that they took over, built a road on,

486

00:27:45,400 --> 00:27:46,966 and then maintained it.

487

00:27:49,733 --> 00:27:53,533 NARRATOR: For years, Hanoi had smuggled most of its arms and supplies

488

00:27:53,533 --> 00:27:56,900 to the South aboard an improvised fleet of junks,

489

00:27:56,900 --> 00:27:59,366 trawlers and freighters.

490

00:27:59,366 --> 00:28:02,066 But when the U.S. Navy effectively blockaded

491

00:28:02,066 --> 00:28:03,933 the Southern coastline,

492

00:28:03,933 --> 00:28:06,366 the North Vietnamese would be forced to move

493

00:28:06,366 --> 00:28:09,233 almost all of their supplies overland,

494

00:28:09,233 --> 00:28:11,433 through Laos and Cambodia,

495

00:28:11,433 --> 00:28:13,866 neutral countries Hanoi considered

496

00:28:13,866 --> 00:28:16,333 part of the greater battlefield.

497

00:28:16,333 --> 00:28:20,033 Americans called it the Ho Chi Minh Trail.

498

00:28:20,033 --> 00:28:24,200 The North Vietnamese called it Route 559,

499

00:28:24,200 --> 00:28:28,300 after the men and women of the 559th Army Corps, [19]

500

00:28:28,300 --> 00:28:31,800 who were turning it from a braided web of footpaths

501

00:28:31,800 --> 00:28:36,066 into 12,000 tangled miles of jungle roadways

502

00:28:36,066 --> 00:28:39,733 down which men and materiel streamed south.

503

00:28:40,933 --> 00:28:42,333 When they had fought the French,

504

00:28:42,333 --> 00:28:46,500 the Viet Minh had depended on tens of thousands of porters,

505

00:28:46,500 --> 00:28:49,566 then on legions of bicycles.

506

00:28:49,566 --> 00:28:52,833 Now, to offset the growing American presence,

507

00:28:52,833 --> 00:28:56,600 the North Vietnamese used more mechanized transport--

508

00:28:56,600 --> 00:28:59,833 relays of six-wheeled Russian-built trucks

509

00:28:59,833 --> 00:29:03,633 traveling under cover of darkness.

510

00:29:03,633 --> 00:29:06,700 MACV reasoned that if the Ho Chi Minh Trail

511

00:29:06,700 --> 00:29:09,300 could somehow be sufficiently damaged,

512

00:29:09,300 --> 00:29:13,566 the enemy would be unable to sustain itself.

513

00:29:16,166 --> 00:29:19,833 Three million tons of explosives would eventually be dropped

514

00:29:19,833 --> 00:29:22,533 on the Laos portion of the trail alone--

515

00:29:22,533 --> 00:29:26,833 a million more tons than fell on Germany and Japan

516

00:29:26,833 --> 00:29:29,733 during all of World War II.

517

00:29:29,733 --> 00:29:33,866 Some key choke-points were hit so many times

518

00:29:33,866 --> 00:29:37,366 the workers gave them names-- "the Gate of Death,"

519

00:29:37,366 --> 00:29:42,966 "Fried Flesh Hill" and "the Gorge of Lost Souls."

520

00:29:45,133 --> 00:29:47,766 To expose enemy traffic,

521

00:29:47,766 --> 00:29:50,733 other aircraft dropped chemical defoliants,

522

00:29:50,733 --> 00:29:52,766 including Agent Orange,

523

00:29:52,766 --> 00:29:55,800 that destroyed thousands of acres of jungle

524

00:29:55,800 --> 00:29:59,666 and turned the earth into what one American pilot called

525

00:29:59,666 --> 00:30:02,233 "bony, lunar dust."

526

00:30:04,166 --> 00:30:06,633 McPEAK: We'd punch a hole in the road and say,

527

00:30:06,633 --> 00:30:08,266 "Ha ha, they'll never get around that one."

528

00:30:08,266 --> 00:30:10,966 And the next day you'd come up, and the hole wouldn't be there;

529

00:30:10,966 --> 00:30:13,800 and there'd be dust on the trees back, you know, 50 meters

530

00:30:13,800 --> 00:30:16,633 in both directions, saying, heavy traffic all night.

MINUTES 30-40

531

00:30:18,000 --> 00:30:20,633 DONG SI NGUYEN: An American friend of mine once asked me, "How did you resist this incredible onslaught?" Yes. it was an onslaught, but we controlled the ground. Your air force was just up in the sky.

532

00:30:34,000 --> 00:30:39,000 NARRATOR: As many as 230,000 teenagers, many of them volunteers,

533

00:30:39,000 --> 00:30:43,066 worked to keep the roads open and the traffic moving.

534

00:30:43,066 --> 00:30:45,966 More than half of them were women.

535

00:30:48,566 --> 00:30:51,666 Le Minh Khue, who had left her home in the North

536

00:30:51,666 --> 00:30:54,633 with a novel by Ernest Hemingway in her backpack,

537

00:30:54,633 --> 00:30:58,300 observed her 17th birthday on the trail.

538

00:30:58,300 --> 00:31:00,633 LE MINH KHUE: YOUTH VOLUNTEER We all had to endure. The jungle was humid and wet. Bombs fell day and night. We women had to find a way to survive. We thought it was terrible.

539

00:31:14,533 --> 00:31:19,733 NARRATOR: Thousands died on the trail from starvation and accidents,

540

00:31:19,733 --> 00:31:23,433 fevers and snakebite and sheer exhaustion,

541

00:31:23,433 --> 00:31:26,233 as well as from the relentless bombing.

542

00:31:32,066 --> 00:31:34,300 LE MINH KHUE: We didn't even have time to breathe. One group counted and measured craters.[20] Others filled them in. Sometimes, just after we filled the craters, American bombs fell on them again.

543

00:31:48,266 --> 00:31:50,300 TRAN CONG THANG: NORTH VIETNAMESE ARMY How could you not be afraid? Nothing was left. An acrid stench and clouds of smoke hung in the air. In my unit, some soldiers lost their nerve. Some deserted and returned to the North.[21] We had other units to round them up, educate them, and encourage them to return to the front.[22]

544

00:32:33,400 --> 00:32:35,666 (Doug Wamble's "A Hard Rain's A-Gonna Fall" playing)

545

00:32:38,366 --> 00:32:40,733 HOWARD K. SMITH (on TV): But in this kind of war you never know.

546

00:32:40,733 --> 00:32:42,600 You have to be constantly alert

547

00:32:42,600 --> 00:32:45,133 because you can't tell friends from enemies.

548

00:32:45,133 --> 00:32:48,700 Relax for a moment and your reward may be a grenade

549

00:32:48,700 --> 00:32:50,233 or a hail of bullets.

550

00:32:50,233 --> 00:32:52,533 CAROL CROCKER: SARATOGA SPRINGS, NY I couldn't watch the news.

551

00:32:52,533 --> 00:32:55,733 My parents would be sitting in front of the television

552

00:32:55,733 --> 00:32:58,100 and I would hide in the kitchen.

553

00:33:00,266 --> 00:33:04,000 Of course you don't tell anybody, but it was too much.

554

00:33:04,000 --> 00:33:06,033 I really didn't want to know.

555

00:33:06,033 --> 00:33:08,933 ("Smokestack Lightnin'" by Howlin' Wolf playing)

556

00:33:15,933 --> 00:33:20,033 HOWLIN' WOLF: ♪ Oh-oh, smokestack lightnin'.

557

00:33:20,033 --> 00:33:23,500 NARRATOR: Mogie Crocker had spent most of his boyhood

558

00:33:23,500 --> 00:33:25,366 reading about war.

559

00:33:25,366 --> 00:33:28,800 But nothing had prepared him for what he would experience

560

00:33:28,800 --> 00:33:31,733 in Quang Duc Province on the Cambodian border.

561

00:33:33,833 --> 00:33:35,566 He had deliberately fouled up his work

562

00:33:35,566 --> 00:33:38,066 at battalion headquarters so badly

563

00:33:38,066 --> 00:33:39,733 that he had finally been reassigned

564

00:33:39,733 --> 00:33:43,200 to what he wanted most-- a combat unit.

565

00:33:43,200 --> 00:33:47,300 HOWLIN' WOLF: ♪ Whoa-oh, tell me, baby

566

00:33:47,300 --> 00:33:51,400 ♪ What's the matter with you?

567

00:33:51,400 --> 00:33:54,600 ♪ Why don't you hear me cryin' ?

568

00:33:54,600 --> 00:33:56,400 ♪ Oooh

569

00:33:56,400 --> 00:33:59,566 JEAN-MARIE CROCKER: Not hearing in those days was so difficult.

570

00:33:59,566 --> 00:34:04,133 There'd be at least eight to ten days usually between letters.

571

00:34:04,133 --> 00:34:08,166 So knowing he was in action, you just didn't know what,

572

00:34:08,166 --> 00:34:09,933 you know, might be going on.

573

00:34:11,800 --> 00:34:13,933 NARRATOR: Mogie's battalion commander,

574

00:34:13,933 --> 00:34:16,233 Lieutenant Colonel Henry Emerson,

575

00:34:16,233 --> 00:34:17,833 known as "The Gunfighter,"

576

00:34:17,833 --> 00:34:21,533 was courageous, implacable, relentless.

577

00:34:22,966 --> 00:34:25,033 A few months before Mogie got there,

578

00:34:25,033 --> 00:34:28,533 he had offered a case of whiskey to the first of his men

579

00:34:28,533 --> 00:34:32,733 to bring him the hacked-off head of an enemy soldier.

580

00:34:32,733 --> 00:34:35,566 They did.

581

00:34:38,433 --> 00:34:42,566 For nine days in early May of 1966,[23]

582

00:34:42,566 --> 00:34:47,000 Mogie and his outfit battled nothing but the terrain.

583

00:34:47,000 --> 00:34:50,100 They struggled through a labyrinth of elephant grass

584

00:34:50,100 --> 00:34:51,533 and thorn bushes,

585

00:34:51,533 --> 00:34:54,366 bamboo taller than three men

586

00:34:54,366 --> 00:34:57,200 and triple-canopied jungle so thick

587

00:34:57,200 --> 00:35:01,400 it sometimes took an hour to move 100 feet.

588

00:35:01,400 --> 00:35:02,666 (thunder rumbles)

589

00:35:02,666 --> 00:35:04,200 The monsoon had begun.

590

00:35:04,200 --> 00:35:07,800 Sunlight rarely reached the forest floor.

591

00:35:07,800 --> 00:35:09,933 Finger-long black leeches

592

00:35:09,933 --> 00:35:13,666 caused wounds that quickly became infected.

593

00:35:13,666 --> 00:35:17,066 When Colonel Emerson learned that four companies

594

00:35:17,066 --> 00:35:19,766 of North Vietnamese were preparing an ambush,

595

00:35:19,766 --> 00:35:22,833 he decided to ambush the ambushers.

596

00:35:24,133 --> 00:35:27,800 On May 11, he ordered his men to attack,

597

00:35:27,800 --> 00:35:31,266 backed by massive air and artillery strikes.

598

00:35:33,700 --> 00:35:35,800 Before the fighting ended,

599

00:35:35,800 --> 00:35:41,900 some 2,000 shells had slammed into the enemy positions.

600

00:35:41,900 --> 00:35:45,800 Blood was everywhere, pooled on the ground,

601

00:35:45,800 --> 00:35:49,366 smeared on leaves and grass and bamboo.

602

00:35:49,366 --> 00:35:51,900 There were scores of corpses,

603

00:35:51,900 --> 00:35:56,400 torn to pieces or blown into the earth, hidden in thickets,

604

00:35:56,400 --> 00:35:59,633 half-buried in scooped-out graves.

605

00:35:59,633 --> 00:36:02,133 The earth-shaking concussions

606

00:36:02,133 --> 00:36:06,000 had blown the eyeballs of some of them from their heads.

607

00:36:07,500 --> 00:36:08,933 In the midst of the fighting,

608

00:36:08,933 --> 00:36:11,700 Mogie's squad was moving along a narrow path

609

00:36:11,700 --> 00:36:15,000 when two enemy machine guns opened up on them.

610

00:36:15,000 --> 00:36:17,733 (gunfire)

611

00:36:21,266 --> 00:36:24,633 His closest friend was fatally wounded.

612

00:36:24,633 --> 00:36:29,400 Mogie crouched in front of him, radioed for suppressive fire,

613

00:36:29,400 --> 00:36:33,400 and then, as both machine guns continued shooting,

614

00:36:33,400 --> 00:36:37,766 he carried his dying friend off the battlefield.

615

00:36:38,900 --> 00:36:40,200 For his courage,

616

00:36:40,200 --> 00:36:44,333 he would be awarded the Army Commendation Medal.

617

00:36:46,600 --> 00:36:50,000 In his letters home, Mogie told his family

618

00:36:50,000 --> 00:36:54,000 nothing of what he'd seen or done.

619

00:36:54,000 --> 00:36:57,666 (David Cieri playing "Sound of Silence")

620

00:37:01,166 --> 00:37:04,700 JEAN-MARIE CROCKER: One day when I was at the post office mailing something,

621

00:37:04,700 --> 00:37:08,700 I asked the clerk, "How do they let you know

622

00:37:08,700 --> 00:37:10,666 if your son is wounded?"

623

00:37:10,666 --> 00:37:13,800 It was very hard for me to form those words.

624

00:37:13,800 --> 00:37:16,500 But I just felt I've got to know.

625

00:37:16,500 --> 00:37:20,766 I just felt so suspended in space, in anxiety.

626

00:37:22,733 --> 00:37:26,333 And the man said, "Now, don't ask that.

627

00:37:26,333 --> 00:37:28,866 Don't think about that."

628

00:37:28,866 --> 00:37:31,633 I said, "Well, I have to know."

629

00:37:31,633 --> 00:37:35,200 And he said, "Don't worry, they'll tell you."

630

00:37:38,466 --> 00:37:42,766 (Pete Seeger playing "The Willing Conscript")

631

00:37:42,766 --> 00:37:45,033 SEEGER: ♪ Oh sergeant, I'm a draftee

632

00:37:45,033 --> 00:37:47,733 ♪ And I've just arrived in camp ♪

633

00:37:47,733 --> 00:37:52,400 ♪ I've come to wear the uniform and join the martial tramp ♪

634

00:37:52,400 --> 00:37:57,166 ♪ And I want to do my duty, but one thing I do implore ♪

635

00:37:57,166 --> 00:37:58,933 ♪ You must give me lessons, sergeant ♪

636

00:37:58,933 --> 00:38:02,133 ♪ For I've never killed before. ♪

637

00:38:04,066 --> 00:38:08,866 PHILIP CAPUTO: I didn't like the war protesters whatever.

638

00:38:08,866 --> 00:38:12,700 I kind of felt that they were privileged, spoiled kids

639

00:38:12,700 --> 00:38:18,966 who may have been protesting because they didn't want to go.

640

00:38:18,966 --> 00:38:21,500 So they leave it to some guy

641

00:38:21,500 --> 00:38:23,900 that maybe got through two years of high school[24]

642

00:38:23,900 --> 00:38:25,200 to go do it for 'em.

643

00:38:26,466 --> 00:38:29,033 BILL ZIMMERMAN: The war by 1966

644

00:38:29,033 --> 00:38:31,600 began to impact the middle class

645

00:38:31,600 --> 00:38:34,866 because the draft calls had to be enlarged.

646

00:38:34,866 --> 00:38:37,966 They couldn't get enough people to volunteer

647

00:38:37,966 --> 00:38:40,300 or draft people out of the working class.

648

00:38:40,300 --> 00:38:42,200 They started drafting people out of college.

649

00:38:42,200 --> 00:38:46,466 And that's when the antiwar movement shifted

650

00:38:46,466 --> 00:38:50,166 from a moral movement to a self-interest movement

651

00:38:50,166 --> 00:38:53,366 driven by people who didn't want to go to war

652

00:38:53,366 --> 00:38:57,733 and their loved ones who didn't want them to go to war.

653

00:38:57,733 --> 00:39:00,266 SEEGER: ♪ And I know that it won't matter ♪

654

00:39:00,266 --> 00:39:03,833 ♪ That I've never killed before. ♪

655

00:39:03,833 --> 00:39:05,233 (school bell rings)

656

00:39:05,233 --> 00:39:07,600 NARRATOR: Bill Zimmerman was a graduate student

657

00:39:07,600 --> 00:39:12,066 at the University of Chicago in May of 1966.

658

00:39:12,066 --> 00:39:14,800 The son of Eastern European refugees,

659

00:39:14,800 --> 00:39:17,466 he'd worked for civil rights in Mississippi

660

00:39:17,466 --> 00:39:20,866 and had been opposed to American involvement in Vietnam

661

00:39:20,866 --> 00:39:23,700 since 1963.

662

00:39:23,700 --> 00:39:26,333 The draft was a consuming issue

663

00:39:26,333 --> 00:39:28,966 for young men of Zimmerman's generation.

664

00:39:28,966 --> 00:39:33,400 Since 1942, every male citizen of the United States

665

00:39:33,400 --> 00:39:37,200 had been required to register at age 18.

666

00:39:37,200 --> 00:39:40,766 But of the nearly 27 million American men

667

00:39:40,766 --> 00:39:43,533 who came of age during the Vietnam War,

668

00:39:43,533 --> 00:39:46,633 more than half avoided military service

669

00:39:46,633 --> 00:39:49,200 through exemptions and deferments.

670

00:39:49,200 --> 00:39:52,966 Nearly 500,000 Americans applied

671

00:39:52,966 --> 00:39:55,300 for conscientious objector status

672

00:39:55,300 --> 00:39:57,566 on religious or moral grounds,

673

00:39:57,566 --> 00:40:00,666 six times as many as in World War II.

674

00:40:00,666 --> 00:40:06,966 In all, 170,000 were allowed to perform alternative service

675

00:40:06,966 --> 00:40:11,433 in hospitals, homeless shelters, and schools.

676

00:40:11,433 --> 00:40:15,600 Some were trained as medics and sent to Vietnam.

677

00:40:15,600 --> 00:40:18,200 At least two were killed;

678

00:40:18,200 --> 00:40:22,066 both received the Congressional Medal of Honor.

679

00:40:22,066 --> 00:40:26,600 A million young men served in the Reserves or National Guard

680

00:40:26,600 --> 00:40:30,300 with the expectation they would never be sent into combat.

681

00:40:30,300 --> 00:40:34,933 Reservists and Guardsmen were almost always white,

682

00:40:34,933 --> 00:40:37,733 generally better educated, better connected,

683

00:40:37,733 --> 00:40:40,500 and better paid than draftees.

684

00:40:40,500 --> 00:40:44,133 Interrupting their lives, President Johnson felt,

685

00:40:44,133 --> 00:40:47,066 would have increased opposition to the war.

686

00:40:47,066 --> 00:40:52,700 "If you've got the dough," GIs said, "you don't have to go."

MINUTES 40-50

687

00:40:52,700 --> 00:40:54,266 ("Backlash Blues" by Nina Simone playing)

688

00:40:54,266 --> 00:40:56,500 The result was an Army heavily skewed

689

00:40:56,500 --> 00:40:59,366 toward minorities and the underprivileged.

690

00:40:59,366 --> 00:41:02,566 SIMONE: ♪ Mr. Backlash, Mr. Backlash

691

00:41:02,566 --> 00:41:05,266 ♪ Just who do you think I am?

692

00:41:05,266 --> 00:41:08,300 ♪ You raise my taxes, freeze my wages ♪

693

00:41:08,300 --> 00:41:11,466 ♪ And send my son to Vietnam.

694

00:41:11,466 --> 00:41:14,366 NARRATOR: For a time, African Americans,

695

00:41:14,366 --> 00:41:18,066 though they represented only 12% of the population,

696

00:41:18,066 --> 00:41:21,900 suffered a disproportionate number of casualties.[25]

697

00:41:21,900 --> 00:41:25,966 Resentment began to grow.

698

00:41:25,966 --> 00:41:28,033 STOKELY CARMICHAEL: STUDENT NON-VIOLENT COORDINATING COMMITTEE We've got to build so much strength

699

00:41:28,033 --> 00:41:29,633 in building our community,

700

00:41:29,633 --> 00:41:31,766 that if they come to get one person,

701

00:41:31,766 --> 00:41:33,266 they going to have to mess with us all.

702

00:41:33,266 --> 00:41:34,500 That's what we got to do!

703

00:41:34,500 --> 00:41:35,966 That's what we go to do.

704

00:41:35,966 --> 00:41:37,466 (applause)

705

00:41:37,466 --> 00:41:42,033 We've got to build so much strength inside our community,

706

00:41:42,033 --> 00:41:45,466 so that when LBJ says, "Come here, boy, to my war,"

707

00:41:45,466 --> 00:41:47,600 we say, "Hell no, we ain't going."

708

00:41:47,600 --> 00:41:48,900 (applause)

709

00:41:48,900 --> 00:41:51,266 SIMONE: ♪ But the world is big.

710

00:41:51,266 --> 00:41:52,566 MUHAMMAD ALI: I'm not going to help nobody

711

00:41:52,566 --> 00:41:54,833 get something my Negroes don't have.

712

00:41:54,833 --> 00:41:56,200 If I'm going to die, I'll die now,

713

00:41:56,200 --> 00:41:59,033 right here fighting you, if I'm going to die.

714

00:41:59,033 --> 00:42:03,033 You my enemy, my enemy is the white people, not Viet Congs,

715

00:42:03,033 --> 00:42:04,600 or Chinese, or Japanese.

716

00:42:04,600 --> 00:42:07,100 You my opposer when I want freedom.

717

00:42:07,100 --> 00:42:09,066 You my opposer when I want justice.

718

00:42:09,066 --> 00:42:10,600 You my opposer when I want equality.

719

00:42:10,600 --> 00:42:12,466 And you want me to go somewhere and fight,

720

00:42:12,466 --> 00:42:14,900 but you won't even stand up for me here at home.

721

00:42:14,900 --> 00:42:20,133 NARRATOR: At first, 10,000 draftees were called up each month,

722

00:42:20,133 --> 00:42:25,600 but in 1966, the growing demand for fresh troops in Vietnam

723

00:42:25,600 --> 00:42:29,300 raised that number to 30,000.

724

00:42:29,300 --> 00:42:32,600 Now, thousands of college students

725

00:42:32,600 --> 00:42:36,033 could no longer expect a deferment.

726

00:42:36,033 --> 00:42:39,433 ZIMMERMAN: And if your rank fell below a certain threshold,

727

00:42:39,433 --> 00:42:42,600 you were yanked out of college.

728

00:42:42,600 --> 00:42:45,333 And the worst that could happen to you is you would be killed

729

00:42:45,333 --> 00:42:47,133 in Vietnam.

730

00:42:47,133 --> 00:42:50,666 So we protested at the University of Chicago

731

00:42:50,666 --> 00:42:55,333 that the university was complicit with this war

732

00:42:55,333 --> 00:42:59,700 by agreeing to supply those rankings to the draft board.[26]

733

00:42:59,700 --> 00:43:02,466 We thought for the first time, you know,

734

00:43:02,466 --> 00:43:04,233 we're really having an impact.

735

00:43:08,066 --> 00:43:13,766 NARRATOR: But a majority of Americans, old and young, supported the war.

736

00:43:13,766 --> 00:43:16,066 The Young Americans for Freedom,

737

00:43:16,066 --> 00:43:19,600 created by the conservative writer William F. Buckley,

738

00:43:19,600 --> 00:43:24,366 held counter-demonstrations on campuses across the country.

739

00:43:24,366 --> 00:43:27,800 CROWD: ♪ His truth is marching on.

740

00:43:33,300 --> 00:43:35,400 LE QUAN CONG: VIET CONG My brother, the seventh child in our family, joined the local resistance. The Americans came through on a sweep and killed him. Another brother was ambushed while he slept,[27] shot through the heart. My brother-in-law was betrayed by informants. They broke his neck and killed him. They shot at our house and killed my sister. My mother cried all the time. Still, she encouraged my youngest brother to join the revolution.[28]

741

00:44:22,866 --> 00:44:26,833 DUONG VAN MAI ELLIOTT: I was brought up to believe that the communists were people

742

00:44:26,833 --> 00:44:31,933 who destroy the family, destroy religion,

743

00:44:31,933 --> 00:44:35,533 and people who had no allegiance to our country

744

00:44:35,533 --> 00:44:38,700 but to international communism.

745

00:44:38,700 --> 00:44:42,766 My mother would describe them as (speaking Vietnamese), đầu trâu mặt ngựa

746

00:44:42,766 --> 00:44:45,100 which means that these are people

747

00:44:45,100 --> 00:44:47,866 with the head of a water buffalo and the face of a horse,

748

00:44:47,866 --> 00:44:51,766 meaning that they were subhumans, and they were brutal.

749

00:44:53,133 --> 00:44:56,433 But on the other hand I thought they also include people

750

00:44:56,433 --> 00:45:00,200 like my sister Thang and a lot of my cousins.

751

00:45:00,200 --> 00:45:04,633 I couldn't quite reconcile the two images.

752

00:45:04,633 --> 00:45:09,033 But of the two, I think the other image was much stronger

753

00:45:09,033 --> 00:45:11,033 because I was so scared of them.

754

00:45:11,033 --> 00:45:14,633 I thought these people must be really, really horrible people.

755

00:45:14,633 --> 00:45:17,200 That was the frame of mind I had

756

00:45:17,200 --> 00:45:21,533 when I started doing research into the communist movement.

757

00:45:21,533 --> 00:45:25,200 NARRATOR: Duong Van Mai was the daughter of an official

758

00:45:25,200 --> 00:45:28,466 in the South Vietnamese government and was now married

759

00:45:28,466 --> 00:45:31,133 to an American, David Elliott.

760

00:45:31,133 --> 00:45:34,366 Back in 1964, she had gone to work

761

00:45:34,366 --> 00:45:37,066 for the RAND Corporation in Saigon.

762

00:45:37,066 --> 00:45:39,433 The think tank had been commissioned

763

00:45:39,433 --> 00:45:43,266 by Robert McNamara to do a study of enemy prisoners

764

00:45:43,266 --> 00:45:46,333 to find out "Who are the Viet Cong?

765

00:45:46,333 --> 00:45:48,600 And what makes them tick?"

766

00:45:50,366 --> 00:45:52,766 DUONG VAN MAI ELLIOTT: I remember my first interview.

767

00:45:52,766 --> 00:45:54,466 I was by myself.

768

00:45:54,466 --> 00:45:59,433 I was very young and I was going to this pretty grim prison

769

00:45:59,433 --> 00:46:04,233 to interview this high-ranking cadre who had been captured.

770

00:46:04,233 --> 00:46:08,366 I went in thinking I'm going to meet this beast, you know,

771

00:46:08,366 --> 00:46:10,833 this guy with the head of a water buffalo

772

00:46:10,833 --> 00:46:12,466 and the face of a horse.

773

00:46:12,466 --> 00:46:15,200 He walked in and he was very surprised to see me.

774

00:46:15,200 --> 00:46:16,466 (chuckles)

775

00:46:16,466 --> 00:46:19,200 Just as surprised as I was to see him.

776

00:46:19,200 --> 00:46:23,600 Here was a man who had devoted all his life to fight

777

00:46:23,600 --> 00:46:26,666 for what he called a just cause

778

00:46:26,666 --> 00:46:29,400 to free his country of foreign domination,

779

00:46:29,400 --> 00:46:34,066 to reunify the country under just government.

780

00:46:34,066 --> 00:46:36,166 So he really totally believed in it

781

00:46:36,166 --> 00:46:39,500 to the point that he sacrificed his whole life to this cause.

782

00:46:39,500 --> 00:46:42,133 So I left, I was very... I was very impressed with him.

783

00:46:43,833 --> 00:46:45,700 NARRATOR: When the RAND report was presented

784

00:46:45,700 --> 00:46:48,766 to McNamara's top deputies at the Pentagon,

785

00:46:48,766 --> 00:46:51,866 describing the Viet Cong as a dedicated enemy

786

00:46:51,866 --> 00:46:55,366 that "could only be defeated at enormous cost,"

787

00:46:55,366 --> 00:46:59,800 one senior official said, "If what you say is true,

788

00:46:59,800 --> 00:47:02,466 "we're fighting on the wrong side,

789

00:47:02,466 --> 00:47:05,400 the side that's going to lose this war."

790

00:47:08,866 --> 00:47:12,533 (Donovan's "Sunshine Superman" playing)

791

00:47:19,666 --> 00:47:26,933 DONOVAN: ♪ Sunshine came softly through my a-window today ♪

792

00:47:26,933 --> 00:47:34,100 ♪ Could've tripped out easy a-but I've a-changed my ways. ♪

793

00:47:34,100 --> 00:47:39,533 STUART HERRINGTON: ARMY ADVISOR The overall myth of an American army running roughshod

794

00:47:39,533 --> 00:47:44,800 by policy, by strategy, by tactics to terrorize and murder

795

00:47:44,800 --> 00:47:49,566 and victimize the innocent population of South Vietnam,

796

00:47:49,566 --> 00:47:51,266 that image is the...

797

00:47:51,266 --> 00:47:54,600 it-it doesn't do justice to the young men and women

798

00:47:54,600 --> 00:47:55,900 who served over there.

799

00:47:55,900 --> 00:47:58,833 It's certainly not an accurate depiction

800

00:47:58,833 --> 00:48:01,366 of what our army was about.

801

00:48:03,200 --> 00:48:06,500 NARRATOR: From the first, the Johnson administration understood

802

00:48:06,500 --> 00:48:08,433 that the war could not be won

803

00:48:08,433 --> 00:48:12,366 without convincing poor farmers living in the countryside

804

00:48:12,366 --> 00:48:16,233 that the government in Saigon, not the Viet Cong,

805

00:48:16,233 --> 00:48:20,866 had their best interests at heart.

806

00:48:20,866 --> 00:48:23,133 In addition to the military,

807

00:48:23,133 --> 00:48:26,366 many American aid organizations were at work

808

00:48:26,366 --> 00:48:28,166 in Vietnamese villages.

809

00:48:28,166 --> 00:48:31,066 They dug wells and built windmills,

810

00:48:31,066 --> 00:48:35,133 started schools, introduced improved rice,

811

00:48:35,133 --> 00:48:36,933 provided medical care,

812

00:48:36,933 --> 00:48:40,600 and electrified much of the countryside.

813

00:48:43,200 --> 00:48:46,133 Under pressure from Robert McNamara,

814

00:48:46,133 --> 00:48:49,966 MACV struggled to find ways to measure the progress

815

00:48:49,966 --> 00:48:54,366 of pacification in South Vietnam's 44 provinces,

816

00:48:54,366 --> 00:48:59,333 220 districts and 13,000 hamlets,

817

00:48:59,333 --> 00:49:04,700 and finally came up with the Hamlet Evaluation System.

818

00:49:04,700 --> 00:49:08,933 Soon some 220 U.S. district advisers

819

00:49:08,933 --> 00:49:12,800 were required to produce some 90,000 pages

820

00:49:12,800 --> 00:49:17,666 of data every month-- a mountain of information so daunting

821

00:49:17,666 --> 00:49:21,300 no one could make sense of it.

822

00:49:24,033 --> 00:49:27,033 PHILIP BRADY: U.S.A.I.D. Everything can be quantified.

823

00:49:27,033 --> 00:49:31,000 So you can literally say, "How pacified is this village?"

824

00:49:31,000 --> 00:49:34,166 "It's 37.5% pacified."

825

00:49:34,166 --> 00:49:36,466 Well, what does that mean?

826

00:49:36,466 --> 00:49:37,900 An American would tell you,

827

00:49:37,900 --> 00:49:41,266 "You know, we haven't had an incident in this village

828

00:49:41,266 --> 00:49:43,900 or this province," whatever.

829

00:49:43,900 --> 00:49:49,833 "The incident rate's going down, and therefore we're winning."

830

00:49:49,833 --> 00:49:52,533 But we would point out that certain troubled areas

831

00:49:52,533 --> 00:49:55,233 in the provinces that we were working in,

832

00:49:55,233 --> 00:49:58,533 we would say simply that it's not pacified

833

00:49:58,533 --> 00:50:02,300 unless you want to consider it pacified by the other side.

834

00:50:04,033 --> 00:50:06,500 HERRINGTON: To the extent that pacification was succeeding,

835

00:50:06,500 --> 00:50:09,666 schools were being built, wells were being cleaned.

836

00:50:09,666 --> 00:50:11,066 And then one fine night

837

00:50:11,066 --> 00:50:13,933 here comes 400 North Vietnamese soldiers into the village,

838

00:50:13,933 --> 00:50:16,866 executes the village chief, kidnaps 12 of the young people

839

00:50:16,866 --> 00:50:20,433 for, you know, service in the revolutionary armed forces,

840

00:50:20,433 --> 00:50:22,633 and the people look at the government and say,

841

00:50:22,633 --> 00:50:27,933 "You promised us you'd protect us, but you didn't stay."

MINUTES 50-60

842

00:50:33,333 --> 00:50:35,200 MIKE HEANEY: ARMY I was over there early.

843

00:50:35,200 --> 00:50:39,666 I was with a really good unit, who believed in Army traditions,

844

00:50:39,666 --> 00:50:41,300 they believed in honor,

845

00:50:41,300 --> 00:50:45,400 they believed even in treating your enemy humanely

846

00:50:45,400 --> 00:50:47,566 once he was a POW.

847

00:50:47,566 --> 00:50:52,100 NARRATOR: Lieutenant Mike Heaney from Basking Ridge, New Jersey,

848

00:50:52,100 --> 00:50:55,200 was a platoon leader in the 1st Cavalry Division.

849

00:50:55,200 --> 00:50:58,566 He'd arrived late in 1965

850

00:50:58,566 --> 00:51:01,733 and was assigned to a densely populated section

851

00:51:01,733 --> 00:51:03,066 of central Vietnam,

852

00:51:03,066 --> 00:51:05,266 where he found himself surrounded

853

00:51:05,266 --> 00:51:07,633 by North Vietnamese infiltrators

854

00:51:07,633 --> 00:51:11,133 and villagers whose loyalties were unclear.

855

00:51:12,266 --> 00:51:14,600 HEANEY: We never really figured out

856

00:51:14,600 --> 00:51:17,166 how to determine who the enemy was.

857

00:51:17,166 --> 00:51:22,133 Being normal, decent American boys,

858

00:51:22,133 --> 00:51:25,100 you don't just put your rifle up and take a shot at a guy

859

00:51:25,100 --> 00:51:26,366 and try to kill him

860

00:51:26,366 --> 00:51:30,233 unless you're pretty sure this is an enemy.

861

00:51:30,233 --> 00:51:32,900 And if he wasn't armed,

862

00:51:32,900 --> 00:51:36,866 or wasn't menacing you in any way, we wouldn't shoot him.

863

00:51:38,566 --> 00:51:40,366 We'd go through a village

864

00:51:40,366 --> 00:51:42,900 in which there would be no people we could identify

865

00:51:42,900 --> 00:51:46,533 as enemy soldiers, and we'd find a big cache of rice.

866

00:51:46,533 --> 00:51:49,900 So the standing instructions were blow that up, burn it,

867

00:51:49,900 --> 00:51:51,766 destroy it, poison it, whatever.

868

00:51:51,766 --> 00:51:55,433 We really didn't want to do that because it...

869

00:51:55,433 --> 00:51:57,766 You didn't have to be a rocket scientist to look around

870

00:51:57,766 --> 00:51:59,400 and see these people are depending on this.

871

00:51:59,400 --> 00:52:00,466 This is their food.

872

00:52:02,033 --> 00:52:05,033 We were told sometimes to burn thatched dwellings.

873

00:52:05,033 --> 00:52:06,466 And guys would unenthusiastically

874

00:52:06,466 --> 00:52:08,700 try to light a roof.

875

00:52:08,700 --> 00:52:10,533 And as soon as the flame burned out,

876

00:52:10,533 --> 00:52:13,033 they weren't going to try again.

877

00:52:13,033 --> 00:52:16,433 Our hearts really weren't in trying to destroy

878

00:52:16,433 --> 00:52:18,733 civilian food, civilian homes.

879

00:52:18,733 --> 00:52:22,000 It gave us an uneasy feeling about,

880

00:52:22,000 --> 00:52:23,700 "What is this war is about?"

881

00:52:26,600 --> 00:52:28,266 (gunfire)

882

00:52:28,266 --> 00:52:30,366 NARRATOR: Most of the fighting in Vietnam

883

00:52:30,366 --> 00:52:33,033 was the kind Mike Heaney was about to see--

884

00:52:33,033 --> 00:52:38,766 small-scale, close-up, and initiated by the elusive enemy.

885

00:52:40,266 --> 00:52:42,900 The military called it "contact."

886

00:52:44,466 --> 00:52:50,066 "War is hell," grunts liked to say, "but contact is a mother."

887

00:52:54,633 --> 00:52:59,500 HEANEY: The job of an infantry platoon usually is to try to scare up

888

00:52:59,500 --> 00:53:02,733 enemy infantry and take it down.

889

00:53:02,733 --> 00:53:07,300 Really, the tactic was we were acting as bait.

890

00:53:07,300 --> 00:53:09,433 And at some level we knew that.

891

00:53:09,433 --> 00:53:12,166 You know, go walk in the woods and draw fire.

892

00:53:13,966 --> 00:53:15,733 NARRATOR: Six months into his tour,

893

00:53:15,733 --> 00:53:18,533 Heaney undertook what he and his men thought

894

00:53:18,533 --> 00:53:20,300 would be an easy assignment:

895

00:53:20,300 --> 00:53:24,600 climb a slope not far from their base at An Khe

896

00:53:24,600 --> 00:53:28,433 and drive a small enemy mortar unit off a ridge line.

897

00:53:28,433 --> 00:53:33,233 HEANEY: As soon as we started out, we started to get some bad vibes.

898

00:53:33,233 --> 00:53:38,633 We found some boot prints in the mud

899

00:53:38,633 --> 00:53:41,266 at the edge of this landing zone,

900

00:53:41,266 --> 00:53:44,366 and a nice trail, a well-used trail going up the ridge.

901

00:53:44,366 --> 00:53:48,600 I remember talking to one of my squad leaders about this.

902

00:53:48,600 --> 00:53:52,666 And we were both sitting there, "Well, ..., this sucks."

903

00:53:53,900 --> 00:53:56,900 And all of a sudden the very point man,

904

00:53:56,900 --> 00:53:59,333 the first guy in the column, Sergeant Mays,

905

00:53:59,333 --> 00:54:03,000 without saying anything just put his M16 up to his shoulder

906

00:54:03,000 --> 00:54:04,533 and fired off a round.

907

00:54:04,533 --> 00:54:07,800 And he turned around and he said, "VC on the trail.

908

00:54:07,800 --> 00:54:09,500 VC on the trail."

909

00:54:11,566 --> 00:54:15,566 Before I had a chance to digest this, he went down,

910

00:54:15,566 --> 00:54:16,566 shot right through the chest.

911

00:54:16,566 --> 00:54:17,566 (bullet hitting) Boom!

912

00:54:18,933 --> 00:54:20,833 And all of a sudden

913

00:54:20,833 --> 00:54:24,666 what was a very well-laid ambush erupted.

914

00:54:26,066 --> 00:54:30,300 And it was so loud and so unexpected

915

00:54:30,300 --> 00:54:34,766 I was stunned for... for a little bit, you know.

916

00:54:34,766 --> 00:54:36,533 "What the ... is going on?"

917

00:54:36,533 --> 00:54:40,466 NARRATOR: Heaney's radio operator, Private Terry Carpenter,

918

00:54:40,466 --> 00:54:42,933 got the company commander on the line.

919

00:54:42,933 --> 00:54:46,200 "We've run into something bad," Heaney said.

920

00:54:46,200 --> 00:54:51,200 At that moment, a bullet hit Carpenter in the head.

921

00:54:51,200 --> 00:54:52,800 HEANEY: I knew Terry was down.

922

00:54:52,800 --> 00:54:54,733 I knew Sergeant Mays was down.

923

00:54:54,733 --> 00:54:57,233 I had asked the first machine gun crew to come up

924

00:54:57,233 --> 00:54:59,033 and start laying down machine gun fire.

925

00:54:59,033 --> 00:55:01,633 They got blown away pretty quickly.

926

00:55:01,633 --> 00:55:05,100 They never really had a chance to lay down much fire.

927

00:55:05,100 --> 00:55:06,966 At that point there wasn't anybody left

928

00:55:06,966 --> 00:55:08,933 in my forward unit.

929

00:55:08,933 --> 00:55:11,933 Every one of them had been taken down except me.

930

00:55:11,933 --> 00:55:13,800 Every one.

931

00:55:13,800 --> 00:55:16,200 (voice breaking): Every one had been killed

932

00:55:16,200 --> 00:55:18,266 or mortally wounded at that point.

933

00:55:22,633 --> 00:55:24,100 NARRATOR: Night fell.

934

00:55:24,100 --> 00:55:26,233 What was left of Heaney's company braced

935

00:55:26,233 --> 00:55:29,900 for the assault they assumed would come at dawn.

936

00:55:31,100 --> 00:55:33,200 I was lying there on the perimeter.

937

00:55:33,200 --> 00:55:35,466 I was right next to a dead enemy soldier.

938

00:55:35,466 --> 00:55:38,300 It was kind of my face and his feet

939

00:55:38,300 --> 00:55:40,000 and I kept looking back at him,

940

00:55:40,000 --> 00:55:42,600 because I couldn't see any wounds on him.

941

00:55:42,600 --> 00:55:45,133 And, you know, the strange things you think,

942

00:55:45,133 --> 00:55:46,900 "This guy's going to kill me.

943

00:55:46,900 --> 00:55:48,300 "He's faking it.

944

00:55:48,300 --> 00:55:49,600 "He's waiting until the assault,

945

00:55:49,600 --> 00:55:51,700 then he's going to jump up and kill me."

946

00:55:51,700 --> 00:55:53,300 And I almost shot him again.

947

00:55:53,300 --> 00:55:54,866 Just to make sure he was dead.

948

00:55:56,433 --> 00:55:58,800 NARRATOR: Then the enemy began to lob mortar shells

949

00:55:58,800 --> 00:56:01,233 among Heaney's men.

950

00:56:01,233 --> 00:56:03,433 HEANEY: I felt like somebody had taken a bat

951

00:56:03,433 --> 00:56:07,666 and hit me on my calf, my right calf, as hard as he could.

952

00:56:07,666 --> 00:56:12,766 I was so stunned by the shock of being hit,

953

00:56:12,766 --> 00:56:18,033 and I just drew in a deep breath of air in terrible pain.

954

00:56:18,033 --> 00:56:20,433 I couldn't speak.

955

00:56:20,433 --> 00:56:23,366 Right after the ambush happened,

956

00:56:23,366 --> 00:56:25,366 and I knew I'd lost a bunch of guys,

957

00:56:25,366 --> 00:56:29,700 I said a prayer to God saying, basically,

958

00:56:29,700 --> 00:56:32,333 "If you need any more guys from my platoon, take me.

959

00:56:32,333 --> 00:56:34,366 Don't take any more of my men."

960

00:56:34,366 --> 00:56:37,800 As soon as I said it, I freaked myself out and said,

961

00:56:37,800 --> 00:56:41,533 "Holy ..., can I take that prayer back?"

962

00:56:41,533 --> 00:56:42,666 But it was too late.

963

00:56:42,666 --> 00:56:44,233 I'd-I'd said it.

964

00:56:44,233 --> 00:56:45,666 And as it turns out,

965

00:56:45,666 --> 00:56:49,233 not one more man in my platoon died after that prayer.

966

00:56:50,866 --> 00:56:53,766 NARRATOR: American artillery finally zeroed in on the enemy.

967

00:56:55,166 --> 00:56:58,100 The survivors of Heaney's company stumbled down the hill

968

00:56:58,100 --> 00:56:59,900 to safety.

969

00:56:59,900 --> 00:57:02,833 He was carried to a hospital.

970

00:57:10,733 --> 00:57:13,700 HEANEY: I was lying on my bed sobbing.

971

00:57:13,700 --> 00:57:16,133 And this nurse came over.

972

00:57:16,133 --> 00:57:17,833 She bent over and said, "Lieutenant...

973

00:57:17,833 --> 00:57:20,366 "You... the-the your men are all over the place.

974

00:57:20,366 --> 00:57:22,533 You've gotta stop crying."

975

00:57:22,533 --> 00:57:25,466 And at that point my platoon sergeant,

976

00:57:25,466 --> 00:57:28,933 huge black guy from Detroit whom I loved dearly,

977

00:57:28,933 --> 00:57:32,533 Sergeant Sam Hunt, he came over and he sat down next to me

978

00:57:32,533 --> 00:57:34,133 (voice breaking): and he took my hand

979

00:57:34,133 --> 00:57:35,600 and he said to this nurse,

980

00:57:35,600 --> 00:57:37,333 "Ma'am, this here lieutenant

981

00:57:37,333 --> 00:57:39,300 don't have to stop doing anything."

982

00:57:43,633 --> 00:57:48,233 LE CONG HUAN: VIET CONG I witnessed Americans dying. Even though I don't know their language, I saw them crying and holding each other. When one was killed, the others stuck together. They carried away the body, and they wept. I witnessed such scenes and thought, Americans, like us Vietnamese, also have a profound sense of humanity. They cared about each other. It made me think a lot.

983

00:58:27,800 --> 00:58:31,233 (crowd shouting angrily)

984

00:58:31,233 --> 00:58:33,000 JOHN LAURENCE: The students are angry now.

985

00:58:33,000 --> 00:58:34,633 And the word is passed

986

00:58:34,633 --> 00:58:37,966 to gather at Saigon's main Buddhist pagoda after dark.

987

00:58:40,066 --> 00:58:41,466 JOHN QUINN: After all these years,

988

00:58:41,466 --> 00:58:44,933 the Vietnamese have learned to live with crises and war.

989

00:58:44,933 --> 00:58:48,166 But they haven't learned yet to live as a nation.

990

00:58:49,633 --> 00:58:52,000 LYNDON JOHNSON: PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES:Now, Dean, what are we gonna do?

991

00:58:52,000 --> 00:58:55,900 Are we moving to the point where it would be difficult for us

992

00:58:55,900 --> 00:58:57,800 to ask people to continue to die out there,

993

00:58:57,800 --> 00:59:00,866 this kind of stuff going on every two or three months?

994

00:59:00,866 --> 00:59:02,866 DEAN RUSK: SECRETARY OF STATE I think not yet, sir, by any means.

995

00:59:02,866 --> 00:59:06,200 I think that this is still a minority problem.

996

00:59:06,200 --> 00:59:09,200 But political talk is not gonna be able to get anywhere

997

00:59:09,200 --> 00:59:11,033 if they don't maintain the elements of order.

998

00:59:15,133 --> 00:59:18,066 NARRATOR: On May 15, 1966,

999

00:59:18,066 --> 00:59:21,300 the government of South Vietnam, the country for which

1000

00:59:21,300 --> 00:59:23,900 so many Americans were risking their lives,

1001

00:59:23,900 --> 00:59:26,700 again seemed on the brink of collapse.

1002

00:59:29,166 --> 00:59:32,900 The ascendancy of Prime Minister Ky had dealt a severe blow

1003

00:59:32,900 --> 00:59:35,700 to activist Buddhists, who had been demanding

1004

00:59:35,700 --> 00:59:39,500 representative government and a negotiated end[29] to the war

1005

00:59:39,500 --> 00:59:41,733 since 1963.

1006

00:59:41,733 --> 00:59:45,833 When Ky suddenly fired a rival general, [30]

1007

00:59:45,833 --> 00:59:47,666 a popular Buddhist commander,

1008

00:59:47,666 --> 00:59:53,033 demonstrators poured into the streets of Hue and Danang.

1009

00:59:53,033 --> 00:59:55,400 They shut down the port

1010

00:59:55,400 --> 00:59:57,566 through which U.S. supplies had been flowing.

1011

00:59:59,700 --> 01:00:03,766 Some South Vietnamese soldiers, loyal to the dismissed general,

1012

01:00:03,766 --> 01:00:06,400 abandoned the struggle against the communists

1013

01:00:06,400 --> 01:00:08,966 and headed for the city.

1014

01:00:08,966 --> 01:00:12,433 Angry crowds burned American jeeps.

1015

01:00:12,433 --> 01:00:16,566 Signs reading "Peace!" and "Americans Go Home!"

1016

01:00:16,566 --> 01:00:18,366 appeared everywhere.

MINUTES 60-70

1017

01:00:18,366 --> 01:00:21,633 President Johnson was so concerned,

1018

01:00:21,633 --> 01:00:25,300 he asked his advisors to ready a fallback position

1019

01:00:25,300 --> 01:00:27,466 if the Ky government fell.

1020

01:00:27,466 --> 01:00:31,166 If necessary, he said, the U.S. should be prepared

1021

01:00:31,166 --> 01:00:33,733 to get out of Vietnam and perhaps

1022

01:00:33,733 --> 01:00:38,000 make a stand against communism in Thailand instead.

1023

01:00:40,200 --> 01:00:42,366 Ky ordered South Vietnamese soldiers

1024

01:00:42,366 --> 01:00:45,133 to surround and subdue Danang,

1025

01:00:45,133 --> 01:00:48,866 where they exchanged fire with their former comrades.

1026

01:00:52,533 --> 01:00:57,866 As Ky's forces stormed Buddhist pagodas in Danang,

1027

01:00:57,866 --> 01:01:01,100 his warplanes strafed dissident troops

1028

01:01:01,100 --> 01:01:02,800 occupying the central market.

1029

01:01:05,833 --> 01:01:07,666 The rebellion was crushed.

1030

01:01:07,666 --> 01:01:10,666 Washington was relieved.

1031

01:01:10,666 --> 01:01:14,566 Ky seemed to be back in control.

1032

01:01:14,566 --> 01:01:18,966 But from his command post on a hilltop outside the city,

1033

01:01:18,966 --> 01:01:22,466 an American Marine lieutenant had watched in disbelief

1034

01:01:22,466 --> 01:01:26,266 as two battles unfolded simultaneously:

1035

01:01:26,266 --> 01:01:31,533 in the west, his fellow Marines were fighting the Viet Cong;

1036

01:01:31,533 --> 01:01:35,333 in the east, the South Vietnamese army

1037

01:01:35,333 --> 01:01:38,133 seemed to be at war with itself.

1038

01:01:43,100 --> 01:01:45,933 (Simon and Garfunkel's "The Sound of Silence" playing)

1039

01:01:45,933 --> 01:01:49,066 ♪ Hello darkness, my old friend. ♪

1040

01:01:49,066 --> 01:01:52,100 MOGIE CROCKER (dramatized): May 16, 1966.

1041

01:01:52,100 --> 01:01:54,633 Dear Mom and Dad--

1042

01:01:54,633 --> 01:01:56,666 Our operation here on the Cambodian border

1043

01:01:56,666 --> 01:01:58,966 has been quite a success.

1044

01:01:58,966 --> 01:02:01,266 No doubt you will hear about it on the news.

1045

01:02:02,666 --> 01:02:05,000 We keep getting more and more operations thrown at us

1046

01:02:05,000 --> 01:02:07,133 so that nothing is very sure.

1047

01:02:07,133 --> 01:02:11,933 SIMON AND GARFUNKEL: ♪ ...that was planted in my brain still remains. ♪

1048

01:02:11,933 --> 01:02:14,900 CROCKER: Whether I will go out again soon I don't know,

1049

01:02:14,900 --> 01:02:16,266 but don't plan on steady mail.

1050

01:02:19,566 --> 01:02:21,800 Tell Randy I'm looking forward to seeing his new dog.

1051

01:02:25,166 --> 01:02:28,333 I may take a 15-day leave to Tokyo

1052

01:02:28,333 --> 01:02:30,266 to keep from cracking up.

1053

01:02:30,266 --> 01:02:33,000 SIMON AND GARFUNKEL: ♪ 'Neath the halo of a street lamp. ♪

1054

01:02:33,000 --> 01:02:34,966 JEAN-MARIE CROCKER: It was a lovely spring day,

1055

01:02:34,966 --> 01:02:38,200 and I opened the letter that said that.

1056

01:02:38,200 --> 01:02:41,100 And I was just really devastated

1057

01:02:41,100 --> 01:02:45,366 because by that time Vietnam was in total chaos.

1058

01:02:45,366 --> 01:02:47,900 There was a continuing changeover

1059

01:02:47,900 --> 01:02:52,066 of people in authority at the government in South Vietnam.

1060

01:02:52,066 --> 01:02:55,666 And there were protests of the Buddhist monks and others

1061

01:02:55,666 --> 01:02:56,966 that...

1062

01:02:56,966 --> 01:02:59,000 there were anti-American demonstrations.

1063

01:02:59,000 --> 01:03:01,733 I just thought, "Why? Why are we there?"

1064

01:03:03,500 --> 01:03:05,500 CAROL CROCKER: I think that letter when my brother

1065

01:03:05,500 --> 01:03:08,200 showed a kind of despair

1066

01:03:08,200 --> 01:03:11,566 is probably the first time he'd expressed that openly

1067

01:03:11,566 --> 01:03:14,333 to the whole family.

1068

01:03:18,000 --> 01:03:22,566 It echoed back to the day he'd said to me,

1069

01:03:22,566 --> 01:03:24,066 "I don't want to go back."

1070

01:03:25,600 --> 01:03:27,600 NARRATOR: To an old high school friend,

1071

01:03:27,600 --> 01:03:31,666 Mogie was even more forthcoming.

1072

01:03:31,666 --> 01:03:34,366 MOGIE CROCKER (dramatized): Dear Duff,

1073

01:03:34,366 --> 01:03:36,800 Since I last wrote, which is several months,

1074

01:03:36,800 --> 01:03:39,000 a number of exciting but terribly unpleasant events

1075

01:03:39,000 --> 01:03:42,833 have occurred, the worst of which was being pinned down

1076

01:03:42,833 --> 01:03:44,366 by two Chinese light machine guns

1077

01:03:44,366 --> 01:03:46,966 firing 900 rounds per minute

1078

01:03:46,966 --> 01:03:49,633 and having my best friend killed more or less beside me.

1079

01:03:51,833 --> 01:03:53,500 Someday I may tell you the whole story

1080

01:03:53,500 --> 01:03:56,366 if my nerves aren't completely gone by then.

1081

01:03:56,366 --> 01:03:59,766 Actually the latter is just wishful thinking,

1082

01:03:59,766 --> 01:04:04,233 in false hope they will take me off the line.

1083

01:04:04,233 --> 01:04:08,233 I was fantastically religious for a while,

1084

01:04:08,233 --> 01:04:11,500 sending up various and sundry prayers mainly concerned

1085

01:04:11,500 --> 01:04:14,566 with trying to stay alive,

1086

01:04:14,566 --> 01:04:19,066 but I am once again an atheist until the shooting starts.

1087

01:04:24,800 --> 01:04:26,766 (gunfire)

1088

01:04:32,133 --> 01:04:36,333 (drums playing up-tempo march cadence)

1089

01:04:36,333 --> 01:04:37,966 HARRISON: WEST POINT JUNE 8, 1966 I really believed

1090

01:04:37,966 --> 01:04:42,300 that we had to stop the communist expansion.

1091

01:04:42,300 --> 01:04:47,466 I also believed that we were on the side of the angels.

1092

01:04:47,466 --> 01:04:50,033 Just as France had provided us with support

1093

01:04:50,033 --> 01:04:53,166 during our revolution, we were providing the South Vietnamese

1094

01:04:53,166 --> 01:04:55,333 with support during their revolution.

1095

01:04:55,333 --> 01:04:59,033 NARRATOR: Matthew Harrison was among the 300 graduates

1096

01:04:59,033 --> 01:05:03,766 of the class of 1966 who volunteered to go to Vietnam.

1097

01:05:03,766 --> 01:05:04,766 MAN: Rangers!

1098

01:05:04,766 --> 01:05:05,900 MEN: Rangers!

1099

01:05:05,900 --> 01:05:07,700 MAN: All the way! MEN: All the way!

1100

01:05:07,700 --> 01:05:11,300 NARRATOR: But first, he went to Florida to become a Ranger

1101

01:05:11,300 --> 01:05:14,100 and endured nine weeks of the most demanding training

1102

01:05:14,100 --> 01:05:16,100 the Army had to offer.

1103

01:05:16,100 --> 01:05:18,700 MAN: Airborne daddy gonna take a little trip!

1104

01:05:18,700 --> 01:05:21,366 MEN: Airborne daddy gonna take a little trip!

1105

01:05:21,366 --> 01:05:25,066 NARRATOR: The man in charge was Major Charles A. Beckwith--

1106

01:05:25,066 --> 01:05:26,600 Chargin' Charlie--

1107

01:05:26,600 --> 01:05:29,866 hero of the siege of Plei Me the year before.

1108

01:05:29,866 --> 01:05:34,400 "If a man is bloody stupid," he told each group of newcomers,

1109

01:05:34,400 --> 01:05:37,800 "his mother will receive a telegram and it will say,

1110

01:05:37,800 --> 01:05:40,666 "'Your son is dead because he's stupid.'

1111

01:05:40,666 --> 01:05:46,033 "Let's hope your telegram only reads, 'Your son is dead.'

1112

01:05:46,033 --> 01:05:49,166 "With the training we're going to give you here,

1113

01:05:49,166 --> 01:05:53,166 "maybe your mother won't receive any telegram at all.

1114

01:05:53,166 --> 01:05:54,966 So pay attention."

1115

01:05:56,300 --> 01:05:57,633 To make it through,

1116

01:05:57,633 --> 01:05:59,833 Harrison and his fellow trainees had to survive

1117

01:05:59,833 --> 01:06:04,366 days without sleep; were deprived of food and water,

1118

01:06:04,366 --> 01:06:08,433 forced to march up mountains until their feet bled

1119

01:06:08,433 --> 01:06:12,066 and patrol through swamps that harbored copperheads

1120

01:06:12,066 --> 01:06:13,400 and cottonmouths;

1121

01:06:13,400 --> 01:06:16,566 had to learn how to detect booby traps

1122

01:06:16,566 --> 01:06:21,800 and outmaneuver veterans masquerading as Viet Cong.

1123

01:06:21,800 --> 01:06:26,266 "Expect the unexpected," Beckwith told his trainees

1124

01:06:26,266 --> 01:06:28,000 again and again.

1125

01:06:28,000 --> 01:06:31,266 "Life is unfair."

1126

01:06:32,666 --> 01:06:34,766 Once he'd become a Ranger, Harrison was eager

1127

01:06:34,766 --> 01:06:38,666 to get to Vietnam and put into action

1128

01:06:38,666 --> 01:06:42,133 the survival and leadership skills he'd been absorbing

1129

01:06:42,133 --> 01:06:44,500 for five years.

1130

01:06:44,500 --> 01:06:47,566 HARRISON: I remember discussing with my classmates

1131

01:06:47,566 --> 01:06:50,066 how horrible it would be to serve in the Army

1132

01:06:50,066 --> 01:06:54,466 if everybody just a year ahead of us had served in combat

1133

01:06:54,466 --> 01:06:56,833 and we didn't have the opportunity to do that.

1134

01:06:56,833 --> 01:07:00,100 I was afraid we were going to win the war too quickly

1135

01:07:00,100 --> 01:07:02,833 and I wouldn't have a chance to experience it.

1136

01:07:11,066 --> 01:07:14,433 ("L'Assassinat De Carala" by Miles Davis playing)

1137

01:07:26,466 --> 01:07:32,400 NARRATOR: June 3, 1966, was Mogie Crocker's 19th birthday.

1138

01:07:32,400 --> 01:07:36,066 His company was involved in yet another campaign,

1139

01:07:36,066 --> 01:07:39,833 aimed at finding and killing North Vietnamese troops

1140

01:07:39,833 --> 01:07:44,400 filtering into the Central Highlands from Laos.

1141

01:07:44,400 --> 01:07:48,400 As night fell, Mogie and his squad were ordered

1142

01:07:48,400 --> 01:07:50,666 to move up toward the crest of a hill

1143

01:07:50,666 --> 01:07:54,100 overlooking a besieged ARVN outpost

1144

01:07:54,100 --> 01:07:56,233 so that artillery could be brought up

1145

01:07:56,233 --> 01:07:59,566 and positioned to shell the enemy in the morning.

1146

01:08:02,633 --> 01:08:06,566 They moved slowly, warily up the slope.

1147

01:08:06,566 --> 01:08:08,600 Mogie was the point man.

1148

01:08:11,633 --> 01:08:14,433 Out of the darkness, a machine gun opened up.

1149

01:08:14,433 --> 01:08:17,066 (gunfire)

1150

01:08:17,066 --> 01:08:21,700 Denton Crocker, Jr. never made it to the top of the hill.

1151

01:08:29,899 --> 01:08:31,700 ("One Too Many Mornings" by Bob Dylan playing)

1152

01:08:31,700 --> 01:08:34,000 DYLAN: ♪ Down the street the dogs are barkin' ♪

1153

01:08:34,000 --> 01:08:37,766 ♪ And the day is a-gettin' dark. ♪

1154

01:08:37,766 --> 01:08:41,166 JEAN-MARIE CROCKER: It was just a lovely day to be out in our garden.

1155

01:08:43,100 --> 01:08:47,033 Candy, our little girl, went to a birthday party.

1156

01:08:47,033 --> 01:08:50,366 And the other children were just around the house, I guess.

1157

01:08:50,366 --> 01:08:55,233 But shortly after lunchtime, I stepped out on the porch.

1158

01:08:59,533 --> 01:09:02,833 I saw two men in uniform coming to the house.

1159

01:09:05,566 --> 01:09:09,133 And I knew something terrible had happened.

1160

01:09:10,533 --> 01:09:12,233 And I ran down the steps.

1161

01:09:12,233 --> 01:09:14,899 And I just grabbed hold of one of them and said,

1162

01:09:14,899 --> 01:09:16,866 "Don't tell me. Don't say it.

1163

01:09:16,866 --> 01:09:19,533 Not my beautiful boy."

1164

01:09:19,533 --> 01:09:22,033 And he just said, "Yes."

1165

01:09:22,033 --> 01:09:24,000 DYLAN: ♪ From the crossroads of my doorstep ♪

1166

01:09:24,000 --> 01:09:26,200 ♪ My eyes start to fade.

1167

01:09:26,200 --> 01:09:28,700 CAROL CROCKER: I was sitting on the couch in the living room.

1168

01:09:28,700 --> 01:09:32,700 I suddenly heard my mother screaming for my father.

1169

01:09:32,700 --> 01:09:36,766 Like in a movie, here came the priest up the stairs

1170

01:09:36,766 --> 01:09:39,266 with a soldier, and she's going, "Oh no."

1171

01:09:39,266 --> 01:09:43,000 And she's calling my dad.

1172

01:09:43,000 --> 01:09:45,866 My reaction was to leap up off the couch,

1173

01:09:45,866 --> 01:09:47,433 race out the back door

1174

01:09:47,433 --> 01:09:49,466 and I grabbed my little brother's hand

1175

01:09:49,466 --> 01:09:50,933 and I just started walking.

1176

01:09:50,933 --> 01:09:53,433 I said, "You have to come with me."

1177

01:09:53,433 --> 01:09:55,200 I said, "I have something to show you."

1178

01:09:55,200 --> 01:09:57,300 I have no idea where I was going.

1179

01:09:57,300 --> 01:10:02,133 I just said to myself, "No.

1180

01:10:02,133 --> 01:10:03,600 This isn't going to happen."

1181

01:10:03,600 --> 01:10:07,366 And something made me turn around

1182

01:10:07,366 --> 01:10:11,500 and I walked up to the back of the house from the alley.

1183

01:10:11,500 --> 01:10:14,466 And my dad was standing there.

1184

01:10:14,466 --> 01:10:18,100 And I fell into his arms and I said,

1185

01:10:18,100 --> 01:10:19,900 "Don't let it be true, Dad.

1186

01:10:22,300 --> 01:10:24,466 Is it true?"

1187

01:10:24,466 --> 01:10:26,000 And he said, "Yes."

1188

01:10:29,133 --> 01:10:32,300 I somehow knew that things had changed forever.

1189

01:10:34,033 --> 01:10:37,166 That my mom as my mom and my dad as my dad,

1190

01:10:37,166 --> 01:10:40,300 it was never going to be quite the same again.

1191

01:10:40,300 --> 01:10:42,266 I just, I remember sitting on the couch

1192

01:10:42,266 --> 01:10:44,366 and I put my arms around them and I said,

1193

01:10:44,366 --> 01:10:47,666 "We'll love each other and we'll be all right."

1194

01:10:47,666 --> 01:10:51,066 But I don't know how far it carried.

1195

01:10:51,066 --> 01:10:52,433 You know?

1196

01:10:52,433 --> 01:10:54,966 We all tried.

MINUTES 70-80

1197

01:10:54,966 --> 01:10:57,733 DYLAN: ♪ We're both just one too many mornings ♪

1198

01:10:57,733 --> 01:11:00,833 ♪ And a thousand miles behind.

1199

01:11:00,833 --> 01:11:03,466 JEAN-MARIE CROCKER: Carol said to me one day

1200

01:11:03,466 --> 01:11:05,933 very shortly after Denton was killed,

1201

01:11:05,933 --> 01:11:10,733 probably that very day, "How can you believe in God?"

1202

01:11:10,733 --> 01:11:13,833 And I said, "Because we had Mogie."

1203

01:11:17,166 --> 01:11:21,866 And I think that his life was a real gift.

1204

01:11:21,866 --> 01:11:25,066 It was a privilege to have him.

1205

01:11:25,066 --> 01:11:26,333 A friend wrote to me,

1206

01:11:26,333 --> 01:11:30,100 "Our children are really only on loan to us,"

1207

01:11:30,100 --> 01:11:31,966 which I guess is true.

1208

01:11:34,500 --> 01:11:38,366 NARRATOR: Ten days later, an Army captain escorted Mogie's body

1209

01:11:38,366 --> 01:11:40,733 to Dick Stone's funeral home.

1210

01:11:40,733 --> 01:11:43,733 The family priest had suggested

1211

01:11:43,733 --> 01:11:46,233 that Mogie be buried in Saratoga Springs

1212

01:11:46,233 --> 01:11:50,300 so that his parents could easily visit his grave.

1213

01:11:50,300 --> 01:11:54,933 But they chose Arlington National Cemetery instead.

1214

01:11:56,333 --> 01:11:59,666 "A corner of my heart knew," his mother remembered,

1215

01:11:59,666 --> 01:12:01,466 "that if he were buried near us,

1216

01:12:01,466 --> 01:12:06,133 I would want to claw the ground to retrieve the warmth of him."

1217

01:12:12,300 --> 01:12:13,733 (applause) OMAHA, NEBRASKA

1218

01:12:13,733 --> 01:12:15,366 LYNDON JOHNSON: I hear my friends say,

1219

01:12:15,366 --> 01:12:17,800 "I am troubled," and "I am confused,"

1220

01:12:17,800 --> 01:12:19,300 and "I am frustrated,"

1221

01:12:19,300 --> 01:12:22,000 and all of us can understand those people.

1222

01:12:22,000 --> 01:12:25,066 Sometimes I almost develop a stomach ulcer myself,

1223

01:12:25,066 --> 01:12:27,300 just listening to them.

1224

01:12:27,300 --> 01:12:30,066 And we all wish the war would end.

1225

01:12:30,066 --> 01:12:32,300 We all wish the troops would come home.

1226

01:12:32,300 --> 01:12:35,600 There is no human being in all this world

1227

01:12:35,600 --> 01:12:39,366 who wishes these things to happen,

1228

01:12:39,366 --> 01:12:41,366 for peace to come to the world,

1229

01:12:41,366 --> 01:12:44,066 more than your President of the United States.

1230

01:12:44,066 --> 01:12:47,433 ("The Beginning of the End" by Nine Inch Nails playing)

1231

01:12:54,366 --> 01:12:56,400 NARRATOR: The military claimed to have killed

1232

01:12:56,400 --> 01:13:03,200 some 57,000 enemy soldiers in the first six months of 1966.

1233

01:13:03,200 --> 01:13:06,233 But privately the administration worried

1234

01:13:06,233 --> 01:13:09,233 that General Westmoreland's "crossover point"--

1235

01:13:09,233 --> 01:13:12,566 the moment when more enemy soldiers had been killed

1236

01:13:12,566 --> 01:13:16,600 than could be replaced-- seemed no nearer.

1237

01:13:16,600 --> 01:13:20,400 From the first, the Joint Chiefs had urged the President

1238

01:13:20,400 --> 01:13:21,766 to be more aggressive--

1239

01:13:21,766 --> 01:13:27,566 to permit troops to pursue the enemy into Laos and Cambodia

1240

01:13:27,566 --> 01:13:32,500 and to expand the target list for bombing in North Vietnam.

1241

01:13:32,500 --> 01:13:36,700 Johnson still would not allow borders to be crossed

1242

01:13:36,700 --> 01:13:40,166 by regular ground troops for fear of bringing China

1243

01:13:40,166 --> 01:13:43,700 or even the Soviet Union into the war.

1244

01:13:43,700 --> 01:13:46,466 And he was wary of heavier bombing,

1245

01:13:46,466 --> 01:13:49,500 fearful of hitting more civilians.

1246

01:13:49,500 --> 01:13:52,333 But despite his concern,

1247

01:13:52,333 --> 01:13:56,033 the President now agreed to intensify the bombing campaign

1248

01:13:56,033 --> 01:13:58,700 called Operation Rolling Thunder.

1249

01:13:58,700 --> 01:14:01,966 He approved attacks on oil facilities

1250

01:14:01,966 --> 01:14:04,300 all over North Vietnam,

1251

01:14:04,300 --> 01:14:07,300 including some sites adjacent to the cities

1252

01:14:07,300 --> 01:14:10,966 of Haiphong and Hanoi.

1253

01:14:10,966 --> 01:14:13,000 His commanders assured him

1254

01:14:13,000 --> 01:14:15,766 that this would be a mortal blow to the enemy,

1255

01:14:15,766 --> 01:14:18,600 sure to force the North Vietnamese

1256

01:14:18,600 --> 01:14:20,133 to the bargaining table.

1257

01:14:27,733 --> 01:14:31,433 Tens of thousands of sorties were flown.

1258

01:14:34,533 --> 01:14:37,900 Many bombs hit their intended targets.

1259

01:14:37,900 --> 01:14:40,066 But many missed

1260

01:14:40,066 --> 01:14:43,800 and fell on residential neighborhoods instead,

1261

01:14:43,800 --> 01:14:46,666 just as the President had feared.

1262

01:14:51,200 --> 01:14:54,400 JOHNSON: Things are going reasonably well in the South, aren't they?

1263

01:14:54,400 --> 01:14:56,666 McNAMARA: Yes, I think so.

1264

01:14:56,666 --> 01:14:59,200 Because we think we're taking a heavy toll of them,

1265

01:14:59,200 --> 01:15:02,033 but it just scares me to see what we're doing there

1266

01:15:02,033 --> 01:15:05,233 with God knows how many airplanes and helicopters

1267

01:15:05,233 --> 01:15:10,133 and firepower and going after a bunch of half-starved beggars.

1268

01:15:10,133 --> 01:15:12,400 This is what's going on in the South.[31]

1269

01:15:12,400 --> 01:15:15,000 And the great danger is that,

1270

01:15:15,000 --> 01:15:19,700 that they can keep that up almost indefinitely.

1271

01:15:19,700 --> 01:15:21,666 The only thing that'll prevent it, Mr. President,

1272

01:15:21,666 --> 01:15:23,500 is their morale breaking.

1273

01:15:23,500 --> 01:15:26,000 There's no question but what the troops in the South,

1274

01:15:26,000 --> 01:15:27,700 the VC and North Vietnamese,

1275

01:15:27,700 --> 01:15:30,600 they know that we're bombing in the North.

1276

01:15:30,600 --> 01:15:32,200 And we just have a free rein.

1277

01:15:32,200 --> 01:15:33,800 And when they see they're getting killed

1278

01:15:33,800 --> 01:15:35,533 in such high rates in the South,

1279

01:15:35,533 --> 01:15:38,966 and they see that the supplies are less likely to come down

1280

01:15:38,966 --> 01:15:40,600 from the North, I think it will just hurt their morale

1281

01:15:40,600 --> 01:15:41,800 a little bit more.

1282

01:15:41,800 --> 01:15:43,166 And to me that's the only way to win

1283

01:15:43,166 --> 01:15:45,133 because we're not killing enough of them

1284

01:15:45,133 --> 01:15:48,366 to make it impossible for the North to continue to fight.

1285

01:15:48,366 --> 01:15:51,233 But we are killing enough to destroy the morale

1286

01:15:51,233 --> 01:15:52,733 of those people down there

1287

01:15:52,733 --> 01:15:54,700 if they think this is going to have to go on forever.

1288

01:15:56,566 --> 01:15:57,733 JOHNSON: All right.

1289

01:15:57,733 --> 01:15:59,533 Go ahead, Bob.

1290

01:16:04,466 --> 01:16:06,000 BAO NINH: HANOI People were killed. Their Houses were destroyed. My school was evacuated to a rural area. Our lives were turned upside down. I was fourteen. I wasn't scared. I was angry.

1291

01:16:24,800 --> 01:16:27,700 HO HUU LAN: Sometimes bombs exploded in markets and schools, killing many children. Many people in the North were killed including members of my family. So the only way to achieve peace and safety in the rear was to keep fighting at the front.

1292

01:16:45,166 --> 01:16:48,733 McPEAK: People talk about collateral damage, but it means something.

1293

01:16:50,433 --> 01:16:53,100 You don't want to do collateral damage.

1294

01:16:53,100 --> 01:16:56,233 You want to do the damage you want to do.

1295

01:16:56,233 --> 01:16:58,066 That's the winning way to do this.

1296

01:17:06,166 --> 01:17:09,300 (distant, echoing shouting)

1297

01:17:11,900 --> 01:17:14,266 EVERETT ALVAREZ: Even though I was in a cell by myself

1298

01:17:14,266 --> 01:17:17,133 and others were in by themselves, we weren't alone.

1299

01:17:17,133 --> 01:17:19,700 We were together in this old French prison

1300

01:17:19,700 --> 01:17:22,633 halfway around the world from the United States.

1301

01:17:22,633 --> 01:17:27,300 Gradually I began to realize this could go on a long time.

1302

01:17:27,300 --> 01:17:30,733 A long time to me was like maybe a year or two.

1303

01:17:30,733 --> 01:17:35,100 I never dreamed it would be eight-and-a-half years.

1304

01:17:35,100 --> 01:17:39,800 NARRATOR: By the summer of 1966, Lieutenant Everett Alvarez,

1305

01:17:39,800 --> 01:17:42,766 the first American pilot to have been shot down

1306

01:17:42,766 --> 01:17:47,200 over North Vietnam, had been a captive for nearly two years

1307

01:17:47,200 --> 01:17:50,166 and had been joined in and around Hanoi

1308

01:17:50,166 --> 01:17:53,366 by more than 100 other downed airmen.

1309

01:17:53,366 --> 01:17:57,300 Even though the North Vietnamese considered them all

1310

01:17:57,300 --> 01:18:00,666 "aggressors," "criminals," and "air pirates"

1311

01:18:00,666 --> 01:18:04,233 rather than prisoners of war deserving of humane treatment,

1312

01:18:04,233 --> 01:18:08,033 Alvarez and the others had been treated relatively well

1313

01:18:08,033 --> 01:18:09,366 at first.

1314

01:18:09,366 --> 01:18:12,466 But that hadn't lasted long.

1315

01:18:12,466 --> 01:18:16,366 The men were soon forbidden to communicate with one another,

1316

01:18:16,366 --> 01:18:18,833 forced to bow to their jailers,

1317

01:18:18,833 --> 01:18:22,266 and told that their country had forgotten them.

1318

01:18:22,266 --> 01:18:25,833 They were subjected to isolation, beatings,

1319

01:18:25,833 --> 01:18:28,566 and hour upon hour of torture,

1320

01:18:28,566 --> 01:18:32,266 all aimed at forcing them to admit their guilt

1321

01:18:32,266 --> 01:18:36,766 and record statements denouncing the war.

1322

01:18:36,766 --> 01:18:38,300 (door slams)

1323

01:18:38,300 --> 01:18:41,133 ALVAREZ: When that cell door would open, when they would say,

1324

01:18:41,133 --> 01:18:46,600 "You, your turn," you know, the bottom just fell out of you,

1325

01:18:46,600 --> 01:18:49,766 and you knew that you may not come back.

1326

01:18:49,766 --> 01:18:54,966 The manacles, the ropes, the beatings, they broke bones.

1327

01:18:54,966 --> 01:18:56,766 They... they did everything.

1328

01:18:58,366 --> 01:19:00,133 My arms turned black

1329

01:19:00,133 --> 01:19:03,500 from the cuffs that cut off all circulation.

1330

01:19:03,500 --> 01:19:05,366 And they didn't let me die.

1331

01:19:05,366 --> 01:19:07,566 They just kept the pain.

1332

01:19:07,566 --> 01:19:10,600 That's when I realized that I was not a superhuman.

1333

01:19:14,333 --> 01:19:19,766 The first time I broke and gave them something, I felt so low.

1334

01:19:19,766 --> 01:19:23,033 I felt so little.

1335

01:19:25,233 --> 01:19:28,033 NARRATOR: Some of the men who were forced to record statements

1336

01:19:28,033 --> 01:19:32,566 did their best to make their true feelings known back home.

1337

01:19:32,566 --> 01:19:36,633 Commander Jeremiah Denton blinked his eyes to spell out

1338

01:19:36,633 --> 01:19:39,000 "torture" in Morse code.

1339

01:19:46,500 --> 01:19:50,133 On July 6, just one week after American bombs

1340

01:19:50,133 --> 01:19:53,066 had first fallen on Hanoi and Haiphong,

1341

01:19:53,066 --> 01:19:57,533 jailers rounded up Alvarez and 51 other prisoners,

1342

01:19:57,533 --> 01:20:00,100 and, while cameras rolled,

1343

01:20:00,100 --> 01:20:02,700 marched them through downtown Hanoi,

1344

01:20:02,700 --> 01:20:06,133 past the angry citizens of the city.

1345

01:20:06,133 --> 01:20:08,600 ALVAREZ: I could hear the crowd being whipped up.

1346

01:20:08,600 --> 01:20:12,666 And as I passed this one fellow with the megaphone,

1347

01:20:12,666 --> 01:20:14,833 he looked at me and he yelled to the crowd.

1348

01:20:14,833 --> 01:20:18,000 "Alvarez, Alvarez, son of a bitch, son of a bitch!"

1349

01:20:18,000 --> 01:20:21,633 People started pressing in, throwing things--

1350

01:20:21,633 --> 01:20:23,733 bottles, shoes.

1351

01:20:23,733 --> 01:20:26,000 But the guards by this time were having a hard time

1352

01:20:26,000 --> 01:20:28,566 keeping the people away.

MINUTES 80-90

1353

01:20:28,566 --> 01:20:31,500 NARRATOR: The North Vietnamese had hoped to rally

1354

01:20:31,500 --> 01:20:36,000 international support for trying the prisoners as war criminals.

1355

01:20:36,000 --> 01:20:38,000 It backfired.

1356

01:20:38,000 --> 01:20:42,300 People everywhere, even many of those who opposed the war,

1357

01:20:42,300 --> 01:20:46,300 sympathized with the stumbling, helpless men.

1358

01:20:47,700 --> 01:20:50,633 Plans for public trials were canceled.

1359

01:20:52,933 --> 01:20:57,366 The bombing continued, and more American planes were shot down.

1360

01:21:00,233 --> 01:21:04,933 The North Vietnamese took pride in capturing American airmen.

1361

01:21:04,933 --> 01:21:08,966 Even children were expected to do their part.

1362

01:21:08,966 --> 01:21:10,633 (call and response with teacher and children)

1363

01:21:10,633 --> 01:21:12,633 TEACHER: Hands up! Hand up!

1364

01:21:12,633 --> 01:21:15,266 TEACHER: (Speaking Vietnamese) You didn't pronounce "Hands up" properly. Again.

1365

01:21:15,266 --> 01:21:16,466 Hands up!

1366

01:21:16,466 --> 01:21:17,466 Hands up!

1367

01:21:17,466 --> 01:21:18,466 TEACHER: Speaking Vietnamese) And again.

1368

01:21:18,466 --> 01:21:19,466 Hands up!

1369

01:21:20,600 --> 01:21:22,933 McPEAK: The bombing around Hanoi and Haiphong

1370

01:21:22,933 --> 01:21:25,433 that resulted in so many of our people being POWs

1371

01:21:25,433 --> 01:21:26,666 for a long period of time

1372

01:21:26,666 --> 01:21:28,600 was fought out of the White House basement,

1373

01:21:28,600 --> 01:21:31,600 with the President himself picking targets,

1374

01:21:31,600 --> 01:21:33,500 and deciding that we're going to attack now,

1375

01:21:33,500 --> 01:21:35,500 and then we're going to pause for awhile.

1376

01:21:36,733 --> 01:21:41,300 Airpower was being misused, big time.

1377

01:21:44,766 --> 01:21:47,400 NARRATOR: Operation Rolling Thunder did destroy

1378

01:21:47,400 --> 01:21:51,966 most of North Vietnam's oil storage facilities.

1379

01:21:51,966 --> 01:21:54,900 But the North Vietnamese shifted

1380

01:21:54,900 --> 01:21:57,733 most of their oil to underground tanks,

1381

01:21:57,733 --> 01:22:03,600 and more arrived every day from China and the Soviet Union.

1382

01:22:06,800 --> 01:22:09,833 The bombing was stepped up anyway.

1383

01:22:11,866 --> 01:22:13,033 Throughout the North,

1384

01:22:13,033 --> 01:22:15,866 enough crude air shelters were fashioned

1385

01:22:15,866 --> 01:22:20,000 from concrete pipe buried five feet beneath the ground

1386

01:22:20,000 --> 01:22:23,100 to accommodate some 18 million people--

1387

01:22:23,100 --> 01:22:26,466 virtually the entire population.

1388

01:22:26,466 --> 01:22:30,500 (workers singing in Vietnamese)

1389

01:22:30,500 --> 01:22:34,533 Over a million people were said to be working around the clock

1390

01:22:34,533 --> 01:22:37,300 to undo what American bombs had done.

1391

01:22:37,300 --> 01:22:40,033 When key bridges were destroyed,

1392

01:22:40,033 --> 01:22:42,466 they fashioned pontoon bridges overnight

1393

01:22:42,466 --> 01:22:44,333 to keep traffic moving.

1394

01:22:44,333 --> 01:22:49,200 Crews waited along the roads with heaps of gravel and stone

1395

01:22:49,200 --> 01:22:53,300 and stacks of wood to fill bomb craters.

1396

01:22:53,300 --> 01:22:59,433 They worked under the slogan "The enemy destroys, we repair.

1397

01:22:59,433 --> 01:23:04,233 The enemy destroys, we repair again."

1398

01:23:04,233 --> 01:23:08,966 (workers continue singing)

1399

01:23:10,500 --> 01:23:12,966 WILLBANKS: ARMY ADVISOR Rolling Thunder was the dumbest campaign

1400

01:23:12,966 --> 01:23:15,400 ever devised by a human being.

1401

01:23:15,400 --> 01:23:17,666 The normal human thing to do

1402

01:23:17,666 --> 01:23:20,300 is to think that your enemy thinks like you.

1403

01:23:20,300 --> 01:23:23,300 There's the old story, apocryphal,

1404

01:23:23,300 --> 01:23:25,166 that when McNamara wants to know

1405

01:23:25,166 --> 01:23:28,333 what Ho Chi Minh is thinking, he interviews himself.

1406

01:23:28,333 --> 01:23:31,233 What the problem then becomes is

1407

01:23:31,233 --> 01:23:34,966 that you keep trying to send messages that are rational

1408

01:23:34,966 --> 01:23:37,400 based upon your judgment of rationality,

1409

01:23:37,400 --> 01:23:40,700 but have nothing to do with the definition of rationality

1410

01:23:40,700 --> 01:23:42,100 on the other side.

1411

01:23:43,433 --> 01:23:45,566 So what's irrational to us

1412

01:23:45,566 --> 01:23:47,466 is totally rational to the other side

1413

01:23:47,466 --> 01:23:52,266 if you've decided that you are going to reunify the Vietnams

1414

01:23:52,266 --> 01:23:56,533 no matter what it takes, no matter how many casualties.

1415

01:24:00,233 --> 01:24:03,300 NARRATOR: Hanoi did all it could to publicize the damage

1416

01:24:03,300 --> 01:24:06,666 American bombs were doing to civilians.

1417

01:24:06,666 --> 01:24:11,800 Most Americans dismissed the reports as communist propaganda.

1418

01:24:13,966 --> 01:24:17,300 But when Harrison Salisbury of the New York Times

1419

01:24:17,300 --> 01:24:23,066 traveled to North Vietnam and reported on Christmas Day, 1966,

1420

01:24:23,066 --> 01:24:24,433 what he had seen,

1421

01:24:24,433 --> 01:24:28,666 public doubts about the morality of the war grew.Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tagBurchett's role is not acknowledged in Dr. Saliba's article, but other sources identify him as the source of material upon which Salisbury based his writing</ref>

1422

01:24:30,133 --> 01:24:32,800 GELB: PENTAGON A lot of the military we talked to

1423

01:24:32,800 --> 01:24:37,233 shared our concerns about how the war was being fought,

1424

01:24:37,233 --> 01:24:39,666 and whether or not it could be won.

1425

01:24:39,666 --> 01:24:42,700 But when it came to an official position,

1426

01:24:42,700 --> 01:24:45,666 it was what we know well,

1427

01:24:45,666 --> 01:24:48,700 namely, "We can win this war and we're doing it right.

1428

01:24:48,700 --> 01:24:53,233 We just need more-- more troops, more bombing." [32]

1429

01:24:59,400 --> 01:25:04,100 WILSON: I recall on one instance after I had returned from Vietnam,

1430

01:25:04,100 --> 01:25:07,733 I went by to see McNamara.

1431

01:25:09,766 --> 01:25:14,300 He was saying, "Well, how is our strategic bombing program

1432

01:25:14,300 --> 01:25:16,733 affecting the course of the war?"

1433

01:25:17,966 --> 01:25:22,666 I said, "It is not gaining us anything.

1434

01:25:22,666 --> 01:25:26,333 Indeed, it is counterproductive."

1435

01:25:28,000 --> 01:25:29,266 He said, "What do you mean?"

1436

01:25:31,966 --> 01:25:38,300 "Mr. Secretary, the sledgehammer approach is not working.

1437

01:25:38,300 --> 01:25:41,333 "These people know that at some point

1438

01:25:41,333 --> 01:25:44,033 "we're going to get tired of killing them.

1439

01:25:44,033 --> 01:25:46,500 And they think they can outlast us."

1440

01:25:46,500 --> 01:25:51,066 And he said, "Why don't people tell me these things?"

1441

01:25:53,700 --> 01:25:57,166 I said, "Mr. Secretary, you don't ask."

1442

01:25:57,166 --> 01:26:00,566 ("I Am a Rock" by Simon and Garfunkel playing)

1443

01:26:00,566 --> 01:26:02,866 CRAIG McNAMARA: I think every father and son

1444

01:26:02,866 --> 01:26:08,733 struggles in the course of their lives together.

1445

01:26:08,733 --> 01:26:12,833 SIMON AND GARFUNKEL: ♪ In a deep and dark December

1446

01:26:12,833 --> 01:26:18,300 CRAIG McNAMARA: And I don't think my dad and I were exempt from that.

1447

01:26:18,300 --> 01:26:21,000 The interesting thing for me is

1448

01:26:21,000 --> 01:26:24,666 the space to talk about Vietnam was never created.

1449

01:26:24,666 --> 01:26:28,800 And that was clearly a decision on my father's part.

1450

01:26:28,800 --> 01:26:30,700 SIMON AND GARFUNKEL: ♪ I am a rock...

1451

01:26:30,700 --> 01:26:34,266 NARRATOR: Craig McNamara, the son of the Secretary of Defense,

1452

01:26:34,266 --> 01:26:36,500 was a student at St. Paul's School

1453

01:26:36,500 --> 01:26:38,233 in Concord, New Hampshire,

1454

01:26:38,233 --> 01:26:42,466 where a teach-in about the war was to be held.

1455

01:26:42,466 --> 01:26:45,966 CRAIG MCNAMARA: I remember calling my father from a phone booth and saying,

1456

01:26:45,966 --> 01:26:48,233 "Dad, we're going to have this experience

1457

01:26:48,233 --> 01:26:50,100 "and if there's any support materials

1458

01:26:50,100 --> 01:26:55,266 that you think I should present, please let me know."

1459

01:26:56,800 --> 01:26:59,633 The support materials didn't come.

1460

01:26:59,633 --> 01:27:03,866 I think my father really wanted lovingly to protect me

1461

01:27:03,866 --> 01:27:07,133 from the Vietnam experience to the best of his ability.

1462

01:27:07,133 --> 01:27:08,966 Well, we know you can't do that.

1463

01:27:08,966 --> 01:27:13,133 Things bleed through and it just doesn't happen that way.

1464

01:27:13,133 --> 01:27:15,766 Probably, he realized at that time

1465

01:27:15,766 --> 01:27:20,566 that the support materials... weren't there.

1466

01:27:26,400 --> 01:27:28,833 ROBERT McNAMARA: Today I can tell you that military progress

1467

01:27:28,833 --> 01:27:33,533 in the past 12 months has exceeded our expectations.

1468

01:27:33,533 --> 01:27:35,533 The Viet Cong have been unable to mount

1469

01:27:35,533 --> 01:27:37,766 the offensive that they had planned

1470

01:27:37,766 --> 01:27:42,400 designed to cut the country in half at its narrow waist.

1471

01:27:42,400 --> 01:27:44,466 The military pressure,

1472

01:27:44,466 --> 01:27:46,633 which forces have brought against them,

1473

01:27:46,633 --> 01:27:48,166 have prevented them from mounting that offensive

1474

01:27:48,166 --> 01:27:51,633 and have inflicted very heavy casualties on them.

1475

01:27:51,633 --> 01:27:53,366 No matter how you measure it,

1476

01:27:53,366 --> 01:27:56,833 we're better off than we thought we would be at this time.

1477

01:27:58,366 --> 01:28:00,066 ("Ain't Too Proud To Beg" by the Temptations playing)

1478

01:28:00,066 --> 01:28:02,933 ♪ I know you want to leave me... ♪

1479

01:28:02,933 --> 01:28:04,766 EHRHART: MARINES Certainly when I arrived, I'm thinking

1480

01:28:04,766 --> 01:28:06,866 I'm involved in a winning enterprise.

1481

01:28:06,866 --> 01:28:08,733 I mean, America doesn't lose.

1482

01:28:08,733 --> 01:28:10,766 We never lose.

1483

01:28:10,766 --> 01:28:14,733 I had sort of not really known much about the War of 1812,

1484

01:28:14,733 --> 01:28:18,266 which was... pretty much of a draw,

1485

01:28:18,266 --> 01:28:21,566 or the Civil War in which half of America lost,

1486

01:28:21,566 --> 01:28:24,800 and the Korean War where we won the first half

1487

01:28:24,800 --> 01:28:26,000 and lost the second half.

1488

01:28:26,000 --> 01:28:28,866 But I'd been taught America never loses.

1489

01:28:28,866 --> 01:28:33,033 NARRATOR: The Marines had been the first American combat troops

1490

01:28:33,033 --> 01:28:35,133 to fight in Vietnam.

1491

01:28:35,133 --> 01:28:37,666 And they were expected to fight longer

1492

01:28:37,666 --> 01:28:41,966 than their Army counterparts-- 13 months instead of 12.

1493

01:28:43,966 --> 01:28:45,900 Marine privates Bill Ehrhart,

1494

01:28:45,900 --> 01:28:50,600 John Musgrave, and Roger Harris all arrived at Danang

1495

01:28:50,600 --> 01:28:53,200 in early 1967.

1496

01:28:53,200 --> 01:28:57,400 MUSGRAVE: The first thing that assaulted my nose was the foreign smells.

1497

01:28:57,400 --> 01:28:59,833 And watching people relieve themselves

1498

01:28:59,833 --> 01:29:01,466 by the side of the road

1499

01:29:01,466 --> 01:29:04,400 and seeing animals I'd never seen before--

1500

01:29:04,400 --> 01:29:06,400 the big water buffaloes.

1501

01:29:06,400 --> 01:29:08,900 You know, it was like being on Mars,

1502

01:29:08,900 --> 01:29:12,700 because it was totally foreign to me.

1503

01:29:12,700 --> 01:29:17,466 But I honestly, in my dumb Missouri kid kind of way,

1504

01:29:17,466 --> 01:29:19,966 I thought, "Look at all those foreigners."

1505

01:29:19,966 --> 01:29:22,500 And it didn't dawn on me for a little while

1506

01:29:22,500 --> 01:29:25,666 that the only foreigner in that area was me.

1507

01:29:27,633 --> 01:29:31,466 HARRIS: The feeling was that we were going over to rescue folks.

1508

01:29:31,466 --> 01:29:34,633 And that the communists were taking over this country

1509

01:29:34,633 --> 01:29:36,766 and they needed help.

1510

01:29:36,766 --> 01:29:39,400 But then when we got there we realized that...

1511

01:29:39,400 --> 01:29:41,566 that it wasn't exactly like that, you know.

1512

01:29:41,566 --> 01:29:43,966 Many of the Vietnamese, they would spit at our trucks

1513

01:29:43,966 --> 01:29:45,966 and they'd tell us to go back to America.

1514

01:29:45,966 --> 01:29:47,600 And then, you know, we began questioning ourselves,

1515

01:29:47,600 --> 01:29:48,800 you know, why are we here?

1516

01:29:50,266 --> 01:29:52,000 These people don't want us here.

1517

01:29:54,133 --> 01:29:58,166 NARRATOR: Roger Harris was assigned to G Company, 2nd Battalion,

1518

01:29:58,166 --> 01:30:02,266 9th Regiment of the 3rd Marine Division at Phu Bai,

1519

01:30:02,266 --> 01:30:04,566 outside of Hue.

1520

01:30:04,566 --> 01:30:06,733 John Musgrave was first stationed

1521

01:30:06,733 --> 01:30:11,066 with the 1st Marine Division at the Danang Airbase.

1522

01:30:11,066 --> 01:30:13,733 And Bill Ehrhart joined the 1st Regiment

1523

01:30:13,733 --> 01:30:17,000 of the 1st Marine Division near the city of Hoi An.

1524

01:30:19,666 --> 01:30:21,733 Private Ehrhart was given a desk job,

1525

01:30:21,733 --> 01:30:23,933 collating snippets of information

1526

01:30:23,933 --> 01:30:26,066 for the daily intelligence summary.

1527

01:30:28,400 --> 01:30:30,633 Three days after he got to Hoi An,

1528

01:30:30,633 --> 01:30:35,900 a group of civilian detainees was brought into the compound.

MINUTES 90-100

1529

01:30:35,900 --> 01:30:39,433 EHRHART: These two amtracs come in the back gate.

1530

01:30:39,433 --> 01:30:41,900 The Marines up top start pushing them off.

1531

01:30:41,900 --> 01:30:43,566 Their hands are tied, their feet are tied,

1532

01:30:43,566 --> 01:30:45,366 they have no way to break their fall.

1533

01:30:45,366 --> 01:30:50,233 You literally can hear bones snapping, shoulders dislocate.

1534

01:30:50,233 --> 01:30:53,333 And I grab Corporal Sal,

1535

01:30:53,333 --> 01:30:56,366 and he says in the absolute flattest, hollowest voice

1536

01:30:56,366 --> 01:30:57,866 I've ever heard,

1537

01:30:57,866 --> 01:31:02,266 "Ehrhart, you better keep your mouth shut and your eyes open

1538

01:31:02,266 --> 01:31:04,633 "till you understand what's going on around here.

1539

01:31:04,633 --> 01:31:07,133 "Those trackers, they're hitting mines out there

1540

01:31:07,133 --> 01:31:09,066 "on the sand flats every day.

1541

01:31:09,066 --> 01:31:11,200 "They're getting killed; they're getting maimed.

1542

01:31:11,200 --> 01:31:14,766 "And these people know where those mines are.

1543

01:31:14,766 --> 01:31:18,533 "You treat these people nice in front of the trackers

1544

01:31:18,533 --> 01:31:19,833 "and those trackers

1545

01:31:19,833 --> 01:31:21,566 "will rearrange your head and ass for you

1546

01:31:21,566 --> 01:31:23,033 and walk away laughing."

1547

01:31:24,666 --> 01:31:27,933 Well, at that point, three days into Vietnam,

1548

01:31:27,933 --> 01:31:29,833 I'm thinking, "Whoa.

1549

01:31:29,833 --> 01:31:33,100 What the hell is going on here?"

1550

01:31:35,100 --> 01:31:37,666 DR: BENJAMIN SPOCK: I think it is destroying the good name

1551

01:31:37,666 --> 01:31:40,333 and the leadership of the United States.

1552

01:31:40,333 --> 01:31:45,366 Furthermore, I believe that the war is militarily unwinnable.

1553

01:31:45,366 --> 01:31:49,933 I believe that thousands of American young men

1554

01:31:49,933 --> 01:31:54,133 are being asked to die to save Lyndon Johnson's face.

1555

01:31:54,133 --> 01:31:57,700 He must know by now that this war is unwinnable,

1556

01:31:57,700 --> 01:32:00,166 but he does not know how to give up.

1557

01:32:00,166 --> 01:32:04,033 Therefore, I believe that young men are not only justified

1558

01:32:04,033 --> 01:32:07,166 but to be thanked if they point this out

1559

01:32:07,166 --> 01:32:11,133 by refusing to take part in such an outrageous war any longer.

1560

01:32:11,133 --> 01:32:15,033 ("Footprints" by Wayne Shorter playing)

1561

01:32:15,033 --> 01:32:18,400 NARRATOR: Dr. Benjamin Spock was the best-loved pediatrician

1562

01:32:18,400 --> 01:32:19,833 of his time;

1563

01:32:19,833 --> 01:32:23,900 millions of American parents had consulted his bestseller,

1564

01:32:23,900 --> 01:32:26,333 Baby and Child Care.

1565

01:32:26,333 --> 01:32:31,000 In early 1967, he wrote the preface to an article

1566

01:32:31,000 --> 01:32:33,800 in the leftist magazine Ramparts

1567

01:32:33,800 --> 01:32:39,466 on the impact of American napalm on South Vietnamese children.

1568

01:32:39,466 --> 01:32:44,300 Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was among those who had read it.

1569

01:32:44,300 --> 01:32:47,533 He had been agonizing about the war for months.

1570

01:32:47,533 --> 01:32:50,466 But he had been reluctant to break openly

1571

01:32:50,466 --> 01:32:54,500 with Lyndon Johnson, who had done so much for civil rights.

1572

01:32:54,500 --> 01:32:58,800 Now he could no longer stay silent.

1573

01:32:58,800 --> 01:33:04,133 MARTIN LUTHER KING: APRIL 4, 1967 I come to this magnificent house of worship tonight

1574

01:33:04,133 --> 01:33:09,233 because my conscience leaves me no other choice.

1575

01:33:09,233 --> 01:33:15,333 A time comes when silence is betrayal.

1576

01:33:15,333 --> 01:33:22,233 That time has come for us in relation to Vietnam.

1577

01:33:22,233 --> 01:33:24,200 ("Talking World War III Blues" by Bob Dylan playing)

1578

01:33:24,200 --> 01:33:27,500 NARRATOR: Eleven days later, King joined Dr. Spock

1579

01:33:27,500 --> 01:33:30,400 and perhaps half a million other protestors

1580

01:33:30,400 --> 01:33:33,800 at a massive demonstration in Central Park

1581

01:33:33,800 --> 01:33:36,000 organized by a new coalition,

1582

01:33:36,000 --> 01:33:40,766 the National Mobilization to End the War in Vietnam.

1583

01:33:40,766 --> 01:33:42,933 ♪ Some time ago a crazy dream came to me ♪

1584

01:33:42,933 --> 01:33:46,000 ♪ I dreamt I was walkin' into World War III. ♪

1585

01:33:46,000 --> 01:33:49,166 ZIMMERMAN: ANTI-WAR ACTIVIST That was the biggest crowd any of us had ever been in

1586

01:33:49,166 --> 01:33:50,700 in our lives.

1587

01:33:50,700 --> 01:33:54,866 And when the front of the march got down to the United Nations,

1588

01:33:54,866 --> 01:33:57,900 the back of the march had not yet left Central Park.

1589

01:33:57,900 --> 01:34:01,166 That's how many people we were.

1590

01:34:05,900 --> 01:34:10,233 Not all of the people on that march were students.

1591

01:34:10,233 --> 01:34:15,166 And as a result, we all felt we have a chance now.

1592

01:34:15,166 --> 01:34:19,733 You know, there's a path that we could see to ending the war.

1593

01:34:23,300 --> 01:34:26,000 MARTIN LUTHER KING: Stop the bombing.

1594

01:34:26,000 --> 01:34:29,933 Let us save our national honor.

1595

01:34:29,933 --> 01:34:34,300 Stop the bombing, and stop the war.

1596

01:34:34,300 --> 01:34:39,300 Let us save American lives and Vietnamese lives.

1597

01:34:39,300 --> 01:34:42,933 Let us take a single instantaneous step

1598

01:34:42,933 --> 01:34:44,400 to the peace table.[33]

1599

01:34:44,400 --> 01:34:45,866 Stop the bombing.

1600

01:34:47,433 --> 01:34:49,633 NARRATOR: The antiwar movement was growing

1601

01:34:49,633 --> 01:34:52,866 in numbers and militancy.

1602

01:34:52,866 --> 01:34:56,766 "We are no longer interested in merely protesting the war,"

1603

01:34:56,766 --> 01:35:00,266 one organizer said, "we are out to stop it."

1604

01:35:03,166 --> 01:35:07,200 Meanwhile, some in the Johnson administration became convinced

1605

01:35:07,200 --> 01:35:10,566 the antiwar movement was a communist conspiracy[34]

1606

01:35:10,566 --> 01:35:12,533 directed by Moscow.

1607

01:35:12,533 --> 01:35:17,366 The FBI and the CIA, which was barred by statute

1608

01:35:17,366 --> 01:35:19,866 from operating within the United States,

1609

01:35:19,866 --> 01:35:24,266 began infiltrating the movement, wiretapping its leaders,

1610

01:35:24,266 --> 01:35:29,366 even inciting violence in order to undercut their appeal.

1611

01:35:33,400 --> 01:35:36,533 ZIMMERMAN: At that time, people who supported the war

1612

01:35:36,533 --> 01:35:40,033 were fond of saying, "My country right or wrong";

1613

01:35:40,033 --> 01:35:43,033 "America, love it or leave it."

1614

01:35:43,033 --> 01:35:46,600 Or "Better dead than Red."

1615

01:35:46,600 --> 01:35:50,866 Those sentiments seemed insane to us.

1616

01:35:50,866 --> 01:35:53,133 We don't want to live in a country

1617

01:35:53,133 --> 01:35:55,433 that we're going to support whether it's right or wrong.

1618

01:35:55,433 --> 01:35:56,900 We want to live in a country

1619

01:35:56,900 --> 01:36:00,233 that acts rightly and doesn't act wrongly.

1620

01:36:00,233 --> 01:36:04,733 And if our country isn't doing that, it needs to be corrected.

1621

01:36:04,733 --> 01:36:08,033 So we had a very different idea of patriotism.

1622

01:36:08,033 --> 01:36:14,733 So we began an era in which two groups of Americans,

1623

01:36:14,733 --> 01:36:17,833 both thinking that they were acting patriotically,

1624

01:36:17,833 --> 01:36:20,133 went to war with each other.

1625

01:36:20,133 --> 01:36:23,966 ANTI-PROTESTOR: Over 200,000 communist sympathizers

1626

01:36:23,966 --> 01:36:27,066 in that park this morning tried to burn this flag,

1627

01:36:27,066 --> 01:36:28,866 but they didn't succeed.

1628

01:36:28,866 --> 01:36:30,533 RICHARD NIXON: I would put it this way--

1629

01:36:30,533 --> 01:36:33,000 there's a monstrous myth abroad,

1630

01:36:33,000 --> 01:36:36,566 a myth which Hanoi creates and which it believes,

1631

01:36:36,566 --> 01:36:39,800 and that is that the United States is so divided

1632

01:36:39,800 --> 01:36:44,466 that if they just hang on that they will win in Washington,

1633

01:36:44,466 --> 01:36:46,733 and in the United States the victory that our fighting men

1634

01:36:46,733 --> 01:36:48,533 are denying them in field.

1635

01:36:48,533 --> 01:36:51,500 WESTMORELAND: As I have said before,

1636

01:36:51,500 --> 01:36:55,366 in evaluating the enemy strategy it is evident to me

1637

01:36:55,366 --> 01:36:58,966 that he believes our Achilles' heel is our resolve.

1638

01:37:00,400 --> 01:37:02,800 NARRATOR: Two weeks after the Manhattan protest,

1639

01:37:02,800 --> 01:37:07,066 General Westmoreland addressed a joint session of Congress,

1640

01:37:07,066 --> 01:37:10,466 the first general ever to be called home from a battlefield

1641

01:37:10,466 --> 01:37:13,066 by his President to do so.

1642

01:37:13,066 --> 01:37:18,833 WESTMORELAND: Backed at home by resolve, confidence, patience,

1643

01:37:18,833 --> 01:37:22,000 determination, and continued support,

1644

01:37:22,000 --> 01:37:26,200 we will prevail in Vietnam over the communist aggressor.

1645

01:37:26,200 --> 01:37:27,766 (applause)

1646

01:37:27,766 --> 01:37:30,100 NARRATOR: Behind the scenes,

1647

01:37:30,100 --> 01:37:33,600 neither Westmoreland nor the administration he served

1648

01:37:33,600 --> 01:37:36,700 was confident the United States would prevail.

1649

01:37:38,266 --> 01:37:40,633 Westmoreland reported to the President

1650

01:37:40,633 --> 01:37:43,200 that according to the latest statistics,

1651

01:37:43,200 --> 01:37:47,200 the crossover point had finally been reached that spring,

1652

01:37:47,200 --> 01:37:51,700 except in the military sector just south of the DMZ.[35]

1653

01:37:51,700 --> 01:37:55,833 But, he warned, the United States was doing little better

1654

01:37:55,833 --> 01:37:57,400 than holding its own.

1655

01:37:57,400 --> 01:38:01,300 If he were given 200,000 additional troops

1656

01:38:01,300 --> 01:38:04,666 and allowed to go into Laos and Cambodia,

1657

01:38:04,666 --> 01:38:06,833 he could cut off the Ho Chi Minh Trail

1658

01:38:06,833 --> 01:38:09,633 and end the war in two years.

1659

01:38:09,633 --> 01:38:13,100 But "When we add divisions," Johnson asked,

1660

01:38:13,100 --> 01:38:15,766 "can't the enemy add divisions?

1661

01:38:15,766 --> 01:38:18,066 Where does it all end?"

1662

01:38:18,066 --> 01:38:21,400 Westmoreland had no answer.

1663

01:38:21,400 --> 01:38:24,533 Instead, he and the Joint Chiefs asked the President

1664

01:38:24,533 --> 01:38:28,533 to permit them to bomb sites just below the Chinese border,

1665

01:38:28,533 --> 01:38:31,400 and to mine the harbors of North Vietnam

1666

01:38:31,400 --> 01:38:37,333 to keep Hanoi's Soviet ally from resupplying her by sea.[36]

1667

01:38:37,333 --> 01:38:42,733 Meanwhile, Robert McNamara, the chief architect

1668

01:38:42,733 --> 01:38:45,900 of American strategy in Vietnam,

1669

01:38:45,900 --> 01:38:48,133 had grown less and less confident

1670

01:38:48,133 --> 01:38:50,366 in its ultimate success

1671

01:38:50,366 --> 01:38:54,366 and in the repeated calls for more men and more bombing

1672

01:38:54,366 --> 01:38:57,500 made by the military he oversaw.

1673

01:38:57,500 --> 01:39:02,700 GELB: PENTAGON Robert McNamara was the giant of Washington, D.C.

1674

01:39:02,700 --> 01:39:08,033 He was the embodiment of intellect and self-confidence.

1675

01:39:08,033 --> 01:39:11,700 If there was a problem, there had to be an answer.

1676

01:39:11,700 --> 01:39:14,833 And that was his fatal flaw.

1677

01:39:14,833 --> 01:39:17,600 The startling thing is

1678

01:39:17,600 --> 01:39:23,800 that this man who never seemed to doubt anything he said,

1679

01:39:23,800 --> 01:39:27,466 actually began to doubt profoundly what he was doing

1680

01:39:27,466 --> 01:39:29,166 in Vietnam.

1681

01:39:29,166 --> 01:39:30,866 But we didn't know about it.

1682

01:39:30,866 --> 01:39:34,366 NARRATOR: In a private memorandum to the President,[37]

1683

01:39:34,366 --> 01:39:37,066 McNamara told Johnson that

1684

01:39:37,066 --> 01:39:39,933 "the picture of the world's greatest superpower

1685

01:39:39,933 --> 01:39:44,866 "killing or seriously injuring 1,000 non-combatants a week,

1686

01:39:44,866 --> 01:39:49,433 "while trying to pound a tiny, backward nation into submission

1687

01:39:49,433 --> 01:39:52,533 "on an issue whose merits are hotly disputed

1688

01:39:52,533 --> 01:39:54,633 is not a pretty one."

1689

01:39:54,633 --> 01:39:59,433 He urged the President to limit troop levels, not raise them,

1690

01:39:59,433 --> 01:40:03,633 and to declare an unconditional end to all bombing

1691

01:40:03,633 --> 01:40:06,200 north of the 20th parallel.

1692

01:40:06,200 --> 01:40:10,300 "The war in Vietnam is acquiring a momentum of its own

1693

01:40:10,300 --> 01:40:13,400 that must be stopped," McNamara wrote.

1694

01:40:13,400 --> 01:40:16,900 "Dramatic increases in U.S. troop deployments

1695

01:40:16,900 --> 01:40:19,866 "and attacks on the North are not necessary

1696

01:40:19,866 --> 01:40:21,633 "and are not the answer.

1697

01:40:21,633 --> 01:40:25,500 "The enemy can absorb them or counter them,

1698

01:40:25,500 --> 01:40:27,200 "bogging us down further

1699

01:40:27,200 --> 01:40:32,600 and risking even more serious escalation of the war."

MINUTES 100-110

1700

01:40:32,600 --> 01:40:37,400 In the end, Johnson tried to find a middle ground.

1701

01:40:37,400 --> 01:40:40,000 He expanded the list of bombing targets,

1702

01:40:40,000 --> 01:40:42,866 but he refused to mine the harbors

1703

01:40:42,866 --> 01:40:45,233 and he agreed to send Westmoreland

1704

01:40:45,233 --> 01:40:48,100 only 47,000 more troops,

1705

01:40:48,100 --> 01:40:51,400 which would bring the total of U.S. forces in the country

1706

01:40:51,400 --> 01:40:53,566 to more than half a million men.

1707

01:40:55,933 --> 01:41:01,300 On June 17, 1967, Robert McNamara placed a call

1708

01:41:01,300 --> 01:41:05,566 to his military assistant, Lieutenant Colonel Robert Gard.

1709

01:41:05,566 --> 01:41:08,733 GARD: My phone rang and the little light showed

1710

01:41:08,733 --> 01:41:11,433 it was the secretary on the line.

1711

01:41:11,433 --> 01:41:14,700 And I picked it up and said, "Yes, Mr. Secretary?"

1712

01:41:14,700 --> 01:41:16,666 And Mr. McNamara said,

1713

01:41:16,666 --> 01:41:19,433 "Bob, I want a thorough study done of the background

1714

01:41:19,433 --> 01:41:22,033 of our involvement in Vietnam," and hung up the phone.

1715

01:41:22,033 --> 01:41:25,500 NARRATOR: Leslie Gelb, a 30-year-old member

1716

01:41:25,500 --> 01:41:28,800 of the International Security Affairs staff,

1717

01:41:28,800 --> 01:41:31,933 was named to oversee the top-secret analysis

1718

01:41:31,933 --> 01:41:36,266 of how key decisions had been made, going all the way back

1719

01:41:36,266 --> 01:41:38,366 to the Truman administration. [38]

1720

01:41:40,500 --> 01:41:45,533 GELB: McNamara gave us full access to his closet,

1721

01:41:45,533 --> 01:41:48,200 in his office, which was like a room.

1722

01:41:48,200 --> 01:41:50,766 But all his private papers were there.

1723

01:41:50,766 --> 01:41:53,300 And I was picking out the memos,

1724

01:41:53,300 --> 01:41:56,000 a lot of which I helped to write.

1725

01:41:56,000 --> 01:41:59,233 But there were others in there that I had never seen.

1726

01:41:59,233 --> 01:42:06,500 In these memos you began to see Robert McNamara communicating

1727

01:42:06,500 --> 01:42:11,666 with the President, alone, his doubts.[39]

1728

01:42:11,666 --> 01:42:13,933 It stunned me.

1729

01:42:21,600 --> 01:42:24,500 HARRISON: ARMY I had thought that we were mostly fighting a guerrilla war.

1730

01:42:27,233 --> 01:42:33,666 I didn't know that we were going to be fighting guys like us,

1731

01:42:33,666 --> 01:42:35,600 that I had a doppelganger out there

1732

01:42:35,600 --> 01:42:40,966 who was leading a rifle platoon, who knew what he was doing,

1733

01:42:40,966 --> 01:42:46,433 who was as fully prepared to kill me as I was to kill him.

1734

01:42:46,433 --> 01:42:48,600 (band playing a march)

1735

01:42:48,600 --> 01:42:51,766 NARRATOR: That June, First Lieutenant Matthew Harrison

1736

01:42:51,766 --> 01:42:56,500 finally got his orders to join the 173rd Airborne,

1737

01:42:56,500 --> 01:43:00,833 an elite unit ready to rush anywhere they were needed.

1738

01:43:00,833 --> 01:43:06,366 They called themselves General Westmoreland's Fire Brigade.

1739

01:43:10,833 --> 01:43:14,400 Harrison's arrival at Bien Hoa was a reunion of sorts.

1740

01:43:14,400 --> 01:43:19,266 He and seven others from the West Point class of 1966

1741

01:43:19,266 --> 01:43:22,400 all found themselves serving in the 2nd Battalion,

1742

01:43:22,400 --> 01:43:25,800 including two especially close friends:

1743

01:43:25,800 --> 01:43:29,966 Donald Judd and Richard Hood.

1744

01:43:29,966 --> 01:43:33,266 HARRISON: As young lieutenants, as 22-year-olds,

1745

01:43:33,266 --> 01:43:38,466 we really were idealists and we really were Boy Scouts.

1746

01:43:38,466 --> 01:43:42,733 I really felt as though I was uniquely qualified

1747

01:43:42,733 --> 01:43:44,466 to lead American soldiers

1748

01:43:44,466 --> 01:43:46,866 and that there was nothing more important

1749

01:43:46,866 --> 01:43:49,366 than what I was going to be doing.

1750

01:43:49,366 --> 01:43:53,000 But when I joined the 173rd,

1751

01:43:53,000 --> 01:43:56,700 I think the first day I was there some guy showed me

1752

01:43:56,700 --> 01:44:00,633 what looked like a bunch of apricots on a leather thong.

1753

01:44:00,633 --> 01:44:04,233 Turns out they were ears, dried, desiccated.

1754

01:44:06,100 --> 01:44:09,900 I understood theoretically what it meant to be in a war.

1755

01:44:09,900 --> 01:44:12,933 But, of course, no one can really understand it

1756

01:44:12,933 --> 01:44:14,300 until they've done it.

1757

01:44:16,100 --> 01:44:19,266 ("Wild Child" by the Ventures playing)

1758

01:44:19,266 --> 01:44:22,100 NARRATOR: Harrison was a platoon leader in Charlie Company.

1759

01:44:22,100 --> 01:44:27,900 His West Point classmates served with Alpha Company.

1760

01:44:27,900 --> 01:44:30,333 Within a few days,

1761

01:44:30,333 --> 01:44:33,333 they were helicoptered into the heart of the Central Highlands

1762

01:44:33,333 --> 01:44:36,933 near Dak To, where North Vietnamese regulars

1763

01:44:36,933 --> 01:44:42,033 were said to be threatening a Special Forces camp.

1764

01:44:42,033 --> 01:44:44,933 They were all airlifted into landing zones

1765

01:44:44,933 --> 01:44:48,300 hacked out of the steep, jungle-blanketed slope

1766

01:44:48,300 --> 01:44:52,166 of a mountain the Americans called Hill 1338

1767

01:44:52,166 --> 01:44:57,533 for its height in meters, with orders to hunt down the enemy.

1768

01:44:57,533 --> 01:45:00,000 They walked for two days,

1769

01:45:00,000 --> 01:45:03,033 following a well-worn enemy trail,

1770

01:45:03,033 --> 01:45:07,633 constantly on the lookout for booby traps or ambushes.

1771

01:45:12,166 --> 01:45:14,166 On the evening of June 21,

1772

01:45:14,166 --> 01:45:17,533 Harrison's Charlie Company settled in for the night

1773

01:45:17,533 --> 01:45:21,033 while his friends in Alpha Company set up camp

1774

01:45:21,033 --> 01:45:23,466 a little less than two miles to the south,

1775

01:45:23,466 --> 01:45:27,333 along the same slippery jungle path.

1776

01:45:27,333 --> 01:45:32,266 No one knew that an entire North Vietnamese battalion--

1777

01:45:32,266 --> 01:45:34,766 perhaps 500 men--

1778

01:45:34,766 --> 01:45:37,600 was encamped on the other side of a ridgeline,

1779

01:45:37,600 --> 01:45:41,266 just a few hundred yards away.

1780

01:45:43,300 --> 01:45:45,433 At 6:58 the next morning,

1781

01:45:45,433 --> 01:45:49,266 a patrol from Alpha Company stumbled into a squad

1782

01:45:49,266 --> 01:45:51,033 of North Vietnamese.

1783

01:45:51,033 --> 01:45:54,033 The Americans withdrew

1784

01:45:54,033 --> 01:45:57,366 and struggled to establish a perimeter.

1785

01:45:57,366 --> 01:46:00,000 Within minutes, they were under attack

1786

01:46:00,000 --> 01:46:04,700 from relentless AK-47 automatic fire.

1787

01:46:04,700 --> 01:46:08,066 The enemy mounted attack after attack,

1788

01:46:08,066 --> 01:46:11,066 drawing closer each time.

1789

01:46:11,066 --> 01:46:15,000 Alpha Company radioed for air and artillery support,

1790

01:46:15,000 --> 01:46:18,966 but the triple-canopy jungle blocked the spotter's view. This is ALPHA SIX. PARAGON SIX, over. We have an extremely large force moving in the gully to the west of us right now. We need airstrikes. Put something all around this hill, but stay off the ridge line, over. This is PARAGON SIX. You say you have large forces moving toward you from the west, over. We've got heavy movement and firing on our left. We've got some real heroe and I'm damn proud of 'em. But be advised that these people all got black berets on they've got AK-47s every one of them and they got so damn much ammunition they got twice as much as I got. We'll be there as soon as we can, over. Appreciate it. Just do the best you can.

1791

01:47:10,566 --> 01:47:14,033 NARRATOR: At around noon, Harrison's unit was ordered to rescue

1792

01:47:14,033 --> 01:47:17,066 the trapped men of Alpha Company.

1793

01:47:17,066 --> 01:47:19,833 HARRISON: It was mountainous terrain.

1794

01:47:19,833 --> 01:47:21,666 We were carrying two bodies

1795

01:47:21,666 --> 01:47:24,266 along with a bunch of engineer equipment.

1796

01:47:24,266 --> 01:47:29,666 And we could not push down the couple of hundred meters

1797

01:47:29,666 --> 01:47:32,733 to where the most of the fighting had taken place.

1798

01:47:32,733 --> 01:47:34,566 (explosion)

1799

01:47:34,566 --> 01:47:36,933 NARRATOR: The going was steep and slippery.

1800

01:47:36,933 --> 01:47:39,100 North Vietnamese troops,

1801

01:47:39,100 --> 01:47:41,933 now entrenched along both sides of the trail,

1802

01:47:41,933 --> 01:47:46,666 prevented Matt Harrison and his men from reaching Alpha Company.

1803

01:47:46,666 --> 01:47:50,333 At dusk, the shooting died down,

1804

01:47:50,333 --> 01:47:52,866 and they dug in at the top of a ridge

1805

01:47:52,866 --> 01:47:55,733 and did their best to sleep.

1806

01:47:57,600 --> 01:48:01,533 HARRISON: So we lay there on the night of June 22

1807

01:48:01,533 --> 01:48:06,133 and we could hear the screams of the wounded down the hill

1808

01:48:06,133 --> 01:48:10,833 as the North Vietnamese went around and shot them.

1809

01:48:10,833 --> 01:48:13,966 NARRATOR: By dawn, the enemy had melted away.

1810

01:48:17,700 --> 01:48:21,066 Harrison and his platoon crept down the hillside

1811

01:48:21,066 --> 01:48:24,666 and reached what was left of Alpha Company.

1812

01:48:26,100 --> 01:48:32,133 Out of 137 men, 76 lay dead along the path.

1813

01:48:32,133 --> 01:48:37,233 Forty-three had been shot in the head at close range.

1814

01:48:37,233 --> 01:48:41,900 Ears had been cut from some; eyes gouged out;

1815

01:48:41,900 --> 01:48:43,933 ring fingers missing.

1816

01:48:43,933 --> 01:48:47,733 Twenty-three more men were wounded.

1817

01:48:47,733 --> 01:48:53,633 Harrison found his classmates, Donald Judd and Richard Hood,

1818

01:48:53,633 --> 01:48:55,700 among the dead.

1819

01:48:57,366 --> 01:49:01,666 HARRISON: This was my introduction to war.

1820

01:49:01,666 --> 01:49:05,466 This was my welcome to Vietnam.

1821

01:49:07,766 --> 01:49:11,333 We spent the rest of the day putting those bodies

1822

01:49:11,333 --> 01:49:14,833 into body bags and getting them out of there.

1823

01:49:14,833 --> 01:49:17,700 Getting-getting killed is forever.

1824

01:49:17,700 --> 01:49:23,566 And, um, that was something that I had known theoretically

1825

01:49:23,566 --> 01:49:25,866 but I now understood particularly

1826

01:49:25,866 --> 01:49:28,600 when I put my two classmates in body bags,

1827

01:49:28,600 --> 01:49:31,333 guys that I had gone to school with for four years

1828

01:49:31,333 --> 01:49:34,433 and were good friends and who just the week before

1829

01:49:34,433 --> 01:49:37,466 we had been drinking beer and ribbing each other

1830

01:49:37,466 --> 01:49:40,500 and these guys were now gone.

1831

01:49:41,600 --> 01:49:42,700 NARRATOR: Charlie Company found

1832

01:49:42,700 --> 01:49:46,400 just nine or ten North Vietnamese bodies.

1833

01:49:46,400 --> 01:49:49,200 Harrison and his men were ordered to search

1834

01:49:49,200 --> 01:49:53,133 the nearby hillsides for more enemy dead,

1835

01:49:53,133 --> 01:49:57,266 who commanders assumed had been killed by U.S. artillery.

1836

01:49:57,266 --> 01:50:00,833 MACV needed its body count.

1837

01:50:03,466 --> 01:50:06,633 HARRISON: We never located them and I believe today

1838

01:50:06,633 --> 01:50:09,733 that we didn't locate them because they weren't there.

1839

01:50:09,733 --> 01:50:14,366 I think we just took a terrible loss on June 22.[40]

1840

01:50:14,366 --> 01:50:21,566 To admit that a rifle company in the 173rd had been wiped out

1841

01:50:21,566 --> 01:50:23,833 by the North Vietnamese was not something

1842

01:50:23,833 --> 01:50:25,333 our leaders were prepared to do.

1843

01:50:25,333 --> 01:50:31,166 So we had to sell ourselves and we had to sell the public

1844

01:50:31,166 --> 01:50:34,666 on the idea that we had inflicted casualties

1845

01:50:34,666 --> 01:50:36,533 on the North Vietnamese as severe

1846

01:50:36,533 --> 01:50:38,900 as they had inflicted on us.

MINUTES 110-END

1847

01:50:38,900 --> 01:50:43,466 NARRATOR: An officer told a reporter that the shattered rifle company

1848

01:50:43,466 --> 01:50:47,833 had killed 475 enemy soldiers.

1849

01:50:47,833 --> 01:50:52,000 When another officer suggested to General Westmoreland

1850

01:50:52,000 --> 01:50:54,966 that the figure seemed too high to be believable,

1851

01:50:54,966 --> 01:50:57,433 he replied, "Too late.

1852

01:50:57,433 --> 01:50:59,933 It's already gone out."

1853

01:50:59,933 --> 01:51:02,966 HARRISON: Within a few days after the battle,

1854

01:51:02,966 --> 01:51:05,300 Westmoreland came up to speak

1855

01:51:05,300 --> 01:51:09,133 to what we thought of ourselves as his brigade.

1856

01:51:09,133 --> 01:51:15,266 And he hopped up on a hood of a jeep in very crisp fatigues

1857

01:51:15,266 --> 01:51:18,300 looking every inch the battle commander

1858

01:51:18,300 --> 01:51:22,733 and gave us a pep talk and told us how proud he was

1859

01:51:22,733 --> 01:51:25,366 and what a magnificent job we had done.

1860

01:51:25,366 --> 01:51:30,433 But by then I had more than just a suspicion

1861

01:51:30,433 --> 01:51:36,700 that this was a fairy tale, that Westmoreland was wrong

1862

01:51:36,700 --> 01:51:39,733 and I didn't know whether he knew he was wrong

1863

01:51:39,733 --> 01:51:43,566 or whether he believed what he was being told

1864

01:51:43,566 --> 01:51:45,900 and wanted to believe.

1865

01:51:45,900 --> 01:51:50,400 But this was the first time that I had to come to grips

1866

01:51:50,400 --> 01:51:52,300 with the fact that the leadership

1867

01:51:52,300 --> 01:51:56,033 was either out of touch or was lying.

1868

01:51:56,033 --> 01:51:58,266 ("One Too Many Mornings" by Bob Dylan playing)

1869

01:51:58,266 --> 01:52:00,333 DYLAN: ♪ Down the street the dogs are barkin' ♪

1870

01:52:00,333 --> 01:52:02,933 ♪ And the day is a-gettin' dark. ♪

1871

01:52:02,933 --> 01:52:06,833 CAROL CROCKER: I remember a very difficult conversation I had

1872

01:52:06,833 --> 01:52:10,266 with a girl who had really been a best friend of mine.

1873

01:52:10,266 --> 01:52:13,766 And the talk turned to Vietnam.

1874

01:52:13,766 --> 01:52:16,766 And I remember her looking at me and saying,

1875

01:52:16,766 --> 01:52:24,200 "My father says that you can't listen to people

1876

01:52:24,200 --> 01:52:26,966 "who've lost someone in the war

1877

01:52:26,966 --> 01:52:28,700 "because they're going to support it

1878

01:52:28,700 --> 01:52:30,766 to justify that person's death."

1879

01:52:32,633 --> 01:52:35,766 I felt like she'd hit me in the stomach.

1880

01:52:35,766 --> 01:52:40,066 But I knew at that moment there were some factions developing

1881

01:52:40,066 --> 01:52:43,900 and this wasn't going to be an easy path to walk;

1882

01:52:43,900 --> 01:52:45,666 that people were going to have opinions

1883

01:52:45,666 --> 01:52:48,066 about my brother's death

1884

01:52:48,066 --> 01:52:51,766 that in some ways had nothing to do with his death for me.

1885

01:52:53,900 --> 01:52:56,300 ("The Sound of Silence" by Simon and Garfunkel playing)

1886

01:52:56,300 --> 01:53:00,600 ♪ Hello darkness, my old friend ♪

1887

01:53:00,600 --> 01:53:05,266 ♪ I've come to talk with you again ♪

1888

01:53:05,266 --> 01:53:10,000 ♪ Because a vision softly creeping ♪

1889

01:53:10,000 --> 01:53:14,500 ♪ Left its seeds while I was sleeping ♪

1890

01:53:14,500 --> 01:53:21,100 ♪ And the vision that was planted in my brain ♪

1891

01:53:21,100 --> 01:53:24,700 ♪ Still remains

1892

01:53:24,700 --> 01:53:30,600 ♪ Within the sound of silence

1893

01:53:30,600 --> 01:53:35,033 ♪ In restless dreams I walked alone ♪

1894

01:53:35,033 --> 01:53:39,600 ♪ Narrow streets of cobblestone ♪

1895

01:53:39,600 --> 01:53:44,100 ♪ 'Neath the halo of a street lamp ♪

1896

01:53:44,100 --> 01:53:48,733 ♪ I turned my collar to the cold and damp ♪

1897

01:53:48,733 --> 01:53:55,366 ♪ When my eyes were stabbed by the flash of a neon light ♪

1898

01:53:55,366 --> 01:53:58,833 ♪ That split the night

1899

01:53:58,833 --> 01:54:05,166 ♪ And touched the sound of silence ♪

1900

01:54:05,166 --> 01:54:09,133 ♪ And in the naked light I saw

1901

01:54:09,133 --> 01:54:13,866 ♪ Ten thousand people, maybe more ♪

1902

01:54:13,866 --> 01:54:18,533 ♪ People talking without speaking ♪

1903

01:54:18,533 --> 01:54:22,933 ♪ People hearing without listening ♪

1904

01:54:22,933 --> 01:54:30,466 ♪ People writing songs that voices never share ♪

1905

01:54:30,466 --> 01:54:34,133 ♪ And no one dared

1906

01:54:34,133 --> 01:54:39,866 ♪ Disturb the sound of silence

1907

01:54:39,866 --> 01:54:44,300 ♪ And the people bowed and prayed ♪

1908

01:54:44,300 --> 01:54:48,700 ♪ To the neon god they made

1909

01:54:48,700 --> 01:54:53,033 ♪ And the sign flashed out its warning ♪

1910

01:54:53,033 --> 01:54:57,433 ♪ In the words that it was forming ♪

1911

01:54:57,433 --> 01:54:59,066 ♪ And the signs said

1912

01:54:59,066 --> 01:55:04,866 ♪ The words of the prophets are written on the subway walls ♪

1913

01:55:04,866 --> 01:55:08,400 ♪ And tenement halls

1914

01:55:08,400 --> 01:55:16,833 ♪ And whisper'd in the sounds of silence. ♪

1915

01:55:28,233 --> 01:55:32,400 (helicopter blades beating)

1916

01:55:37,733 --> 01:55:40,566 Captioned by Media Access Group at WGBH, access.wgbh.org

1917

01:55:46,400 --> 01:55:47,600 ANNOUNCER: LEARN MORE ABOUT THE FILM

1918

01:55:47,600 --> 01:55:50,466 AND FIND ADDITIONAL RESOURCES AT PBS.ORG/VIETNAMWAR

1919

01:55:50,466 --> 01:55:54,400 AND JOIN THE CONVERSATION USING HASHTAG VIETNAMWARPBS.

1920

01:55:54,400 --> 01:55:55,866 "THE VIETNAM WAR" IS AVAILABLE

1921

01:55:55,866 --> 01:55:57,533 ON BLU-RAY AND DVD.

1922

01:55:57,533 --> 01:55:59,200 THE COMPANION BOOK, SOUNDTRACK,

1923

01:55:59,200 --> 01:56:00,666 AND ORIGINAL SCORE FROM THE FILM

1924

01:56:00,666 --> 01:56:01,800 ARE ALSO AVAILABLE.

1925

01:56:01,800 --> 01:56:03,900 TO ORDER, VISIT SHOPPBS.ORG

1926

01:56:03,900 --> 01:56:06,366 OR CALL 1-800-PLAY-PBS.

1927

01:56:06,366 --> 01:56:07,800 EPISODES OF THIS SERIES ALSO

1928

01:56:07,800 --> 01:56:08,900 AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD

1929

01:56:08,900 --> 01:56:10,000 FROM iTUNES.

1930

01:56:13,266 --> 01:56:15,400 ANNOUNCER: BANK OF AMERICA PROUDLY SUPPORTS

1931

01:56:15,400 --> 01:56:20,300 KEN BURNS' AND LYNN NOVICK'S FILM "THE VIETNAM WAR"

1932

01:56:20,300 --> 01:56:22,700 BECAUSE FOSTERING DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES

1933

01:56:22,700 --> 01:56:25,300 AND CIVIL DISCOURSE AROUND IMPORTANT ISSUES

1934

01:56:25,300 --> 01:56:27,600 FURTHERS PROGRESS, EQUALITY,

1935

01:56:27,600 --> 01:56:29,600 AND A MORE CONNECTED SOCIETY.

1936

01:56:34,066 --> 01:56:38,100 GO TO BANKOFAMERICA.COM/ BETTERCONNECTED TO LEARN MORE.

1937

01:56:41,566 --> 01:56:43,000 ANNOUNCER: MAJOR SUPPORT FOR "THE VIETNAM WAR"

1938

01:56:43,000 --> 01:56:46,500 WAS PROVIDED BY MEMBERS OF THE BETTER ANGELS SOCIETY,

1939

01:56:46,500 --> 01:56:50,466 INCLUDING JONATHAN AND JEANNIE LAVINE,

1940

01:56:50,466 --> 01:56:53,366 DIANE AND HAL BRIERLEY,

1941

01:56:53,366 --> 01:56:55,766 AMY AND DAVID ABRAMS,

1942

01:56:55,766 --> 01:56:58,266 JOHN AND CATHERINE DEBS,

1943

01:56:58,266 --> 01:57:01,233 THE FULLERTON FAMILY CHARITABLE FUND,

1944

01:57:01,233 --> 01:57:03,300 THE MONTRONE FAMILY,

1945

01:57:03,300 --> 01:57:05,633 LYNDA AND STEWART RESNICK,

1946

01:57:05,633 --> 01:57:08,400 THE PERRY AND DONNA GOLKIN FAMILY FOUNDATION,

1947

01:57:08,400 --> 01:57:09,400 THE LYNCH FOUNDATION,

1948

01:57:09,400 --> 01:57:12,266 THE ROGER AND ROSEMARY ENRICO FOUNDATION,

1949

01:57:12,266 --> 01:57:15,700 AND BY THESE ADDITIONAL FUNDERS.

1950

01:57:15,700 --> 01:57:17,600 MAJOR FUNDING WAS ALSO PROVIDED

1951

01:57:17,600 --> 01:57:19,333 BY DAVID H. KOCH...

1952

01:57:21,633 --> 01:57:23,833 THE BLAVATNIK FAMILY FOUNDATION...

1953

01:57:26,166 --> 01:57:28,600 THE PARK FOUNDATION,

1954

01:57:28,600 --> 01:57:30,766 THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES,

1955

01:57:30,766 --> 01:57:32,966 THE PEW CHARITABLE TRUSTS,

1956

01:57:32,966 --> 01:57:35,633 THE JOHN S. AND JAMES L. KNIGHT FOUNDATION,

1957

01:57:35,633 --> 01:57:38,400 THE ANDREW W. MELLON FOUNDATION,

1958

01:57:38,400 --> 01:57:41,000 THE ARTHUR VINING DAVIS FOUNDATIONS,

1959

01:57:41,000 --> 01:57:43,200 THE FORD FOUNDATION JUSTFILMS,

1960

01:57:43,200 --> 01:57:44,400 BY THE CORPORATION

1961

01:57:44,400 --> 01:57:45,633 FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING,

1962

01:57:45,633 --> 01:57:47,600 AND BY VIEWERS LIKE YOU.

1963

01:57:47,600 --> 01:57:48,733 THANK YOU.

References

  1. I capitalized the word president in this transcription. Looking back, I realize that the closed captions did not do so. If you look below to Caption 86 you will see that the "First Secretary of the Communist Party" is capitalized. Due to the consistency, I believe that this was intentional.
  2. see Sam Wilson
  3. I believe this speaker also criticized Diem. Like many of the SVN intellectual elite, no one was worthy of governing their country, except, perhaps themselves.
  4. see Negotiations
  5. See Negotiations
  6. The argument was to keep American Forces out of populated areas (as discussed elsewhere), tasking the Vietnamese to resolve the local guerrilla issue.
  7. Calculate backwards
  8. Why this song here?
  9. Some people enlisted because the fathers served, some because they hadn't, both were a personal decision basis, but not necessarily a statistical indicator.
  10. Protesters also referred to the availability of "free sex" as a reason for their becoming a demonstrator.
  11. The authors may be thinking that training turned them into "baby-killers," but the speakers here seem to be indicating that the training was a positive factor in their adult lives.
  12. See Race Relations
  13. The U.S., as a great power, has historically accepted a high level of provocation before employing the military aspects of that power. Gelb's statement is facetious.
  14. This appears to be the sole reference to the Chieu Hoi Program
  15. After extraordinary efforts to move the villagers. cf. Operation Masher/White Wing/Thang Phong II/Double Eagle.
  16. Pribbenow, Merle (trans.) (2002). Victory in Vietnam. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. p. 178-179. ISBN 0-7006-1175-4. 
  17. With all these refugees, who was populating the 3/4ths of the country the VC were reported to control as noted in Caption 271 above.
  18. See Body Count and War Casualties
  19. which, in turn was the date May 1959 when the unit was founded to open the HCM Trail. cf. Victory in Vietnam, op. cit. p.52
  20. Were they working for the North Vietnamese Robert McNamara?
  21. Did a North Vietnamese Jimmy Carter pardon them?
  22. Right!
  23. Check
  24. see William Calley
  25. See Racial Issues
  26. By being permissive, withholding or elevating grades, allowing class absences without penalty, university administrations and the parents who paid the bills were condoning anti-State activities.
  27. not in his own bed!
  28. I can find little sympathy. The path they chose was their own. My brother-in-law was a communist officer who decided to rally to the government. As he tried to do so, he was ambushed by his former comrades and butchered. Maybe Le Quan Cong was one of his assassins.
  29. See Negotiations
  30. Gen. Nguyen Chanh Thi who had been exiled for leading a failed coup against Diem in 1960, returned in 1963 to help Khanh take over the government, and was regularly rumored to be plotting Ky's overthrow. He was nicknamed by the Times as a "coup specialist."
  31. By this point McNamara claims to have had his "revelation" and claimed to believe we could not win the war. He did not resign.
  32. more strategic thinking
  33. See Negotiations.
  34. See Communist influences on the Peace Movement
  35. The "crossover-point was not a regional issue. I don't understand this comment.
  36. Which Nixon did successfully
  37. The Pentagon Papers. Boston: Beacon Press. 1971. pp. 477–538. Retrieved 12 October 2017. 
  38. The Pentagon Papers were an amateur Defense Department version of the Foreign Relations of the United States, an historical review of government documents by the State Department which had been continuing, as governed by statute, since the Administration of Andrew Johnson. There will be an article of this subject in the 1971 edition of the Yellow Books.
  39. take on-screen quotes and search FRUS.
  40. Check Dak To

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